Saturday, July 14, 2012

Women Artists & The French Revolution - Marie-Guillemine Benoist 1768–1826

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Marie-Guillemine Benoist (French artist, 1768–1826) Self-Portrait, 1790

Today's earlier posting of the Morning Mother on this blog was painted by Marie-Guillemine Benoist, the daughter of a government official in France. She initially studied with woman artist Vigee-Lebrun, & her earlier works show a distinct influence of her tutor. Benoist later studied with Jacques-Louis David, so that her later images are more Neo-Classical in style. During her lifetime, Benoist produced paintings ranging from inspirational historic themes to touching family portraits. Her works also included subjects sympathetic to contemporary issues, such as her portrait of the African woman painted in 1800, which was inspired by the French decree to abolish slavery. Benoist was commissioned by Napolean to paint his portrait as well as portraits of his family members.

Marie-Guillemine Benoist (French artist, 1768–1826) Il sonno

Marie-Guillemine Benoist (French artist, 1768–1826) Portrait d'une femme noire 1800

Marie-Guillemine Benoist (French artist, 1768–1826) Pauline Bonaparte, Princess Borgehese

Marie-Guillemine Benoist (French artist, 1768–1826) du château de Fontainebleau

Marie-Guillemine Benoist (French artist, 1768–1826) Elisa Bonaparte, Grand Duchess of Tuscany, c 1805
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Women Artists & The French Revolution - Geneviève Bouliard 1763-1825

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Marie-Genevieve Bouilard was a Parisian portrait painter whose career lasted over 30 years. She was the daughter of a dressmaker, & she never married. She learned from Siffred Joseph Duplessis. Her portraits were extrememly popular during the French Revolution. She won special recognition at the Salon of 1794, where non academics were allowed to exhibit at the Louvre. Her historical allegory of Aspasia was an important symbol for women seeking self-determination; as Aspasia, the wife of Pericles, taught the art of oratory & policy to women as well as men. Bouilard chose to portray herself as Aspasia, as a mirror reflection of a woman who was a respected philosopher in an era, when women were almost unilaterally illiterate & denied even basic civil rights.

Marie-Geneviève Bouliard (French artist, 1763-1825) Self Portrait as Aspasia 1794

Marie-Geneviève Bouliard (French artist, 1763-1825) Self Portrait

Marie-Geneviève Bouliard (French artist, 1763-1825) Portrait de M. Olive et de sa famille 1791-92

Marie-Geneviève Bouliard (French artist, 1763-1825) Portrait of Artist Adélaïde Binart (1771-1832) wife of Alexandre Lenoir 1797
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Women Artists & The French Revolution - Self Portraits by Marie-Gabrielle Capet 1761-1818

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Marie-Gabrielle Capet (French artist, 1761-1818) Self Portrait 1783

The daughter of a servant Marie-Gabrielle Capet, who became a celebrated French portrait painter in oils, watercolors, & miniatures, was born at Lyons in 1761. When she was 20, she went to Paris to learn painting from Adélaïde Labille-Guiard (1749-1803), with whom she lived. During her initial year in Paris in 1781, her 1st drawings & pastels were exhibited at the Salon de la Jeunesse. In 1783, she submitted her first oil painting to the salon. From 1785, Capet's major works regularly were exhibited at the Salon of Youth. In 1791, she exhibited her 1st miniatures at the Salon. When her mentor, Labille-Guiard fell ill, Capet took care of her, until her teacher died in 1803. After the French Revolution, the public exhibitions of the Salons were opened to women; & Marie-Gabrielle Capet exhibited works several times.


Marie-Gabrielle Capet (French artist, 1761-1818) Portrait of Mme J L Germain

Marie-Gabrielle Capet (French artist, 1761-1818) Atelier of Madame Vincent (Adelaide Labille-Guiard) 1808

Adelaide Labille-Guiard (French Neoclassical Painter, 1749-1803) Portrait of Mme Marie Gabrielle Capet

Adelaide Labille-Guiard (French Neoclassical Painter, 1749-1803) Self Portrait with Two Students, Marie-Gabrielle Capet and Carreaux de Rosemond. 1785
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Women Artists & The French Revolution - Adelaide Labille-Guiard 1749-1803

. Adelaide Labille-Guiard (French Neoclassical Painter, 1749-1803) Portrait of a Woman

Adelaide Labille-Guiard (French Neoclassical Painter, 1749-1803) Madame Marie Gabrielle Capet

Adelaide Labille-Guiard (French Neoclassical Painter, 1749-1803) Portrait of a Woman 1778

Adelaide Labille-Guiard (French Neoclassical Painter, 1749-1803) Delightful Surprise 1779

Adelaide Labille-Guiard (French Neoclassical Painter, 1749-1803) Portrait of a Woman 1780

Adelaide Labille-Guiard (French Neoclassical Painter, 1749-1803) Madame de Genlis, 1780

Adelaide Labille-Guiard (French Neoclassical Painter, 1749-1803) Portrait of a Woman 1780

Adelaide Labille-Guiard (French Neoclassical Painter, 1749-1803) Flore Pajou 1783

Adelaide Labille-Guiard (French Neoclassical Painter, 1749-1803) A Woman Writing 1787

Adelaide Labille-Guiard (French Neoclassical Painter, 1749-1803) The Comtesse de Selve 1787

Adelaide Labille-Guiard (French Neoclassical Painter, 1749-1803) Elisabeth of France Called Madame Elisabeth 1788
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Women Artists & The French Revolution - Self Portraits by Adelaide Labille-Guiard 1749-1803

. Adelaide Labille-Guiard (French Neoclassical Painter, 1749-1803) Self Portrait

Adelaide Labille-Guiard (1749-1803), one of 8 children of a haberdasher, was born in Paris. During adolescence, she studied miniature painting with Swiss miniaturist François-Elie Vincent, a family friend. She later studied pastels and portraiture with Maurice-Quentin de la Tour. At the age of 20, she married a financial clerk named Louis-Nicolas Guiard, but the marriage wasn't successful one. In 1779, Adelaide was granted a legal separation from her already estranged husband. After a later reformation of divorce laws, Adelaide was finally able to marry the artist son of her former teacher, François André Vincent, whom she lived happily with until her death.

Adelaide Labille-Guiard (French Neoclassical Painter, 1749-1803) Self Portrait detail

Because of the Vincent family's connections, her works were exhibited at the Académie de Saint-Luc until 1777, when it closed. In May of 1783, Labille-Guiard was accepted as a member of the French Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture. Three other women, including Élisabeth-Louise Vigée-Lebrun, were admitted as members on the same day, despite some consternation on the part of some of the male members.

Adelaide Labille-Guiard (French Neoclassical Painter, 1749-1803) Self Portrait With Two Pupils 1785

Unlike Lebrun, Labille Guillard's subjects included both the members of the aristocracy as well as revolutionary figures. Her royal commissions made Labille-Guiard politically suspect after the French Revolution of 1789. In the early 1790s, she campaigned for the Academy to be opened up to the general admission of women. At the Salon of 1791, she exhibited portraits of members of the National Assembly, including Maximilien Robespierre and Armand, duc d'Aiguillon. However, in 1793 she was ordered to destroy some of her royalist paintings, including the unfinished commission for the Count of Provence. She died 10 years later.

Adelaide Labille-Guiard (French Neoclassical Painter, 1749-1803) Self Portrait 1774
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Women Artists & The French Revolution - Marguerite Gérard 1761-1837

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François Dumont (1751-1831) Portrait of Marguerite Gérard (French artist, 1761-1837) at age 32

Marguerite Gérard was a French painter & etcher. She was the daughter of Marie Gilette & perfumer Claude Gérard. After the death of her mother in 1775, she went to live with her sister Marie-Anne & her artist husband Jean-Honoré Fragonard in their apartment at the Louvre. She lived there for the next 30 years as his pupil. Before the Revolution her patrons were fellow painters like Hubert Robert, musicians like Grétry, & architects. She painted no royalty, no Marie-Antoinette, no aristocrats, but educated, wealthy bourgeois. Marguerite Gérard was no Court painter. She stayed safely away from political themes, & the French Revolution does not seem to have directly impacted Marguerite’s career. She produced intimate domestic genre scenes as well as portraits & was one of France's first successful female artists.

Marguerite Gérard (French artist, 1761-1837)

Marguerite Gérard (French artist, 1761-1837) Dors, mon enfant (Sleep my child) c 1783

Marguerite Gérard (French artist, 1761-1837) La bonne nouvelle

Marguerite Gérard (French artist, 1761-1837) La mauvaise nouvelle

Marguerite Gérard (French artist, 1761-1837) Le petit messager

Marguerite Gérard (French artist, 1761-1837) Mme de Staël et sa fille c 1805)

Marguerite Gérard (French artist, 1761-1837) Peintre faisant le portrait d'une joueuse de luth (Painter when painting a portrait of a lute player)
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Women Artists & The French Revolution - Victoire Lemoine 1754-1802

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Victoire Lemoine was a French painter. Born in Paris, where she also died, she was a student of François-Guillaume Ménageot, and took part in numerous Salons. She also may have been a student of Elisabeth Vigee-Lebrun, for her painting Atelier of a Painter is probably a portrait of Vigee-Lebrun. Lemoine was a portraitist & miniaturist who was part of a generation of women who were able to enjoyed considerable success as professional artists both before and after the French revolution. Her sisters Marie-Denise Villers & Marie-Élisabeth Gabiou also became painters.

Victoire Lemoine (French artist, 1754-1802) Atelier of a Painter, Probably Madame Vigée Le Brun (1755–1842), and Her Pupil

Victoire Lemoine (French artist, 1754-1802) Portraits d'une soeur et d'un jeune frère

Victoire Lemoine (French artist, 1754-1802) Self Portrait of a Woman and Cupid
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Early Morning Mother & the French Revolution

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Marie-Guillemine Benoist (French artist, 1768–1826) Madame Philippe Desbassayns de Richemont (Jeanne Eglé Mourgue, 1778–1855) and Her Son, Eugène (1800–1859)
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