Wednesday, April 13, 2016

Bathing - In Gardens & the Countryside - Illuminated Manuscripts


Jakob von Warte in his bath, an illumination from the Menasse Codex, c. 1300-1330

Herbs & flowers floating in a scented bath water often were used as deodorants. An infusion of bay leaves and hyssop was used in the bath. It was believed that a preparation of sage salvia officinalis was used to stop perspiration. Dioscorides suggests sage as a disinfectant and astringent writing that: "it will make a man's body clean; therefore who that useth to eat of this herb or drink it, it is marvel that any inconvenience should grieve them that use it."

 1520 Not Illuminated Manuscripts but a stained glass window of woman bathing outdoors. Probably made for Thomas Pykerell (d. 1545 CE) England, Norfolk, 1520 CE.


 1480 The Nymph Salmacis And Hermaphroditus portrayed bathing in a garden. Les Métamorphoses


 1372 David watches Bathesheba bathe, Petrus Comestor's Bible Historiale.


1488 Badeszene-Holzschnitt-Johann-Schaeffler Museum der Badekultur, Zülpich.



 Badehaus. Konrad Kyeser, Bellifortis, Clm 30150, Tafel 08, Blatt 35v (Ausschnitt).



 Balneum Contorellus - 15C manuscript of De Balneis Puteolanis, University of València.



 Bibliothèque nationale de France, Latin 8161, f. 8r. Petrus de Ebulo, De balneis puteolanis. Naples, mid-14C

"If, however, the woman is fat and seemingly dropsical, let us mix cow dung with very good wine and with such a mixture we afterward anoint her. Then let her enter a steambath up to the neck, which steambath should be very hot from a fire made of elder [wood], and in it, while she is covered, let her emit a lot of sweat... We also treat fat men in another way. We make for them a grave next to the shore of the sea in the sand, and in the described manner you will anoint them, and when the heat is very great we place them halfway into the grave, halfway covered with hot sand poured over. And there we make them sweat very much. And afterward we wash them very well with the water of the previous bath." The Trotula: A Medieval Compendium of Women's Medicine. Ed. and trans. Monica H. Green (Philadelphia, 2001). 

Christine de Pisan Epitre d'Othea Période Vers 1460 Cologny, Fondation Martin Bodmer, Cod. Bodmer 49



 Codex Schürstab. Zürich, Zentralbibliothek, Ms. C 54 (Nürnberg c 1472)


 De baneis omnia quae extant apud Graecos, latinos, et arabas, tam medicos quam quoscunque ceteram artium probatos scriptores, 1553



 La Vie seigneuriale  Le Bain Pays-Bas du Sud, premier quart du XVIe siècle Laine, soie H. 2, 85 m; l. 2, 85 m Acq. , 1852 Cl. 2180



 Latona turns four bathers into frogs for muddying the water she wishes to drink mss kb nl



 Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France Français 606 L´Epistre d’Othea by Christine de Pisan



 Petrus de Ebulo, De balneis Puteolanis Période XIVe s. (vers 1350-1370) Cologny, Fondation Martin Bodmer, Cod. Bodmer 135 [Petrus de Ebulo], De balneis Puteolanis v



 Petrus de Ebulo, De balneis Puteolanis Période XIVe s. (vers 1350-1370) Cologny, Fondation Martin Bodmer, Cod. Bodmer 135 [Petrus de Ebulo], De balneis Puteolanis



 Pilgrims bathing in the Jordan. Guillaume de Boldensele, Liber de quibusdam ultramarinis partibus (trans. of Jean le Long). Paris, c.1410-1412.



 Recueil des oeuvres de  Christine de Pisan (1363-1431) 1401-1500



 The Hague, KB, 76 G 8 fol. 93r, David sees Bathsheba bathing



 Universitätsbibliothek Heidelberg, Cod. Pal. germ. 291, detail of fol. 043v. Konrad von Eichstätt. Regel der Gesundheit. Bavaria, after 1477.



Venus Bathing. Martin le Franc, Le Champion des Dames (1440) Bibliothèque nationale de France, Département des manuscrits, Français 12476, detail of f. 10r


Pietro da Eboli (XIII secolo) De Balneis Puteolanis. Miniatura del Codice Angelico Ms. 1474 (Biblioteca Angelica di Roma)



 Codices vindobonenses 2759-2764 in the Osterreichischen Nationalbibliothek, in Vienna, Austria.



 Codices vindobonenses 2759-2764 in the Osterreichischen Nationalbibliothek, in Vienna, Austria.



 Couldrette, Roman de Mélusine, Flanders 15th century (Paris,  Bibliothèque nationale de FranceFrançais 24383, fol. 19r)



The Hague, KB, 76 F 21 fol. 15r Mary in bath Fol. 15r: miniature



 Illuminated Manuscript - Bathing



 London, British Library, Add. 17987, folio 111v. Man and woman in tub



Bany màgic de Medea, 1338-1344  "every one full of flowers and sweet green herbs...Have a basin full of hot fresh herbs and wash (her) body with a soft sponge, rinse (her) with fair warm rose-water, and throw it over (her).  

For aches & pains, "it is good to boil various herbs like camomile, breweswort, mallow and brown fennel and add them to the bath."    John Russell’s Book of Nurture 1400s


See:

Did people in the Middle Ages take baths? Medievalists.net April 13, 2013

Archibald, Elizabeth, “Did Knights Have Baths? The Absence of Bathing in Middle English Romance,” Cultural Encounters In The Romance Of Medieval England, edited by Corinne Saunders (Boydell, 2005)

Caskey, Jill, “Steam and “Sanitas” in the Domestic Realm: Baths and Bathing in Southern Italy in the Middle Ages,” Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, Vol. 58, No. 2 (1999)

Harvey, Barbara, Living and Dying in England, 1100-1540: The Monastic Experience (Clarendon Press, 1993)

Holmes, Urban Tigner, Daily Life in the Twelfth-Century (University of Wisconsin Press, 1952)

Lucas, A.T., “Washing and Bathing in Ancient Ireland,” The Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland, Vol. 95, No. 1/2 (1965)

Newman, Paul B., Daily Life in the Middle Ages (McFarland and Co., 2001)

Smith, Virginia, Clean: A History of Personal Hygiene and Purity (Oxford University Press, 2007)

van Dam, Fabiola I., “Permeable Boundaries: Bodies, Bathing and FLuxes, 1135-1333,” Medicine and Space: Body, Surroundings and Borders in Antiquity and the Middle Ages, ed. Patricia Baker (Brill, 2012)

van Winter, Johanna Maria, “Medieval Opinions about Food and Drinking in Connection with Bathing,” Spices and Comfits: Collected Papers on Medieval Food (Prospect Books, 2007)


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