Thursday, April 30, 2015

17C Woman - Henrietta Maria riding side-saddle


We have few depictions of women in the 17C British American colonies, but contemporary European prints allow us to see the hairstyles & fashions being worn on the other side of the Atlantic during the early years of the English colonization of America. 

Jean Leblond 1605-1666 Henrica Maria,  Jérôme David (Print made by) Henrietta Maria on horseback, riding side-saddle, holding a fan and the reins, with wide hat


Wednesday, April 29, 2015

18C Gardens in Portraits of Children from America


1710 Justus Engelhardt Kuhn (Colonial American artist, fl 1707-1717)  Henry Darnall III



1710 Justus Engelhardt Kuhn (Colonial American artist, fl 1707-1717)  Henry Darnall III


Tuesday, April 28, 2015

1700s Times of Day - Richard Houston (Irish printmaker, c.1721-1775)



Richard Houston (Irish printmaker, c.1721 - 1775) Times of Day - Morning 



Richard Houston (Irish printmaker, c.1721 - 1775) Times of Day - Noon



Richard Houston (Irish printmaker, c.1721 - 1775) Times of Day - Evening



Richard Houston (Irish printmaker, c.1721 - 1775) Times of Day - Night 


1600s Times of Day - Jean Leblond 1605-1666



 Jean Leblond 1605-1666 The Times of the Day - Morning



 Jean Leblond 1605-1666 The Times of the Day - Midday



 Jean Leblond 1605-1666 The Times of the Day - Evening



Jean Leblond 1605-1666 The Times of the Day - Night


1500s Times of Day - Jan Saenredam (Dutch printmaker, c 1565-1607



Jan Saenredam (Dutch printmaker, c 1565-1607) The Times of Day - Morning



Jan Saenredam (Dutch printmaker, c 1565-1607) The Times of Day - Midday



Jan Saenredam (Dutch printmaker, c 1565-1607) The Times of Day - Evening



Jan Saenredam (Dutch printmaker, c 1565-1607) The Times of Day - Night


17C Woman - Marie de Rohan, the wife of Claude de Lorraine with amazing pearls


We have few depictions of women in the 17C British American colonies, but contemporary European prints allow us to see the hairstyles & fashions being worn on the other side of the Atlantic during the early years of the English colonization of America. 

Jean Leblond 1605-1666 Charles David (Print made by); Ferdinand Elle (After) Marie de Rohan, the wife of Claude de Lorraine, Duke of Chevreuse; bust-length, turned to right with curled hair, pearl earrings


Monday, April 27, 2015

1612-20 The Seven Deadly Sins by Jan Collaert II 1571-1633


1612-1620 Septem Peccata Mortalia Print made by: Jan Collaert II (printmaker; Flemish; Male; c.1561-c.1620) Published by: Theodoor Galle (publisher/printer; printmaker; dealer/auction house; Flemish; Male; 1571-1633)

The Seven Deadly Sins; Adam and Eve in central image; surrounded by seven roundels with biblical scenes showing the seven deadly sins ('Pride' as the fallen angels [Isaiah 14]; 'Avarice' as Ananias and Sapphira dropping dead in front of St Peter after withholding part of profits [Acts 5]; 'Gluttony' as a corpulent man surrounded by other men [1 Kings 25]; 'Lust' as Phinehas killing Zimri and Cosbi [Numbers 25]; 'Sloth' as king Solomon and the idler [Proverbs 6]; 'Envy' as Joseph and his brothers [Genesis 37]; 'Wrath' as Cain and Abel [Genesis 4]); undescribed state with address of Theodor Galle


1630 The Seven Deadly Sins by George Glover (1625-1635) + a little fashion!



 George Glover (1625-1635) c.1630  Envy



 George Glover (1625-1635) c.1630  Gluttony



 George Glover (1625-1635) c.1630  Luxuria



 George Glover (1625-1635) c.1630  Sloth



 George Glover (1625-1635) c.1630 Covetness



 George Glover (1625-1635) c.1630 Pride



George Glover (1625-1635) c.1630 Wrath


1650 The Seven Deadly Sins by After Abraham Bosse -1639-1650



 After Abraham Bosse -1639-1650 Avarice



 After Abraham Bosse -1639-1650 Envy



 After Abraham Bosse -1639-1650 Gluttony



 After Abraham Bosse -1639-1650 Luxuria



 After Abraham Bosse -1639-1650 Pride



 After Abraham Bosse -1639-1650 Sloth



After Abraham Bosse -1639-1650 Wrath


1541 The Seven Deadly Sins by Georg Pencz (c. 1500-1550)



 Georg Pencz (c. 1500-1550) 1541 Avarice


 Georg Pencz (c. 1500-1550) 1541 Superbia



 Georg Pencz (c. 1500-1550) 1541 Gula


 Georg Pencz (c. 1500-1550) 1541 Invidia



 Georg Pencz (c. 1500-1550) 1541 Ira


 Georg Pencz (c. 1500-1550) 1541 Luxuria



Georg Pencz (c. 1500-1550) 1541 Pigrita


The Evolution of the Seven Deadly Sins


In the Book of Proverbs 6:16-19, among the verses traditionally associated with King Solomon, it states that the Lord specifically regards "six things the Lord hateth, and 7 that are an abomination unto Him:"
A proud look
A lying tongue
Hands that shed innocent blood
A heart that devises wicked plots
Feet that are swift to run into mischief
A deceitful witness that uttereth lies
Him that soweth discord among brethren


Tableau de mission François Marie Balanant.  An allegorical image depicting the human heart subject to the seven deadly sins, each represented by an animal (clockwise: toad = avarice; snake = envy; lion = wrath; snail = sloth; pig = gluttony; goat = lust; peacock = pride).

The modern concept of the 7 deadly sins is linked to the works of the 4C monk Evagrius Ponticus, who listed 8 evil thoughts in Greek as follows:
Γαστριμαργία (gastrimargia) gluttony
Πορνεία (porneia) prostitution, fornication
Φιλαργυρία (philargyria) avarice
Ὑπερηφανία (hyperēphania) hubris – in the Philokalia, this term is rendered as self-esteem
Λύπη (lypē) sadness – in the Philokalia, this term is rendered as envy, sadness at another's good fortune
Ὀργή (orgē) wrath
Κενοδοξία (kenodoxia) boasting
Ἀκηδία (akēdia) acedia – in the Philokalia, this term is rendered as dejection

In AD 590, a little over 2 centuries after Evagrius wrote his list, Pope Gregory I revised this list to form the more common Seven Deadly Sins.
luxuria (lechery/lust)
gula (gluttony)
avaritia (avarice/greed)
acedia (sloth/discouragement)
ira (wrath)
invidia (envy)
superbia (pride)

Beginning in the early 14C, the popularity of the Seven Deadly Sins brought them to become a theme among European artists.



17C Woman


We have few depictions of women in the 17C British American colonies, but contemporary European prints allow us to see the hairstyles & fashions being worn on the other side of the Atlantic during the early years of the English colonization of America. 

Jean Leblond 1605-1666 Bradamante;  François Ragot (Print made by); Young woman, bust-length; hat adorned with feather, chin-length curly hair, pearl necklace with lozenge-shaped pendants and dress trimmed with lace


Sunday, April 26, 2015

1630 The Fowre Complexions by George Glover



In Renaissance & Elizabethan time, the humours or complexions generally had become standardized as follows:
Sanguine = amorous, happy, generous, optimistic, irresponsible
Choleric = violent, vengeful, short-tempered, ambitious
Phlegmatic = sluggish, pallid, cowardly, sometimes lazy
Melancholic = introspective, sentimental, sometimes lazy


 George Glover c 1630 The Fowre Complexions Choller

In Renaissance & Elizabethan times, many believed that the choleric person was fast, unbalanced, & excitable with mental processes which were fast & intense. She would exhibit impulsiveness, temper, irritability, expressive facial expressions, hurried speech, abrupt gestures, & unrestrained movement. Feelings in persons of choleric temperament were thought to be  pronounced & sometimes moods might change dramatically. She worked with passion, & while showing impulsiveness, she could overcome difficulties.  But a person with choleric temperament could quickly become exhausted in a task & then might show a sharp decline in activity. Being too straightforward, short tempered, harsh, & intolerant could make chlorics difficult & unpleasant.


 George Glover c 1630 The Fowre Complexions Melancholly

In Renaissance & Elizabethan times, many believed that a melancholic person had slow mental processes.  Prolonged & severe stress caused people of this temperament to become passive. Feelings & emotional states in melancholic temperament emerged slowly. A melancholic was easily vulnerable. They were prone to isolation & loneliness, avoided contact with strangers, & were uneasy in a new environment. But in a familiar & relaxed environment, melancholic people felt comfortable & worked very efficiently.


 George Glover c 1630 The Fowre Complexions Phlegmatic

In Renaissance & Elizabethan times, many believed that a phlegmatic person was slow, calm, unhurried, & balanced showing thoroughness, thoughtfulness, & perseverance. Mental processes of a phlegmatic proceeded slowly & were expressed weakly. In relations with people, a phlegmatic was calm, moderately sociable, & stable. A phlegmatic was not easily ruffled or hurt emotionally. The phlegmatic temperament could easily maintain stamina, composure, calmness.  Sometimes a person of this temperament might develop an indifferent attitude to work & to life around them.


George Glover c 1630 The Fowre Complexions Sanguine

In Renaissance & Elizabethan times, many believed that a sanguine person was cheerful but did not like monotonous work. She controlled her emotions easily, quickly assimilated into a new environment, & actively came into contact with others. Her speech was loud, fast, & was accompanied by distinct expressive facial expressions & body gestures. But this temperament was characterized by some duality. If the stimuli were changing rapidly, the sanguine state manifested itself as a person of action, active, energetic.  If a task was of long duration, & monotonous, the sanguine lost interest & appeared indifferent, bored, & lethargic. A sanguine quickly showed feelings of joy, sorrow, affection & hostility, but all these manifestations of her feelings were unstable. The sanguine mood changed rapidly, but usually a good mood would prevail.



17C Woman as Shepherdess (or perhaps Diana)


Jean Leblond 1605-1666  Leonide Bergere; print; Jeremias Falck (Print made by); Paris three-quarter length female shepherdess, stepping to right; a quiver slung across her back, holding a bow in her right hand. This woman has spectacular pearls in her hair, at her neck & wrist.  (ed. - This shepherdess looks like a depiction of Diana.)


1636 The Foure Complexions by William Marshall - "Black & Proud" ???



 William Marshall (British printmaker, 1617-1649) The Foure Complexions 1662 - Phlegmatic

Sir Thomas Elyot's (c 1490-1546) Castel of Helthe, 1541, "Complexion is a combynation of two dyvers qualities of the foure elements in one bodye, as hotte and drye of the Fyre: hotte and inoyste of the Ayre."


 William Marshall (British printmaker, 1617-1649) The Foure Complexions 1636 - Melancholy

Bartholomeus Anglicus (Bartholomew of England) (c 1203–1272),  Batman vppon Bartholome, "Mans bodie is made of foure Elements, that is to wit, of Earth, Water, Fire and Aire: euery seuerall hath his proper qualities. Foure be called the first and principall qualityes, that is heate, cold, drie, and moist: they be called the first qualities, because they slide first from the Elements into the things that be made of Elements."


 William Marshall (British printmaker, 1617-1649) The Foure Complexions 1636 - Sanguine

Sir John Harington's (1561-1612) Englishmans Doctor, or the Schoole of Salerne, 1608,  "The watry flegmatique are fayre and white; The sanguin, roses joynd to lillies bright; The collericke, more red; the melancholy, Alluding to their name, are swart and colly."


William Marshall (British printmaker, 1617-1649) The Foure Complexions - Chollerick


From William Shakespeare's (1564-1616) Love's Labour's Lost  Act 1, Scene 2

Boy, A Woman, Master. 
Brag. Of what complexion?
Boy. Of all the foure, or the three, or the two, or one of the foure.
Brag. Tell me precifely of what complexion?
Boy. Of the sea-water Greene sir.
Brag. Is that one of the foure complexions?
Boy. As I haue read sir, and the beft of them too. 
Brag. Greene indeed is the colour of Lovers: but to haue a Love of that colour, methinkes Sampfon had small reason for it. He surely affected her for her wit.
Boy. It was so sir, for she had a greene wit. 


17C Woman as Shepherdess


Jean Leblond 1605-1666 Shepherdesss Astree; print; Jeremias Falck (Print made by); Paris. This woman has huge pearls at her neck and wrists, as well as sewn onto her dress at the neckline.