Wednesday, June 24, 2015

The amazing insertion of Western Gardens into China by Jesuit Giuseppe Castiglione 1688-1766


Giuseppe Castiglione (Jesuit Italian artist, 1688-1766) Fangwaiguan zhengmian, main façade of Belvedere.

Giuseppe Castiglione (Italian artist, 1688-1766), was a Jesuit lay brother who served as a missionary in China, where he became a painter at the court of the emperor.  The Jesuits in China asked for a painter to be sent to the imperial court in Beijing.   Castiglione volunteered; and in 1715, the 27-year- old Castiglione arrived in China.  Working under the Chinese name Lang Shining, Castiglione served at the Qing court for 51 years, spanning the 3 emperors of the Kangxi, Yongzheng & Qianlong periods, before he died in 1766.   



Giuseppe Castiglione (Jesuit Italian artist, 1688-1766) Yangquelong ximian, west façade of Aviary.

Emperor Quianlong (Ch'ien Lung) enhanced the vast Summer Palace region in Beijing by having Castiglione design gardens & buildings for the Yuanmingyuan or Old Summer Palace. Castiglione designed Western-Style buildings in the imperial gardens of the Old Summer Palace.  Between 1747-1759, Castiglione’s designs for the Yuen-Ming Yuen, Garden of Perfect Clarity, both the buildings & gardens, were presented to the Emperor for approval & execution. The gardens were set in the midst of a multitude of jets of water, cascades and fountains.  The palaces themselves were destroyed during the Second Opium War in 1860, when French & English forces plundered Yuanmingyuan.  Only ruins remain. 


 Giuseppe Castiglione (Jesuit Italian artist, 1688-1766) Dashuifa nanmian, Great Waters, south side



 Giuseppe Castiglione (Jesuit Italian artist, 1688-1766) Guanshuifa zhengmian, view upon the Great Waters, front.



 Giuseppe Castiglione (Jesuit Italian artist, 1688-1766) Haiyantang beimian, north façade of Palace of Calm Seas.



 Giuseppe Castiglione (Jesuit Italian artist, 1688-1766) Haiyantang dongmian, east façade of Palace of Calm Seas



 Giuseppe Castiglione (Jesuit Italian artist, 1688-1766) Haiyantang ximian, west façade of Palace of Calm Seas.



 Giuseppe Castiglione (Jesuit Italian artist, 1688-1766) Hudong xianfahua, painting of perspective, east of the lake.



 Giuseppe Castiglione (Jesuit Italian artist, 1688-1766) Wanhuazhen huayuan, the Maze



 Giuseppe Castiglione (Jesuit Italian artist, 1688-1766) Xianfashan dongmen, east gate leading to Hill of Perspective.



 Giuseppe Castiglione (Jesuit Italian artist, 1688-1766) Xianfashan, Hill of Perspective.



 Giuseppe Castiglione (Jesuit Italian artist, 1688-1766) Xianfashanmen zhengmian, façade of gate leading to Hill of Perspective



 Giuseppe Castiglione (Jesuit Italian artist, 1688-1766) Xianfashan dongmen, east gate leading to Hill of Perspective.



 Giuseppe Castiglione (Jesuit Italian artist, 1688-1766) Xieqiqu nanmian, south façade of Palace of the Delights of Harmony.



 Giuseppe Castiglione (Jesuit Italian artist, 1688-1766) Xushuilou dongmian, east façade of Reservoir



 Giuseppe Castiglione (Jesuit Italian artist, 1688-1766) Yangquelong dongmian, east façade of Aviary.



 Giuseppe Castiglione (Jesuit Italian artist, 1688-1766) Yuanyingguan zhengmian, main façade of Observatory of Distant Waters.



Giuseppe Castiglione (Jesuit Italian artist, 1688-1766) Zhuting beimian, Bamboo Gazebos, north side

See:

Twenty views of the European Palaces in the Garden of Perfect Brightness  This album contains 20 scenes of the European-style garden elements in the Chinese Garden of Perfect Brightness. The views were commissioned by the Qianlong Emperor in the 1760s. They were printed in Paris, where only 100 copies were produced. The album includes an additional color print.

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