Monday, June 29, 2015

Lambeth Palace & its Gardens 1600s-1700s

1670 Lambeth Church with Lambeth Palace & the River Thames in the background Drawn by C Burton after Wenceslaus Hollar (Bohemian Baroque Era Engraver, 1607-1677).

Lambeth Palace – earlier called, the Manor of Lambeth, or Lambeth House or Lambeth Church – has been the London residence of the Archbishop of Canterbury for nearly 800 years. Lambeth Palace, on the south bank of the River Thames opposite Parliament, has been a historic London residence of Archbishops of Canterbury since the 13C.  During the Middle Ages, the garden attached to Lambeth House were used mainly for practical purposes such as growing food & herbs & breeding rabbits. A flour mill was driven by water from the river that ran between the garden & the adjoining parkland. By the mid 16C a pleasure ground was attached to Lambeth House & Thomas Cranmer (archbishop 1533-56) built a summerhouse there. Detail of the mansion & garden recorded in 1572 on the Civitas orbis terrarium shows a square formal garden enclosed within brick walls situated to the north of the mansion. To the north & east of this garden are small paddocks divided by hedges; the paddocks are separated from parkland by a long canal. The park was well wooded & an abstract from a parliamentary survey of Lambeth Palace & Manor in 1647 list 283 elms, 48 walnut trees, & 6 chestnuts while the Palace yard had 7 elms & 2 willows. The formal garden adjoining the mansion survived relatively unchanged until the late 18C, when glasshouses & a bowling green were added & the canals modified. A plan of the Palace by James Reeves shows the layout at this time (Ducarel 1785). The Best Garden, with wide walks around a rectangular plat, lay immediately to the north of the Palace with the kitchen garden beyond. The Best Garden & the melon ground to the east were enclosed by water as was the large open area of park further to the east. The plan also shows a gardener's house in the north-east corner of the Best Garden. The main changes came in the 1780s, when Archbishop Moore filled in the canals & landscaped much of the site. He relocated the kitchen gardens away from the Palace buildings & replaced the greenhouse garden & bowling green with a more informal pleasure garden planted with flowers & shrubs. 

1682-1687 Lambeth Palace, residence of Archbishop of Canterbury, with a Distant View of Westminster and The Strand, London by F. W. Smith.  Lambeth Palace with a Distant View of Westminster & The Strand.  Lambeth Palace is in the foreground. On the right are St. Mary's rectory, gatehouse to Morton's Tower, St. Mary's church, great hall, kitchen block with the stables on the extreme right. In the background, trees form the limits of the park walks. To the right there is an orchard. Beyond Lambeth Marsh is the north bank with St. Stephen's Chapel, the roofs of Westminster Hall, Abbey & Banqueting Hall, the old Horse Guards cupola, roof of Whitehall Palace great hall. Private palaces & houses are also shown.

Late 1600s Lambeth, His Grace the Lord Archbishop of Canberburys Pallace Leonard Knyff (1652-1722) and Johannes Kip (1653-1722) 1

1700s Lambeth Palace on the River Thames with a Distant View of the City

1709-1718 Jan Griffer I (Dutch artist, 1645-1718) View of Lambeth Palace across the Thames

 1737 A view of Lambeth Palace from the River Thames

 1740 Lambeth Palace from the River Thames

 1773 A view of Lambeth Palace from the Gardens. Drawn by a Miss Hartley 

 1773 Lambeth Palace & Garden from the East

 1775 Lambeth Palace & Garden as seen from the North

1791 Lambeth Palace from the Garden