Tuesday, January 7, 2014

Gardening Indoors - The Conservatory in 19th-Century Europe

Berthe Morisot (French painter, 1841-1895) Young Girl in a Greenhouse

At the beginning of the 19th-century, using the word conservatory as another term for a greenhouse had begun to change. The conservatory was evolving into a social gathering place for the privileged.

Edouard Manet (French Realist, Impressionist painter, 1832-1883) In the Conservatory

In 1782, Europe Magazine noted that "The idea of a Conservatory opening by a folding door into his saloon, is too fine to be left unfinished."

Edouard Manet (French Realist, Impressionist painter, 1832-1883) Madame Manet in the Conservatory 1879

In England, Humprey Repton (Scottish botanist & garden designer, 1752-1818) gave a plan well adapted for this new, more social purpose. At one end of this design an aviary (1) is surrounded by a conservatory (2), and joined to a glass passage for flowers (3), which leads successively through an orangery (4), lobby (5), music-room (6), library (7), print and picture-room (8), breakfast-room (9), anti-room (10), dining-room (11), hall (12), and peach and green-house.

Eduard Gaertner (German artist, 1801–1877) Family of Mr. Westfal in the Conservatory 1836

John Claudius Loudon (Scottish-born botanist & garden designer, 1783-1843) wrote in his 1822 Encyclopedia of Gardening, "The conservatory is a term generally applied by gardeners to plant-houses, in which the plants are grown in a bed or border without the use of pots. They are sometimes placed in the pleasure-ground along with the other hot-houses ; but more frequently attached to the mansion. The principles of their construction is in all respects the same as for the green-house, with the single difference of a pit or bed of earth being substituted for the stage."

Frances (Jones) Bannerman (Canadian-born artist, 1855-1944), The Conservatory

In 1824, Sir Walter Scott wrote in his historical novel Redgauntlet, "The present proprietor had rendered it (the parlor) more cheerful by opening one end into a small conservatory...I have never seen this before." The transition was well underway.

John Atkinson Grimshaw (English artist, 1836-1893) Il Pensoroso

James Jacques Joseph Tissot (French artist, 1836–1902) In the Greenhouse 1867-69

James Jacques Joseph Tissot (French artist, 1836–1902) The Bunch of Lilacs 1875

James Jacques Joseph Tissot (French artist, 1836–1902) In the Conservatory

James Jacques Joseph Tissot (French artist, 1836–1902) Portrait in the Conservatory

Jane Maria Bowkett (British painter, 1837-1891) Young Lady in a Conservatory

Lilla Cabot Perry (American artist, 1848-1933) In the Conservatory 1915

Louise Abbema (French painter, 1853-1927) Luncheon in the Conservatory 1877

Lovis Corinth (German Painter, 1858-1925) Woman with Lilies in a Conservatory 1911

Mary Cassatt (American artist, 1844-1926) Mother and Child in the Conservatory

Mihaly Munkacsy (Hungarian-born artist, 1844-1900) In the Conservatory

Paul Cezanne (French artist, 1839-1906) Madame Cezanne in a Conservatory

William Quiller Orchardson (Scottish artist, 1832-1910) In the Conservatory 1894

Olga Boznanska (Polish Impressionist painter, 1865-1945) Oranzerii

H. R. Miller (British artist) Family Portrait in a Conservatory 1850

Harry E. J. Browne (British artist) Tea in the Conservatory

Benjamin Haughton (British artist, 1865–1924) Woman in Conservatory with Roses