Tuesday, January 3, 2012

The Evolution of Pablo Picasso's Portraits of Women



1896 Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) Portrait of the Artist's Mother.

Pablo Picasso, one of the dominant & most influential artists of the 20th century, was born in Malaga, Spain, on October 25th in 1881.



1901 Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) Woman in a Plummed Hat


1903 Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) Portrait of a Young Woman.

Picasso's father, a professor of drawing, groomed his son for a career in academic art. Picasso had his 1st exhibit at age 13 & later quit art school; so he could experiment full-time with modern art styles.



1904 Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) Woman with a Crow.

He went to Paris for the first time in 1900, & by 1901, he was exhibiting at a gallery on Paris' rue Lafitte, a street known for its prestigious art galleries. The precocious 19-year-old Spaniard was at the time a relative unknown outside Barcelona, but he had already produced hundreds of paintings. Winning favorable French reviews, he stayed in Paris for the rest of the year & later returned to the city to settle permanently.



Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) Lady with a Fan - Artist model Fernande Olivier (1881-1966)

The work of Picasso, more than 50,000 paintings, drawings, engravings, sculptures, & ceramics produced over 80 years, is described in a series of overlapping periods. His first notable period--the "blue period"-began shortly after his first Paris exhibit. In these works, Picasso often painted in blue tones to evoke the melancholy world of the poor.



Picasso's Model 1904-1912 Fernande Olivier (1881-1966) was reportedly Picasso’s first known long-term relationship & subject of many of Picasso’s Rose Period paintings (1905-07). Picasso met her after settling in Paris in 1904. Although Fernande was married at the time, she stayed with Picasso for 7 years. Fernande modeled for other artists between 1900 & 1905, when she moved in with Picasso, who would not allow her to model for other artists.

The blue period was followed by the "rose period," in which he often depicted circus scenes, & sculptures. In 1907, Picasso painted the groundbreaking work Les Demoiselles d'Avignon , which, with its fragmented & distorted representation of the human form, broke from previous European art. Les Demoiselles d'Avignon demonstrated the influence on Picasso of both African mask art & Paul Cezanne & is seen as a forerunner of the Cubist movement, attributed to Picasso & the French painter Georges Braque in 1909.



1907 Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) Nude Half Length

In Cubism, which is divided into two phases, analytical & synthetic, Picasso & Braque established the concept that artwork need not represent reality to have artistic value. Picasso & Braque's Cubist experiments also resulted in several new artistic techniques, including collage.



1909 Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) Woman and Pears Fernande Olivier

After Cubism, Picasso explored classical & Mediterranean themes, & images of violence & anguish increasingly appeared in his work. During WWII, Picasso remained in Paris, fervently opposed to fascism later joining the French Communist Party.



1906 Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) Portrait of Gertrude Stein.

Picasso's work after World War II is less studied than his earlier creations, but he continued to work feverishly & enjoyed commercial & critical success. He produced fantastical works, experimented with ceramics, & painted variations on the works of other masters in the history of art.



Fernande left Picasso in 1912, after Picasso took an interest in Marcelle Humbert, known as Eva Gouel (1885-1915). When Picasso's father died in May of 1913, Eva moved in with him. Picasso was devastated by her early death in 1915. However, during Eva’s sickness, Picasso began a relationship with young Gaby Lespinasse, who was  thought to have danced in the Montparnasse cabaret. Her lover was Herbert Lespinasse, whom she subsequently married, & who was one of the creators of St Tropez.

Known for his intense personality, he had a complex series of overlapping wives & lovers during his lifetime. He continued to produce art & love women with undiminished force until his death in 1973, at the age of 91.



Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) 1912-1915 Eva - Marcelle Humbert (Eva Gouel 1885-1915)


In 1917, Picasso met Russian ballerina Olga Khokhlova (1891-1955) while designing the ballet "Parade" in Rome, to be performed by the Ballet Russe. Picasso & Olga Khokhlova married in the Russian Orthodox church in Paris in 1918.


1917 Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) Portrait of his wife Olga in Armchair.


1922 Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) Portrait of Mme Olga Picasso.


1921-22 Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) Mother and Child.


1922 Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) The Classical Head.


1923 Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) Olga Koklova, Picasso's First Wife.


1923 Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) Picasso's Mother.


1923 Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) Madame Olga Picasso.



Marie-Therese Walter. In 1927, Picasso met Marie-Therese Walter. She was 17, while Picasso was about 42 years old. At that time, Picasso was married to Olga with whom he had a 4-year-old son with. In 1935, Marie-Thérèse Walter became pregnant. When Picasso's wife, Olga, learned of her husband's pregnant mistress, Olga moved to south France. Olga & Picasso never got a divorce; because Picasso wanted to avoid the even division of property dictated by French law. They lived separately until her death in 1954.


Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) Marie-Thérèse Walter in Le Rêve (The Dream), 1932.


Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) Marie-Therese


Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) Woman with Book 1932


1937 Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) Marie-Therese Walter.


1937 Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) Marie-Therese Walter.


1937 Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) Marie-Therese Walter


1936 Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) Marie-Therese Walter.


1937 Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) Marie-Therese Walter


1938 Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) Maya with Dolls. This is a painting of Picasso & Marie's daughter, María de la Concepción, called Maya, born in 1935. Marie & Maya stayed with Picasso at Juan-les-Pins in the South of France from March 25 to May 14 in 1936, Picasso visited on the weekends & some weekdays to play with his daughter. Maya also modelled for some of his paintings, including Maya with Doll. Picasso supported Marie & Maya financially, but he never married Marie.


In 1936, Pablo Picasso met Dora Maar (Henriette Théodora Markovich 1907-1997).  She was the photographer who documented Picasso's 1937 Spanish Civil War painting Guernica. She became Picasso's lover from 1936 through April, 1944. Picasso referred to Dora as his "private muse."


1941 Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) Dora Maar.


Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) Dora Maar


1937 Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) Dora Maar.


1937 Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) Portrait of Dora Maar with a Crown of Flowers


1937 Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) Portrait of Dora Maar.


1937 Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) Lee Miller. Picasso's model here was Elizabeth 'Lee' Miller, Lady Penrose ( 1907–1977) a US photographer & favorite of the surrealists in Paris including Man Ray, Pablo Picasso, Paul Éluard, & Jean Cocteau..


1937 Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) Nusch Éluard. Model Éluard was one of the most beloved figures of the Surrealists. As wife of Paul Éluard, she became the muse of Picasso, Man Ray, René Magritte, and Joan Miró.


1938 Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) Nusch Éluard.


1938 Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) Nusch Éluard.


1938 Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) Portrait of a Young Girl.


1938 Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) Portrait of a Young Girl.


1938 Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) Portrait of a Young Girl.


1938 Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) Portrait of a Young Girl.


1939 Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) Woman in a Stripped Hat.


1939 Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) Young Girl Struck by Sadness.


1939 Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) Young Tormented Girl.


1946 Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) Portrait of Françoise.


In 1943, Picasso, at age 62, began an affair with young art student Francoise Gilot (born in 1921). Dora left him in 1944 because of his infidelity. Picasso & Francoise had 2 children - Claude (1947) & Paloma (1949). Gilot, frustrated with Picasso’s relationships with other woman & his abusive nature, left him in 1953. In 1970, she married American physician-researcher Jonas Salk.


Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) 1951-1953 Genevieve Laporte (1927-) In 1944, 17-year old Genevieve Laporte interviewed Picasso for a school newspaper. Years later in 1951, Picasso began an affair with the then-24 year old. The relationship started when Laporte visited the 70-year old Picasso at his studio, while he was still living with Françoise Gilot. That summer of 1951, Picasso took Laporte to St Tropez, leaving Françoise behind. After declining Picasso’s invitation to move in with him, she left him in 1953, at the same time that Françoise left the artist.


Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) with Sylvette David (Lydia Corbett). In 1954, Sylvett David met Pablo Picasso on the Riviera. Following the artist’s separation from Françoise Gilot, she became the model for a cycle of some 40 paintings & drawings as well as many ceramics. The “Heads of Sylvette”, a series of folded metal sculptures which Picasso developed at this time, marked the next major innovation in his sculptural work.


Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) 1953-1973 Jacqueline Roque (1926 -1986) Second Wife. In 1953, Picasso met Jacqueline Roque (1926 -1986) at the Madoura Pottery, where Picasso created his ceramics.  In 1961, when Picasso was 79, she became his 2nd wife.   Picasso created many images of  Jacqueline, in one year painting over 70 portraits of her.


1954 Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) Jacqueline Rocque.


1954 Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) Jacqueline Rocque.


1954 Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) Jacqueline with Crossed Hands.


1954 Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) Jacqueline with Flowers.


1954 Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) Jacqueline Rocque.


1954 Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) Jacqueline Rocque.


1956 Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) Jacqueline in the Studio.


1956 Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) Jacqueline in Studio.


1958 Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) Jacqueline Rocque.


1960 Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) Portrait of a Sitting Woman.




1960 Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) Jacqueline.



1960 Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) Reclining woman reading