Friday, July 10, 2015
16C Golf - Vredenburg Castle 1529 where beugelen (farmers' golf) was played in Utrecht
Willem Cornelisz.van Swanenburgh (b 1611- in Utrecht). Castle Vredenburg 1529 Charles V where a form of early golf called beugelen, 'kolven door den beugel' was played in Utrecht
Vredenburg or Vredeborch was a 16C castle built by Habsburg emperor Charles V in the city of Utrecht in the Netherlands. When the Holy Roman Empire annexed Utrecht in 1528, Emperor Charles V immediately ordered the construction of a castle in Utrecht, to protect his new territory from invasion & to try to retain control over the city's rather independent population. Construction was begun in 1529 and completed in 1532. After the Pacification of Ghent was signed on November 8, 1576, the Eighty Years' War broke out; and the castle's Spanish garrison was besieged by the Dutch rebels, as fighting broke out between the Spanish & Dutch. The garrison abandoned the castle in 1577, & the citizens of Utrecht demanded, that the castle be demolished to prevent the Spanish or other foreign power from dominating their city again. The citizens demolished the castle brick by brick until 1581. Some remains of the castle are still visible on what is now Vredenburg square in Utrecht.
Etching by Coenraad Decker in 1656 depicting the castle Vredenburg in Utrecht (The Netherlands) showing the castle around 1540