Monday, September 5, 2016

Before Labor Day, of course - Women in White across the globe & the centuries

Edouard Manet (French artist, 1832-1883) Young Woman Among Flowers 1879

Carl Timoleon von Neff (Estonian-born artist, 1804-1877) Portrait of a Young Lady

Eva Bonnier (French artist, 1857-1909) On the Veranda Rebecka Nathanson Kempff 1886

Emanuel Phillips Fox (Australian artist, 1865-1915) Nasturtiums

Sarah Birch (English artist) Portrait of a Young Edwardian Lady Reading

Alexandre Cabanel (French painter, 1823–1889) Portrait of a Young Girl 1886

Charles Auguste Guillaume Steuben (French painter, 1788–1856), Liseuse

Emanuel Phillips Fox (Australian artist, 1865-1915) Girl with Flowers

 Auguste Toulmouche (French academic painter, 1829-1890) Contemplation

Giuseppe de Nittis (Italian artist, 1846-1884) Lady from Naples

Alexandre Cabanel (French painter, 1823–1889) Mary Frick Garrett 1883

 Edouard Vuillard (French artist, 1868-1940) Woman in White 1908

 Max Klinger (German Symbolist painter and sculptor, 1857-1920) Bianca 1890

 Henry Raeburn (Scottish painter, 1756–1823) Portrait of a Woman

Amélie Helga Lundahl (Finnish artist, 1850–1914) Head of a Girl, Brittany 1882

Harry Farlow (1882-1957) The Blue Vase

Jean-Hippolyte Flandrin (French painter, 1809–1864)

Leonard Campbell Taylor (British artist, 1874-1969) The Rain It Raineth Every Day

The American dictum that women shouldn't wear white clothing before Memorial Day & after Labor Day has been around at least since the Civil War. The wives of the super-rich dominated high society after the Civil War. As more & more people became financially successful, though, it was difficult to tell the difference between "old money" in elite families & those who only had "new money." By the 1880s, in order to tell who was "acceptable" & who wasn’t, some elite women felt it necessary to create fashion "rules," that everyone "in the know" knew to follow. Not wearing white outside the summer months was one of these rules. In the non-air-conditioned early 20C, the summer "season" was defined by Memorial Day & Labor Day, when those-who-could flocked from town house to seaside "cottage" or mountain "cabin" to escape the oppressive summer heat. City clothes were left behind in exchange for lighter, whiter, summer costumes. Come fall, as well-to-do families returned to the city, more formal, darker city clothes were donned once more. And many in the large cities heated their environs with coal. The soot from the coal spread through the heated indoor spaces & coal dust quickly would stain light garbs. So folks changed to a darker wardrobe around Labor Day. This coincided with the growth of fashion magazines available to all levels of society. The magazines reflected the no white after Labor Day rule in the glossy, seductive pages of Harper's Bazaar & Vogue, which set the fashion tone for the country. This practice progressed from tradition, into rule, & finally into an identifiable cultural faux pas for decades into the 20C. 

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