Monday, August 15, 2016

Dog Days of Summer - Eouard Manet 1832-1883



Eouard Manet (French Realist, Impressionist painter, 1832-1883) The Railway 1873



 Edouard Manet (French Realist, Impressionist painter, 1832-1883) Detail from The Railway



 Edouard Manet (French Realist, Impressionist painter, 1832-1883) El Balcon 1869 Detail 1868



 Edouard Manet (French Realist, Impressionist painter, 1832-1883) Head of a Dog Bob 1876



 Edouard Manet (French Realist, Impressionist painter, 1832-1883) Tama, the Japanese Dog, ca.1875,



 Eouard Manet (French Realist, Impressionist painter, 1832-1883) A King Charles Spaniel


Dog Days of Summer is the name for the most sultry period of summer, from about July 3 to Aug. 11. Named in early times by observers in countries bordering the Mediterranean, the period was determined to extend from 20 days before to 20 days after the conjunction of Sirius (the dog star) & the sun.  The Greek poets Hesiod (ca. 750-650 BCE) & Aratus (ca. 310–240 BCE) refer, in their writings, to "the heat of late summer that the Greeks believed was actually brought on by the appearance of Sirius," a star in the constellation, that the later Romans, & we today refer to as Canis Major, literally the "greater dog" constellation. Homer, in the Iliad, references the association of "Orion's dog" (Sirius) with oncoming heat, fevers, & evil, in describing the approach of Achilles toward Troy:
Sirius rises late in the dark, liquid sky
On summer nights, star of stars,
Orion's Dog they call it, brightest
Of all, but an evil portent, bringing heat
And fevers to suffering humanity.

The term "dog days" was used by the Greeks in Aristotle's Physics.  Astronomer Geminus, around 70 B.C., wrote: "It is generally believed that Sirius produces the heat of the 'dog days,' but this is an error, for the star merely marks a season of the year when the sun"s heat is the greatest." The lectionary of 1559 edition of the Episcopal Book of Common Prayer indicates: "Naonae. Dog days begin" with the readings for July 7 & end August 18. But the readings for September 5 indicate: "Naonae. Dog days end."  This corresponds very closely to the lectionary of the 1611 edition of the King James Bible which indicates the Dog Days beginning on July 6 & ending on September 5.



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