Wednesday, June 22, 2016

15C The Garden of Love


The Garden of Love c. 1465. Master E. S. (German). engraving. With chess-players, 3 couples assembled in a garden, enclosed by a fence; one lover to the right is depicted as a jester.

Beginning in 15C Italy & in Northern Europe, images of The Garden of Love appear in secular art depicting courtly love. The Garden of Love is often a landscape with a flowery meadow, a grove, & a fountain, where lovers gather to meet, eat, sing, dance, & make love.  

Giovanni di Francesco Toscani (1370-1430)  The Garden of Love, c. 1420.

Giovanni di Francesco Toscani (1370-1430) - Detail The Garden of Love

Giovanni di Francesco Toscani (1370-1430) - Detail The Garden of Love

The Garden of Love, a literary theme in poetry of classical antiquity & the Middle Ages, was usually portrayed as an idyllic realm of courtly love - music, feasting, & games where ladies inspired dedicated service from their admirers.

Attributed to Master E.S.German (or conceivably Swiss) engraver, Southwestern Germany 1430s-1470 The Garden of Love.

Attributed to Master E.S.German (or conceivably Swiss) engraver, Southwestern Germany 1430s-1470 The Garden of Love. Detail

Much like the medieval Hortus Conclusus, an enclosed monastery garden usually a symbol of the Virgin Mary represented as a fortress in a religious allegory, the Garden of Love was also usually enclosed, secluded, & ordered but a world apart from the guilt of Christian religious symbolism. 

The Garden of Love or The Fountain Of Life. Singers & Musicians In A Garden Miniature From De Sphaera By Leonardo Dati 1470 Italy

An enclosed medieval Hortus Conclusus located at royal palaces & grand manor houses usually represented a garden of earthly delights. Both the secular & the religious gardens could be enclosed by formidable high brick or stone wall, but sometimes a wicker fence or a wooden trellis. Both gardens would probably be filled with scented flowers & herbs.

 Master of the Gardens of Love (fl. ca. 1430-1440-45) was a Netherlandish engraver

Most Gardens of Love have a flowing fountain, sometimes octagonal, often located in the garden center. In classical myth, a fountain traditionally belongs to the god of love. Often Cupid is included in the fountain design or is a carving beside it aiming arrows at the elites gathering & playing in The Garden of Love. 

Monogrammist WH (printmaker; German) The Garden of Love Couples within an enclosed garden,  outside are people swimming in a river and further back into the landscape are soldiers on horseback. c. 1475-80

The well-born needed leisure time to indulge in exploring love in an atmosphere where religious transgression was encouraged. Passing time; the constraints of religious & secular law; & infirmity & death existed only outside the wall of The Garden of Love which seemed to be unending spring.

Attributed to Master E.S.German (or conceivably Swiss) engraver, Southwestern Germany 1430s-1470   The Garden of Love. The Master E. S.'s representation of the garden of love departs from pictorial tradition, which usually portrayed the scene as an idyllic realm of music, feasting, & games where women inspired dedicated service from their suitors. Here, however, the Master E. S. satirized the ideals of courtly love & warned against the immoral behavior forbidden by the Roman Catholic Church as well as local authorities. While the woman opening the man’s coat in the foreground represents temptation & sin, her companion, the fool, symbolizes lust. 

The Garden of Love could reflect earlier classical & religious investigations of the nature of love. The poet Gautier de ChatillĂ´n (c. 1135–1182) in Verna redit temperies 
The season of spring returns
with her thick dusting of flowers,
the earth in her new aspect
smiles at our ways
for whom love is everything,
food for our hunger.

The Garden of Love by Bartolomeo Baldini Baccio,  Florentine 1436-1487

The Garden of Love in European art declined during the late 15C.  However, The Garden of Love tradition was continued only occasionally later by Titian (fl 1506-1576) in the 16C, by Peter Paul Rubens (1577–1640) in the 17C, & by Watteau (1684–1721) in the 18C.


The Garden of Love. Tapestry, Nuremberg, Germany, c. 1450-1460


Master of the Housebook (active c1470-1500) Attributed to Master E.S.German (or conceivably Swiss) engraver, Southwestern Germany 1430s-1470  Detail The Garden of Love. 1475-1485. 


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