As the 19th century approached, after the Declaration of Independence had been signed & the war had been won; the new country grew & faced increasing challenges, & Lady Liberty changed to reflect the times.
Below this engraving is written,
"Behold a Fabric now to Freedom rear'd,
Approved by friends, and ev'n Foes rever'd,
Where Justice, too, and Peace, by us ador'd,
Shall heal each Wrong, and keep ensheath'd the Sword,
Approach then, Concord, fair Columbia's Son,
And faithful Clio, write that "We Are One."
In 1788, Philadelphia's Columbian Magazine published an engraving by James Trenchard called the Temple of Liberty. Trenchard, born in 1746, at Penns Neck in Salem County, New Jersey, was an engraver & seal cutter in Philadelphia, and the artist for many of the plates for the Columbian Magazine, whose circulation was the largest of any 18th century magazine published in America.
The engraving of a classical temple building depicts statues on the roof, including Libertas (liberty), Justicia or Themis (justice), & Ceres (peace). Libertas is at the peak with the others on the corners. In the background a rising sun radiating beams of light with one shining upon Libertas holding her staff & freedom cap. Emerging from the pure, bright sunlight in the distance is the new nation--lady Columbia with an eagle headdress. Standing below is Concordia holding a horn of plenty; Columbia's winged son holding a scroll with CONSTITUTION written on it; and Clio, the muse of history, beginning to write the history of the new nation. Scrolling across the front of the classical temple are the words: SACRED TO LIBERTY, JUSTICE AND PEACE.
The image America as Columbia, whose name recalls the discovery of America by Christopher Columbus, as a personification of America began as early as the late 17th century, but became particularly popular at the time of the Revolution. Columbia did not have either the feathered or plumed headdress, but often either went bareheaded or had the helmet associated with Minerva. She was usually dressed in classical white robes or sometimes the national banner. She also was usually accompanied by other symbols of America, such as the shield, flag, and eagle.
The classical Lady Liberty holds a liberty cap on the top of an American flag, while leaning on an anchor symbolizing the nation's strength at sea.
Here Lady Liberty hands a standard to a soldier, while holding an American shield in the company of a Bald Eagle. The shield is an age-old image of defense, military strength, & nationalism. The bald eagle, a pure, white-capped bird of prey, native to North America, symbolized winged freedom.
Lady Liberty holds the liberty cap on a pole in one hand, while holding an American shield in the other. She is communicating with an American bald eagle.
Lady Liberty & a bald eagle sit in a field of stars, each holding a banner declaring E Pluribus Unum. Lady Liberty is fending off an arrow attack with her American shield, while holding a cache of weapons securely beneath her foot.
Here Lady Liberty holds a liberty cap on an American flag pole, while securely resting on an anchor symbolizing America's prowess at sea.
A seated Lady Liberty holds a liberty cap on a pole & an American shield supported by images of industry & sea power behind her.
Lady Liberty holds a liberty cap on a pole & an American shield in front of bustling American industry behind her.
This Lady Liberty is atheletic & strong, marching firmly ahead holding an American flag in one hand & the laurel wreath of victory in the other.
Lady Liberty holds the American flag & points toward the future.
This Lady Liberty holding a blank tablet with a resting American shield, sitting on bales of cotton from the South, is placed in front of a locomotive steaming to aid commerce & busy industrial factories of the North. The tablet refers to the Mosaic tradition of figures displaying the old Biblical law on a tablet, as well as to Moses leading his people to the promised land.
Lady Liberty holds a sword in one hand & the scales of justice in the other, while standing on books of wisdom.
Here is Lady Liberty pointing to the future, while holding an American flag & standing on a pedestal engraved with the year 1776, which also supports an American eagle.
In preparation for a conflict, Lady Liberty wears a helmet prepared for battle, with a shield in one hand & a sword in the other.
Lady Liberty is a helmeted, warlike woman holding the sword of the union in her hand, prepared to fight to hold the union together.
John Gast (1842-a 1877) American Progress or Manifest Destiny (1872)
1892 Lady Liberty