Tuesday, August 9, 2016

Dog Days of Summer - Francisco José de Goya y Lucientes 1746–1828


Dogs from Goya 1746-1828


 Francisco José de Goya y Lucientes (Spanish painter, 1746–1828)  Dogs on Leash



  Francisco José de Goya y Lucientes (Spanish painter, 1746–1828) Boar Hunt 1775



 Francisco José de Goya y Lucientes (Spanish painter, 1746–1828) Caza con mochuelo y red 1779



 Francisco José de Goya y Lucientes (Spanish painter, 1746–1828) Charles IV in Hunting Dress, 1799



 Francisco José de Goya y Lucientes (Spanish painter, 1746–1828) Dona Joaquina Candado, 1802



 Francisco José de Goya y Lucientes (Spanish painter, 1746–1828) Maria Teresa de Borbon y Vallabriga. 1783



  Francisco José de Goya y Lucientes (Spanish painter, 1746–1828) The Quail Shoot 1775



Francisco José de Goya y Lucientes (Spanish painter, 1746–1828) Portrait of the Marquesa de Pontejos, 1786



 Francisco José de Goya y Lucientes (Spanish painter, 1746–1828) Vicente Osorio de Moscoso. 1786-87



Francisco José de Goya y Lucientes (Spanish painter, 1746–1828) Children with Mastiffs 1786



 Francisco José de Goya y Lucientes (Spanish painter, 1746–1828)  Carlos III Hunter



 Francisco José de Goya y Lucientes (Spanish painter, 1746–1828)  Dog half-submerged



Francisco José de Goya y Lucientes (Spanish painter, 1746–1828)  Duches of Alba 1795


Dog Days of Summer is the name for the most sultry period of summer, from about July 3 to Aug. 11. Named in early times by observers in countries bordering the Mediterranean, the period was determined to extend from 20 days before to 20 days after the conjunction of Sirius (the dog star) & the sun.  The Greek poets Hesiod (ca. 750-650 BCE) & Aratus (ca. 310–240 BCE) refer, in their writings, to "the heat of late summer that the Greeks believed was actually brought on by the appearance of Sirius," a star in the constellation, that the later Romans, & we today refer to as Canis Major, literally the "greater dog" constellation. Homer, in the Iliad, references the association of "Orion's dog" (Sirius) with oncoming heat, fevers, & evil, in describing the approach of Achilles toward Troy:
Sirius rises late in the dark, liquid sky
On summer nights, star of stars,
Orion's Dog they call it, brightest
Of all, but an evil portent, bringing heat
And fevers to suffering humanity.

The term "dog days" was used by the Greeks in Aristotle's Physics.  Astronomer Geminus, around 70 B.C., wrote: "It is generally believed that Sirius produces the heat of the 'dog days,' but this is an error, for the star merely marks a season of the year when the sun"s heat is the greatest." The lectionary of 1559 edition of the Episcopal Book of Common Prayer indicates: "Naonae. Dog days begin" with the readings for July 7 & end August 18. But the readings for September 5 indicate: "Naonae. Dog days end."  This corresponds very closely to the lectionary of the 1611 edition of the King James Bible which indicates the Dog Days beginning on July 6 & ending on September 5.




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