Thursday, September 10, 2015

Queen Elizabeth I - New Year's Gifts 1588-1589



1590 Queen Elizabeth I 1533-1603 Unknown Artist Jesus College Oxford

An explanation of these lists appeared on the Museum of London blog.  Thought I would share it here to give a background on these amazing lists.

In Elizabethan London, New Year’s Day was the big time to give and receive gifts, particularly at court. The tradition appears to date back to at least the 13th century but under Queen Elizabeth I it reached new heights in terms of the extravagance and range of the gifts given.

Courtiers and members of the Queen’s household were expected to present her with gifts. As can be imagined competition to impress the Queen was fierce and there must have been immense pressure to come up with gifts that were valuable enough (many resorted to giving money, usually gold coins, in extravagant silk purses) or useful (she received many perfumed gloves and gold-trimmed hankies) or just intriguing.


In the latter category are many animal jewels, such as an emerald, diamond and ruby serpent with a pendant pearl, given in 1581 by the Countess of Oxford or a golden cat playing with mice and again decorated with diamonds and pearls given the same year by Lady Howard. One can imagine the emerald and diamond salamander or the pearl ship pin from the Cheapside Hoard being equally acceptable New Year’s gifts. The Queen loved puns and many of these jewels would have held hidden meanings and witty jokes for her amusement.


A number of rolls or lists detailing the gifts she received for New Year still survive and give a fascinating glimpse of life in the Elizabethan court. Many of the queen’s admirers liked to give her a gift which would remind her of themselves. Sir Christopher Hatton, whose portrait is on display in the Cheapside Hoard exhibition, on loan from the National Portrait Gallery, frequently used a knot motif and so in around 1585 he gave Elizabeth a headdress, decorated with expensive golden knots. In 1574 the fan that the Earl of Leicester gave her was decorated with bears, part of his device. Others gave gifts that they hoped would get them noticed and some of these were rather fabulous. For example, on New Year’s Day 1581 Sir Walter Raleigh presented Elizabeth with a crown set with Peruvian emeralds which he had captured in a raid on the Spanish fleet the previous year. However, the rolls show that she also received plainer gifts such as a quince pie from John Betts, who was a pastry servant, or a box of lute strings or eighteen larks in a cage.


In return the Queen would give gifts too, and whilst these were sometimes generous in the extreme, more often than not they were of a lower value than those she received. Often she would give an image of herself, such as the cameo portrait of the Queen which Hatton is shown holding in his portrait. A similar, though smaller cameo can be seen on display as part of the Cheapside Hoard. But if you wanted to impress the Queen it seems to have been much more a case of five gold rings rather than a partridge in a pear tree!


New Year's Gifts for Queen Elizabeth: 1588-1589

Anno Regni Regine Elizabeth tricesimo-primo, 1588-9
Newe Yeare's Guiftes gyven to the Queene's Majesty at Her Highnes Mannour of Richmond, by these Parsons whose names do hereafter ensewe, the first daye, the yeare aforesaide.

 £. s. d.
By Sir Christopher Hatton, Knight, Lord Chancellor of England, a coller of gold, conteyninge 11 peeces, whereof four made like scallop shells garneshed round about with small diamonds and rubyes, one pearle pendaunt and two rubyes pendaunt without foyle, six other longer peeces eche garnesshed with seven pearles, five rubyes of two sorts, sparks of diamonds and two rubyes pendaunt without foyle, having a bigger peece in the middest like a scallopp shell, garneshed with diamonds and rubyes of sundry bignesses, one pearle in the topp, one rock ruby in the middest, having three fishes pendaunt garneshed on th'one side with sparks of diamonds and two rubyes pendaunt, without foyle, and with one peece at eche end of them garneshed with two small rubyes and one pearle, and a peire of braceletts of gold, conteyninge 12 peeces, six like knotts garnesshed with sparks of diamonds, and six like knotts garnesshed with sparks of rubyes, and two pearles in a peece, and two pearles betweene eche peece.
Delivered to Mrs. Ratcliffe.
By the Lorde Burleigh, Lord High Treasorer of England, in golde 20 0 0
By the Lord Marques of Winchester, in golde 20 0 0
Delivered to Mr. Henry Sackford, one of the Groomes of her Majestie's Pryvie Chamber.

Earles.
By the Earle of Shrewesbury, in gold 20 0 0
By the Earle of Darby, in gold 20 0 0
By the Earle of Sussex, in gold 10 0 0
By the Earle of Huntingdon, in gold 10 0 0
By the Earle of Bath, in gold 20 0 0
By the Earle of Warwick, a sarceonet of gold, conteyninge 15 peeces, seven sett with foure rubyes, and one small diamond in the middest, the other seven sett with nyne pearles in a peece sett in gold, having a rowe of small pearles on thupside, and pendaunts of sparks of rubyes, oppalls, and ragged pearles.
Delivered to the said Mrs. Ratcliff.
By the Earle of Hertford, in gold 10 0 0
By the Earle of Lincoln, in gold 10 0 0
By the Earle of Penbrok, in gold 20 0 0
Delivered to the said Mr. Sackford.
By the Earle of Ormound, part of a petticote of carnation satten embrodered with a broade garde or border of antyques of flowers and fyshes of Venis gold, silver, and silke, and all over with a twist of Venis gold.
Delivered to the Roabes.
By the Earle of Northumberland, one jwell of golde like a lampe garnesshed with sparks of diamonds and one oppall
By the Earl of Cumberland, a jewell of gold like a sacrifice.
Delivered to the said Mrs. Ratclife.

Vicounte.
By the Vicounte Mountague, in gold 10 0 0
Delivered to the said Mr. Sackford.

Marquesse and Countesses.
By the Lady Marquesse of Northampton, a peire of braceletts of gold conteyning 16 peeces, four enamuled white set with one pearle in a peece, and four sparks of rubyes a peece, the other foure sett with one dasy and a small ruby in the middest thereof, and four small pearles and eight longe peeces betwene them, ech sett with small diamonds and two sparks of rubyes.
Delivered to the said Mrs. Ratcliff.
By the Countesse of Shrewsbury, a safegard with a jhup or gaskyn coat of faire cullored satten, like flames of fire of gold, and garnesshed with buttons, loupes, and lace of Venis silver.
Delivered to the Roabes.
By the Countesse of Huntington, in gold 8 0 0
Delivered to the said Mr. Sackford.
By the Countesse of Warwick, a chayne, containing 22 aggetts slytely garnesshed with gold, and 22 bawles of jheat slytely garnesshed over with seede pearles.
Delivered to the said Mrs. Ratcliff.
By the Countesse of Lyncoln, widdowe, a longe cloake of murry velvet, with a border rounde aboute of a small chenye lace of Venis silver, and two rowes of buttons and lowpes of like silver furred thorough with mynnyover and calloper like myll pykes.
Delivered to the Roabes.
By the Countesse of Sussex, widdowe, in gold 10 0 0
By the Countesse of Sussex, in gold 10 0 0
By the Countesse of Penbrok, in gold 10 0 0
Delivered to the said Mr. Sackford.
By the Countesse of Bedforde, two large candlesticks of cristall garnesshed with silver gilte paynted, per oz. altogether 80 10 0
Charged upon John Astelly, Esquire, Master of our Juells and Plate.
By the Countesse of Cumberland, a peire of braselets, conteyninge eight peeces of gold, sett with sparks of diamonds and rubyes, and knotts or rundells of small pearles betwene them, threded.
Delivered to the said Mrs. Ratcliff.
By the Countesse of Southampton, in gold 10 0 0
By the Countesse of Rutland, in gold 10 0 0
By the Countesse of Hertford, in gold 10 0 0
Delivered to the said Mr. Sackford.
By the Countesse of Ormount, parte of a petticote of carnacon satten ymbrodered with a broade garde or border of anticks of flowers and fishes of Venis gold, silver, and all over with a twist of Venis gold.
Delivered to the Roabes.
By the Countesse of Bath, a fanne of swanne downe, with a maze of greene velvet, ymbrodered with seed pearles and a very small chayne of silver gilte, and in the middest a border on both sides of seed pearles, sparks of rubyes and emerods, and thereon a monster of gold, the head and breast mother-of-pearles; and a skarfe of white stitche cloth florished with Venis gold, silver, and carnacion silke.
Delivered the fanne to the Roabes; and the skarfe to Mrs. Carr.

Vicountesse.
By the Vicountesse Mountagu, in gold 10 0 0
Delivered to the said Mr. Sackford.

Busshops.
By the Archbusshopp of Canterbury, in gold 40 0 0
By the Busshopp of London, in gold 20 0 0
By the Busshop of Salisbury, in gold 20 0 0
By the Busshopp of Winchester, in gold 20 0 0
By the Busshopp of Lincoln, in gold 20 0 0
By the Busshopp of Worcester, in gold 20 0 0
By the Busshopp of Bathe, in gold 20 0 0
By the Busshopp of Norwich, in gold 20 0 0
By the Busshopp of Lichfeild and Coventry, in gold and silver 13 6 8
By the Busshopp of Carleill, in gold 10 0 0
By the Busshopp of Peterburrowe, in gold 9 16 6
By the Busshopp of Chester, in gold 10 0 0
By the Busshopp of Rochester, in gold 10 0 0
By the Busshopp of Exceter, in gold 10 0 0
By the Busshopp of St. David, in gold 10 0 0
By the Busshopp of Chichester, in gold 20 0 0
By the Busshopp of Gloucester, in gold 10 0 0
By the Busshopp of Hereford, in gold 10 0 0
Delivered to the said Mr. Sackford.

Lordes.
By the Lord Hunsdon, Lord Chamberleyne, the nether skirts of the coveringe of a gowne, black stitcht cloth, florished with gold, and some owes.
Delivered to the Roabes.
By the Lord Howard, Lord Admirall, a sarceonett of gold, conteyninge fyve peeces garnesshed with sparks of diamounds, foure whereof each a ruby, foure lesse peeces like knotts garnesshed with sparks of diamound, eight litl pendaunts of diamounds without foile, and nine small pearles pendaunt.
Delivered to the said Mrs. Ratcliff.
By the Lord Cobham, in gold 10 0 0
By the Lord Darcy of Chiche, in gold 9 17 6
By the Lord Shandoyes, in gold 10 0 0
By the Lord Compton, in gold 10 0 0
By the Lord Norris, in gold 10 0 0
By the Lord Lumley, in gold 10 0 0
By the Lord Wharton, in gold 10 0 0
By the Lord Ritch, in gold 10 0 0
By the Lord of Buckhurst, in gold 5 0 0
By the Lord North, in gold 10 0 0
Delivered to the said Mr. Sackford.
By the Lord Seymer, a comfett box of mother-of-pearles, garnesshed with small sparks of rubies.
Delivered to the said Mrs. Ratcliff.

Baronesses.
By the Barronesse Burghley, a porringer of gold with a cover, per oz. 24 oz.
Charged upon John Asteley, Esq.
By the Barrones Hunsdon, a peire of bodies for the covering of a gowne of black stitcht cloth, florished with gold and some owes.
By the Barronesse Howard, a covering of a gowne of black nett-work, faire florished over with Venis gold.
By the Barrones Cobham, a petticote of faire cullored caffa laid with six laces of Venis silver with plate.
By the Barrones Dakers, a petticote of white chamlett striped with silver, printed with a border of six broade bone laces of Venis gold and silver plate, and striped all over broade arrowehedwyse, with a lesse lace of like venis gold and silver plate.
Delivered to the Roabes.
By the Barrones Lumley, a wastecoate of white taffety, imbrodered all ovre with a twist of flowers of Venis gold, silver, and some black silke.
Delivered to Mrs. Skidmore.
By the Barrones Shandowes Knolls, a stoole of wood paynted, the seate covered with murry velvet, ymbrodered all over with pillers arched of Venis gold, silver, and silke.
Charged upon Roberte Cotton, Yeoman of the Wardropp of bedds.
By the Barrones Shandoyes, in gold 10 0 0
By the Barronesse Sainte John Bletzowe, in gold 10 0 0
By the Barronesse Pagett Cary, in gold 10 0 0
Delivered to the said Mr. Sackford.
By the Barronesse Dudley, two ruffes with rabatines of lawne cut-work made, and one ruff of lawne cutt-work unmade.
Delivered to Mrs. Bonne.
By the Barronesse Cheney, a small jewell of gold sett wyth fyve diamounds of sundry cutts without foyle, and three small pearles pendaunt.
Delivered to the said Mrs. Ratcliffe.
By the Barronesse Wharton, in gold 10 0 0
By the Barronesse Buckhurst, in gold 5 0 0
By the Barronesse Barkeley, in gold 10 0 0
By the Barrones Norris, in gold 10 0 0
By the Barronesse Ritch, widdowe, in gold 10 0 0
Delivered to the said Mr. Sackford.
By the Barronesse Sheffield, one saddle cloth of black velvet, ymbrodered all over with Venis gold, with all the furniture belonginge for a saddle.
Delivered to the Stable.
By the Barronesse Rich, a fore parte of white nettworke like rundells, and buttons florished with Venis gold and owes layde upon purple satten, and lined with white sarsonet.
By the Barronesse Talbott, widowe, a mantle of black stitch cloth florished and seamed with Venis silver.
Delivered to the Roabes.

Ladies.
By the Lady Mary Seymer, wife to Mr. Rogers, a standitch of wood covered with silke needlework, garnished with a fewe seede pearles.
Delivered to the said Mrs. Skidmore.
By the Lady Elizabeth Seymer, wife to Mr. Richard Knightley, a skarfe of black nettwork, florished with silver, and lyned with faire cullored sarsonett.
Delivered to the said Mrs. Carre.
By the Lady Katheryn Constable, one longe cushion of black velvett, ymbrodered all over with flowers of silke needle-worke of sundry cullors and sorts, and backed with watchett damaske.
Delivered to the said Robert Cotton.
By the Lady Stafford, a peire of braseletts of gold, conteyninge 16 peeces, whereof eight enamuled white, four very small sparks of rubyes in a peece, and one ragged pearle in a peece of eche; the othe reight enamuled with five ragged pearles in a peece.
Delivered to the said Mrs. Ratcliff.
By the Lady Walsingham, one skimskyn of cloth of silver, ymbrodered all over very faire with beasts, fowles, and trees, of Venis gold, silver, silke, and small seed pearles, with fyve buttons of seede pearles, lyned with carnation plushe; a peire of perfumed gloves, the coaffe ymbrodered with seed pearle, and lyned with carnation velvett.
Delivered to the said Mrs. Carre.
By the Lady Hennage, one shorte cloke of black clothe of silver layde round about with a passmayne before, with buttons and lowpes of like lace of Venis gold and silver, lyned with white plushe.
Delivered to the Roabes.
By the Lady Carow, on smock of fyne Holland about wroughte with black silke.
Delivered to the said Mrs. Skidmore.
By the Lady Cheake, a fore parte of white nettworke florisshed with Venis gold, silver, and carnation silke, layde upon white satten.
Delivered to the Roabes.
By the Lady Drewry, a skimskyn of black cipres, florished with Venis gold and small seed pearles, with a border or rowe of seed pearles, with eight buttons of gold, ech of them four small ragged pearles with a garnett in eche of them.
Delivered to the said Mrs. Carre.
By the Lady Leyton, a waistcote of white sarsnett, ymbrodered round about with a border of eglantne flowers, and ymbrodered all over with a twist of Venis gold.
Delivered to the said Mrs. Skidmore.
By the Lady Southwell, a dooblett of lawne cuttwork, florished with squares of silver owes.
Delivered to the Roabes.
By the Lady Pawlett, in gold 5 0 0
By the Lady Jarrett, in gold 10 0 0
Delivered to the said Mr. Sackford.
By the Lady Digby, one cloke of black silke stitched cloth, florished with silver striped, layd upon faire cullored taffety, lyned with white plushe.
By the Lady Willoughby, a fore parte of lawne cuttwork, florished with silver and spangles.
Delivered to the Roabes.
By the Lady Scroope, a vaile of white knittwork, striped with rowles and silver plate.
Delivered to the said Mrs. Carre.
By the Lady Gresham, in gold 9 17 6
Delivered to the said Mr. Sackford.
By the Lady Ratcliff, a vaile of white stitch cloth striped, florished with Venis gold, silver, and some owes.
Delivered to the said Mrs. Carre.
By the Lady Souche, a smock of fyne Holland, wroughte with black silke.
Delivered to the said Mrs. Skidmore.
By the Lady Weste, a skimskyn of watched satten, ymbrodered with knotts of Venis gold, and lyned with carnation flushe.
By the Lady Longe, a skimskyn of cloth of silver, ymbrodered all over with beasts and flowers and a woman in the middest, lyned with carnation flushe.
Delivered to the said Mrs. Carre.
By the Lady Harrington, a wastecote of lawne, faire wroughte with Venis gold and black silke.
Delivered to the said Mrs. Skidmore.
By the Lady Townsende, a large ruffe of lawne cuttwork unmade.
Delivered to the said Mrs. Bonne.

Knights.
By Sir Fleaming Knowlls, Treasorer of the Houshold, in gold 10 0 0
By Sir James Croftes, Comptroller of the same, in gold 10 0 0
Delivered to the said Mr. Sackford.
By Sir Frauncis Walsingham, Principall Secretary, a cloke and a savegard of faire cullored velvet, laide round aboute and strped downe and eight lowpes and fore quarters of a broade passamayn lace of Venis gold and silver plate; the cloke lyned with printed cloth of silver, and the savegard lyned with white sarsonett; and a dooblett of hwite satten cutt, ymbrodered all over with esses of Venis gold, and striped overwhart with a passamayn of Venis gold and plate.
Delivered to the Roabes.
By Sir Thomas Hennage, one jewell of gold, like an Alpha and Omega, with sparks of diamonds.
Delivered to the said Mrs. Ratcliff.
By Sir Walter Mildemay, Chauncellor of thexchequer, in gold 10 0 0
By Sir Gilberte Jarrett, Master of the Rowles, in gold 20 0 0
By Sir Owen Hopton, Lievtenaunte of the Tower, in gold 10 0 0
Delivered to the said Mr. Sackford.
By Sir Thomas Layton, Capteine of Garnsey, a petticote of white sarsnett, imbrodered round about with a broad border like eglantyne flowers, and all over ymbrodered with a twist of Venis gold, and powderings of carnation silke.
By Sir Robert Sydney, a dooblett of white satten, embrodered all over like clouds very faire, of scallopp fashion, with flowers and fruits of Venis gold, silver, and silke, betwene them.
Delivered to the Roabes.
By Sir Henry Cromwell, in gold 10 0 0
By Sir Edwarde Cleare, in gold 10 0 0
Delivered to the said Mr. Sackford.
By Sir Thomas Cecil, a Frenche gowne of black silke nettworke, of two sorts, florished with Venis gold, and lyned with white chamlett.
By Sir Roberte Southwell, foareparte of lawne cutwork, florished with squares with owes.
Delivered at the Roabes.
By Sir John Parrett, one very small salte of aggett, with a cover and foote gold enamyled, garnished with small sparkes of rubyes and oppalls, the foote garnished with like rubyes, per oz. 1 oz. 3 quarters; and two Irishe mantles, the one murry, th'other russet, the one laced with silver lace and freindge, the other with gold lace and freindge.
The salte charged upon the said John Asteley, Esq. and the mantles delivered to John Whinyard.
By Sir Oratio Pavlavizino, one bodkyn of silver gilte, havinge a pendaunt jewell of gold, like a shipp, garnished with opaulls, sparks of diamonds, and three small pearles pendaunt.
Delivered to the said Mrs. Ratclife.
By Sir George Cary, a doblett of copp damaske, silver turned freindge lace, wrought with purle, and edged with a passamayn of silver.
Delivered to the Roabes.

Chaplyn.
John Thorneborow, Clark of the Closett, one small cupp, the bowle, foote, and parte of the cover of aggats, garnished with gold, and sett with small rubyes, pearles, and litle oppalls, per oz. all 5 oz. di. qr.
Charged on the said John Asteley.

Gentlewomen.
By Mrs. Blaunch Aparry, one long cushion of tawny cloth of gold, backed with taffety.
Delivered to the said Robert Cotton.
By Mrs. Mary Ratcliffe, a jewell of gold sett with a stone without a foyle, called Incentabella.
Delivered to her owne hande.
By Mrs. Fraunces Howarde, a skarf of black stitch cloth, florished with Venis gold and silver.
Delivered to the said Mrs. Carre.
By Mrs. Elizabeth Brooke, a skarf of white stitcht cloth, striped with black silke and silver, and florished with silver.
Delivered to the said Mrs. Carre.
By Mrs. Elizabeth Throgmorton, two ruffes of lawne cutwork made.
Delivered to the said Mrs. Bonne.
By Mrs. Edmounds, a cushen cloth of lawne cutwork like leaves, and a few owes of silver.
Delivered to Mrs. Skideamore.
By Mrs. Skideamore, parte of a loose gowne of black taffety with a border, ymbrodered with a chayne lace of Venis gold and tufts of white silke.
By Mrs. Wolley, a doblett of black stitcht cloth of two sorts, florished with Venis gold and silver.
Delivered to the Roabes.
By Mrs. Wetston, a skarf of black silke network, florished with Venis gold and silver, and lyned with faire cullored sarsonett; and two peire of weytinge tables, the one covered with needle-work, the other with crimsonn velvett.
Delivered to the said Mrs. Carre.
By Mrs. Allen, a ruff of lawne cuttwork unmade.
Delivered to the said Mrs. Bonne.
By Mrs. Dale, a saveguard of russett satten, florished with gold and silver, with buttons and lowpes downe before of Venis gold and silver, and bound about with a lace of like gold and silver.
By Mrs. Sackford, one peece of carnation grogreyne, florished with gold, conteyninge yardes …
Delivered to the Roabes.
By Mrs. Wyngfield, a nightraile of camberick, wroughte all over with black silke.
By Mrs. Carre, one sheete of fyne camberick, wrought all over with sundry fowles, beastes, and wormes, of silke of sundry cullers.
Delivered to the said Mrs. Skidmore.
By Mrs. Jane Brizells, a ruff of lawne cuttwork, with lilies of like cuttwork, sett with small seed pearles.
Delivered to the said Mrs. Bonne.
By Mrs. Vaughan, one peire of silke stockings and a peire of garters of white sypres.
Delivered to the said Mrs. Skidmore.
By Mrs. Smithson, two handkerchers of Holland wroughte with black silke.
By Mrs. Twist, a peire of sleeves of camberick wrought with black silke.
By Mrs. Cromer, a smock of fyne Holland, and the bodyes and sleeves wroughte all over with black silke.
By Mrs. Fyfield, a sweete bagge all over ymbrodered, and six handkerchers.
By Mrs. Huggens, 24 small sweete baggs of sarsenett of sundry cullors, and six handkerchers of camberick wrought with black silke, and edged with a passamayn of gold.
Delivered to the said Mrs. Skidmore.
By Mrs. Owen, a gerdle of white sipres, imbrodered at both ends with leaves of faire cullored silk of needle work, friendged with Venis gold, silver, and silke.
Delivered to the said Mrs. Carre.
By Mrs. Jones, six handkerchers of cambrick wroughte with black silke.
By Mrs. Robinson, a quoft and a forehead cloth florished with gold and silver.
By Mrs. Burley, six handkerchers of cambrick wrought with black silke.
By Mrs. Morgan, two boxes of wood, one charryes, th'other aberycocks.
By Mrs. Tomason, one handkercher of cambrick wrought with black silke.
By Mrs. West, one attire of stitched cloth and haire wroughte in eysing puffes.
Delivered to the said Mrs. Skidmore.
By Mrs. Bowne, one ruff of lawne cuttwork made upp.
Delivered to her Majestie's owne hands.

Gentlemen.
By Mr. Wolley, one of her Majestie's Secretaries, a round cloke of black cloth of gold, with buttons and lowpes on thinside of Venis gold and black like.
By Mr. Dyer, a petticote of white satten, quilted all over with Venis gold and silver, with some plats, with four borders embrodered with gillyflowers and roses of Venis gold, and lyned with white sarsenett.
By Mr. Bruncker, one shorte cloke of white stitcht cloth, florished all over with Venis gold, silver, and some carnation silke, layde upon white taffety, and lyned with white plushe; and a skarf of white stitch cloth, and striped with Venis silver.
Delivered to the Robbes, saving the skarf to Mrs. Car.
By Mr. Smith Customer, one boulte of camberick, and a whole peece of lawne.
By Mr. Garter King of Armes, a booke of Armes of the Noblemen in Henry the Fift's time.
By Mr. Newton, a bodkyn of silver gilte, with a pendaunt like a sonne, enamuled redd, and a moone therein, garnished with sparks of diamounds, and four very small pearles pendaunt.
Delivered to Mrs. Ratcliffe.
By Mr. Henry Brooke, a petticote of carnation capha florished with silver, with fyne broade passamayn laces of gold, silver, and watches silke.
By a Gentleman unknown, a fanne of sundry cullored fethers, with a handle of aggets garnished with silver gilte.
Delivered to the Roabes.
By Mr. John Stanhop, a large bagg of white satten, ymbrodered all over with flowers, beasts, and burds, of Venis gold, silver, and silke.
Delivered to the said Mrs. Skidmore.
By Mr. Skidamour, parte of a loose gowne of black taffety, with a border, imbrodered with a chaine lace of Venis gold, and tufts of white silke.
Delivered to the Roabes.
By Mr. Doctor Bayly, a pott of greene gynger, and a pott of the rynds of lemons.
By Mr. Doctor Gyfford, a pott of greene gynger, and a pot of the rynds of lemons.
Delivered to the said Mrs. Skidmore.
By Mr. Doctor Lopus, a peire of perfumed gloves, and a peire of white silke sypres.
Delivered the gloves to Mrs. Carre; the sipres to Mrs. Ratcliffe.
By Mr. Fynes, a longe cushion of purple satten, ymbrodered all over with damaske gold plate, Venis gold, and seed pearles of sundry sorts, with Justice in the middest, backed with yellow satten frenged, buttoned, and tasselld with Venis gold and purple silke.
Delivered to the said Robert Cotton.
By Mr. Spillman, a small peire of wrytinge tables of glass, garnished with silver gilte.
Delivered to Mrs. Ratclyff.
By Mr. William Huggens, a large sweete bagg of white satten, ymbrodered all over with Venis gold, silver, and silke of sundry cullors.
Delivered to the said Mrs. Skidmore.
By Mr. Carr, four stomachers of velvett, trymmed with a passamayn of Venis gold on the toppes; and two bells of jett, the clappers aggetts.
Delivered the stomacher to Mrs. Skidmore; the bells to Mrs. Ratcliff.
By Mr. Mountighu, one smock of fyne Holland cloth, faire wroughte with black silke.
Delivered to the said Mrs. Skidmore.
By Mr. Capteine Crosse, a faire large looking glasse set in frame, corded with crimson velvett, bound with a passamayn lace of Venis gold.
The glass broken.
By Mr. Huishe, one whole peece of lawne.
By Mrs. Dunston Amys, a beserte stone.
Dlievered to the said Mrs. Ratclyff.
By John Smithson, Master Cooke, one faire marchpayne, with St. George in the middest.
By John Dudley, Sargeante of the Pastry, one faire pye of quinces orringed.
Somma totalis of the money given to her Majestie amounteth to £.795 19s. 2d.


Queen Elizabeth I 1588 speaks to her army at Tilbury

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1588 Queen Elizabeth I 1533-1603 The Armada Portrait Attributed to George Gower

The English forces were gathered to fight the Spanish Armada; their unlikely victory was one of the great highlights of Elizabeth's reign.

"I remember in '88 waiting upon the Earl of Leicester at Tilbury camp, and in '89, going into Portugal with my noble master, the Earl of Essex, I learned somewhat fit to be imparted to your grace.

"The queen lying in the camp one night, guarded with her army, the old treasurer, Burleigh, came thither and delivered to the earl the examination of Don Pedro, who was taken and brought in by Sir Francis Drake, which examination the earl of Leicester delivered unto me to publish to the army in my next sermon. The sum of it was this.

"Don Pedro, being asked what was the intent of their coming, stoutly answered the lords: What, but to subdue your nation and root it out.

"Good, said the lords, and what meant you then to do with the catholics? He answered, We meant to send them (good men) directly unto heaven, as all that are heretics to hell. Yea, but, said the lords, what meant you to do with your whips of cord and wire? (Whereof they had great store in their ships.) What? said he, we meant to whip you heretics to death that hare assisted my master's rebels and done such dishonour to our catholic king and people. Yea, but what would you have done, said they, with their young children? They, said he, which were above seven years old should hare gone the way their fathers went, the rest should have lived, branded in the forehead with the letter L for Lutheran, to perpetual bondage.

"This, I take God to witness, I received of those great lords upon examination taken by the council, and by commandment delivered it to the army.

"The queen the next morning rode through all the squadrons of her army, as armed Pallas, attended by noble footmen, Leicester, Essex, and Norris, then lord marshall, and divers other great lords. Where she made an excellent oration to her army, which the next day after her departure, I was commanded to re-deliver to all the army together, to keep a public fast.

"Her words were these.

"My loving people, we have been persuaded by some that are careful of our safety to take heed how we commit ourself to armed multitudes for fear of treachery; but I assure you, I do not desire to live to distrust my faithful and loving people. Let tyrants fear. I have always so behaved myself that, under God, I have placed my chiefest strength and safe guard in the loyal hearts and good will of my subjects, and therefore I am come amongst you, as you see, at this time, not for my recreation and disport, but being resolved, in the midst and heat of the battle, to live or die amongst you all, to lay down my life for my God and for my kingdom and for my people, my honour, and my blood, even in the dust. I know I have the body of a weak and feeble woman, but I have the heart and stomach of a king, and a king of England too, and think foul scorn that Parma or Spain, or any prince of Europe should dare to invade the borders of my realm; the which, rather than any dishonour shall grow by me, I myself will take up arms, I myself will be your general, judge, and rewarder of every one of your virtues in the field. I know, already for your forwardness, you have deserved rewards and crowns; and we do assure you, in the word of a prince, they shall be duly paid you. In the meantime my lieutenant-general shall be in my stead, than whom never prince commanded a more noble or worthy subject, not doubting but by your obedience to my general, by your concord in the camp, and your valour in the field, we shall shortly have a famous victory over those enemies of my God, of my kingdom, and of my people."

From a letter by Dr. Leonel Sharp to the Duke of Buckingham after 1623 (spelling & grammar somewhat updated)


Queen Elizabeth I - New Year's Gifts 1587-1588



1588 Queen Elizabeth I 1533-1603 by George Gower

An explanation of these lists appeared on the Museum of London blog.  Thought I would share it here to give a background on these amazing lists.

In Elizabethan London, New Year’s Day was the big time to give and receive gifts, particularly at court. The tradition appears to date back to at least the 13th century but under Queen Elizabeth I it reached new heights in terms of the extravagance and range of the gifts given.

Courtiers and members of the Queen’s household were expected to present her with gifts. As can be imagined competition to impress the Queen was fierce and there must have been immense pressure to come up with gifts that were valuable enough (many resorted to giving money, usually gold coins, in extravagant silk purses) or useful (she received many perfumed gloves and gold-trimmed hankies) or just intriguing.


In the latter category are many animal jewels, such as an emerald, diamond and ruby serpent with a pendant pearl, given in 1581 by the Countess of Oxford or a golden cat playing with mice and again decorated with diamonds and pearls given the same year by Lady Howard. One can imagine the emerald and diamond salamander or the pearl ship pin from the Cheapside Hoard being equally acceptable New Year’s gifts. The Queen loved puns and many of these jewels would have held hidden meanings and witty jokes for her amusement.


A number of rolls or lists detailing the gifts she received for New Year still survive and give a fascinating glimpse of life in the Elizabethan court. Many of the queen’s admirers liked to give her a gift which would remind her of themselves. Sir Christopher Hatton, whose portrait is on display in the Cheapside Hoard exhibition, on loan from the National Portrait Gallery, frequently used a knot motif and so in around 1585 he gave Elizabeth a headdress, decorated with expensive golden knots. In 1574 the fan that the Earl of Leicester gave her was decorated with bears, part of his device. Others gave gifts that they hoped would get them noticed and some of these were rather fabulous. For example, on New Year’s Day 1581 Sir Walter Raleigh presented Elizabeth with a crown set with Peruvian emeralds which he had captured in a raid on the Spanish fleet the previous year. However, the rolls show that she also received plainer gifts such as a quince pie from John Betts, who was a pastry servant, or a box of lute strings or eighteen larks in a cage.


In return the Queen would give gifts too, and whilst these were sometimes generous in the extreme, more often than not they were of a lower value than those she received. Often she would give an image of herself, such as the cameo portrait of the Queen which Hatton is shown holding in his portrait. A similar, though smaller cameo can be seen on display as part of the Cheapside Hoard. But if you wanted to impress the Queen it seems to have been much more a case of five gold rings rather than a partridge in a pear tree!


New Year's Gifts for Queen Elizabeth: 1587-1588

Anno 30° Reginæ Elizabethæ

New Year’s Gifts presented to the Queen in 1587-8.

Item, one cup with a cover of cristall, fashioned like a dragon, slytely garnished, with golde, and sett with several small rubyes. Geven by Sir Chrystopher Hatton, Lord Chancellor, 38 oz.—Item, one cup of assaye of silver guilt, made ovall fashione, with a handle garnished with peyses of golde, ine eache of them a sparck of a ruby. Geven by the said Lord Chanshelor, 9 oz. 3 qa.
Item, one cup of cristaull, fashyoned like a beast, slytely garnished with golde, with a cover of golde garnished with pesys, with sparks of rubyes on their topes. Earle of Sussex. In all, 20 oz. di.
Item, one cup of crystaull, made ovall p fashione, slytely garnished with golde, with a cover of golde garnished with froggs, waspes, and deyses; on the top of the cover a bunch of flowers, 13 oz qa.
Item, one lyttle coup of crystaull, slytely garnished with golde, with a braunche of deyses in the tope. Lord Lumney. In all, 15 oz. 3 qa.
Item, one lyttle cup of cristaull, graven, slytely garnished with golde, with a lyke braunch of dasyes in the tope, 9 oz. qa.
Item, one porrynger of white porselyn, garnished with golde, the cover of golde, with a lyon on the toppe therof; all geven by the Lord Threasorour, 38 oz.
Item, one plate of golde, graven on the one syde with astronomy, and on the other syde with a shippe called the Trymphe, with a case of murry vellat, embroudered on thone syde with a shippe, with a strynge and tassels of Venis golde, sylver, and silke. Geven by the said Lord Threasorour, 63 oz.
Item, one cup of grene pursselyne, the foote, shanke, and cover silver guilte, chased lyke droppes. Geven by Mr. Robert Cecill, 15 oz.
Item, one spone and a forke of ogolde, the handle of the spoune corral, garnished with one lyttle diamonde, and one lyttle ruby, the forke garnished with too lyttle rubyes, too lyttle perles pendant, and a lyttle coral. Geven by the Countees of Warwicke, 4 oz. dim qa.
Item, one cup of pursseline, thone syde paynted red, the foote and cover sylver guilt. Geven by Mr. Lychfelde, 14 oz. qa.
Recived by Mr. Thomas Knyvett.
Item, one cheine of golde, weing one hundredth threescore and one ounce, being of the goodnes of 21 karrets and three grayns, 181 oz.
Receved of Mr. Kyllygrewe.
Item, one chayne of gold, being of the goodnes of 21 karrets two graynes and a quarter, and weing one hundredth fyvetye-seven ounces three qa. 157 oz. 3a.
Received of Mr. Mychaell Stanhop.
Item, one coup fashyoned lyke a skallop, the foute, shanke, and bolle of aggath garnished with golde, enamyled, set with three perls and three table dyamonds; on the foute three lesser perles, and three lyttle dyamonds on the shanke; the cover of golde inamyoled, sett with three round agatts, foure perls, three table rubyes, one fayrer than the other, three starres of dyamonds of sundry coutts, with one ruby in the myddest of either; and sundry small dyamonds upon the cover, having in the top thereof two antique horses of agatt; and a rynge of golde garnished aboute with small rubyes and a table dyamonde withoute foylle, and an agath wihtout the cover; weing altogether twenty-one ounce and a half and quarter. Geven by Mr. Cavendyshe, 21 oz. dim qa.

Queen Elizabeth I - 1587 orders execution of Mary Queen of Scots - Eyewitness Account

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Mary Queen of Scots, Mary Stuart, Mary I of Scotland

Mary, Queen of Scots (1542–1587), also known as Mary Stuart or Mary I of Scotland, was queen regnant of Scotland from 1542-1567 and queen consort of France from 1559-1560.


François Clouet (French artist, 1510-1572) Mary Stuart Queen Mary of Scotland age 13

Mary was the only surviving legitimate child of King James V of Scots. She was 6 days old when her father died; and she was crowned 9 months later. In 1558, when she was 16, she married Francis, Dauphin of France. He ascended the French throne as King Francis II in 1559; and Mary became queen consort of France, until she was widowed in 1560 at the age of 18.


François Clouet (French artist, 1510-1572) Mary Queen of Scots Mourning

Mary then returned to Scotland, arriving in Leith in August 1561. Four years later, she married her first cousin, Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley. Their union was unhappy & in February 1567, there was a huge explosion at their house; where Darnley was found dead, apparently strangled, in the garden.


1558 attributed to François Clouet (French artist, 1510-1572) Mary Stuart

She soon married the 4th Earl of Bothwell, who was generally believed to be Darnley's murderer. Following an uprising against the couple, Queen Mary was imprisoned in Loch Leven Castle on 15 June 1567, & forced to abdicate in favour of her 1-year-old son, King James VI.

After an unsuccessful attempt to regain the throne, Mary fled to England seeking the protection of her cousin Queen Elizabeth I of England. This may have been an unwise choice, as Mary had previously claimed Elizabeth's throne as her own & was considered the legitimate sovereign of England by many English Catholics. Perceiving her as a threat, Queen Elizabeth had her arrested. After 18 years & 9 months in custody in a number of castles & manor houses in England, Mary finally was tried & executed for treason for her alleged involvement in 3 plots to assassinate Queen Elizabeth I.


1565 Mary Stuart

Although Elizabeth signed the warrant for Mary's execution, Elizabeth tore it up. Advisors challenged her decision & another copy was signed- by someone- & immediately the council sent if off. Elizabeth was torn between protecting her throne & taking the life of a fellow sovereign & relative, even one she did not respect or like.

Elizabeth I sent Mary, Queen of Scots a letter, written in French, at the opening of her trial at Fotheringhay on 12 October 1586.

"You have in various ways and manners attempted to take my life and to bring my kingdom to destruction by bloodshed. I have never proceeded so harshly against you, but have, on the contrary, protected and maintained you like myself. These treasons will be proved to you and all made manifest. Yet it is my will, that you answer the nobles and peers of the kingdom as if I were myself present. I therefore require, charge, and command that you make answer for I have been well informed of your arrogance. Act plainly without reserve, and you will sooner be able to obtain favour of me. Elizabeth"


François Clouet (French artist, 1510-1572) Mary Stuart

The second signed warrant was sent from London on 4th February, reaching Fotheringhay the following evening. On the 7th the Earls of Shrewsbury and Kent, who were in charge of the execution, warned Mary to prepare for death on the following day. On the 9th news of the execution reached London, and was received by the Queen with surprise and horror. She openly raged against her councilors. She sent her secretary Davison, who had given her the 2nd warrant, to the Tower.

Queen Elizabeth I orders execution of Mary Queen of Scots February 8, 1587

"Her prayers being ended, the executioners, kneeling, desired her Grace to forgive them her death: who answered, "I forgive you with all my heart, for now, I hope, you shall make an end of all my troubles.

"Then they, with her two women, helping her up, began to disrobe her of her apparel: then she, laying her crucifix upon the stool, one of the executioners took from her neck the Agnus Dei, which she, laying hands off it, gave to one of her women, and told the executioner, he should be answered money for it. Then she suffered them, with her two women, to disrobe her of her chain of pomander beads and all other apparel most willingly, and with joy rather than sorrow, helped to make unready herself, putting on a pair of sleeves with her own hands which they had pulled off, and that with some haste, as if she had longed to be gone.


1578 Mary Stuart after Nicholas Hilliard

"All this time they were pulling off her apparel, she never changed her countenance, but with smiling cheer she uttered these words, 'that she never had such grooms to make her unready, and that she never put off her clothes before such a company.

"Then she, being stripped of all her apparel saving her petticoat and kirtle, her two women beholding her made great lamentation, and crying and crossing themselves prayed in Latin. She, turning herself to them, embracing them, said these words in French, 'Ne crie vous, j'ay prome pour vous', and so crossing and kissing them, bad them pray for her and rejoice and not weep, for that now they should see an end of all their mistress's troubles.


1570s Mary Stuart

"Then she, with a smiling countenance, turning to her men servants, as Melvin and the rest, standing upon a bench nigh the scaffold, who sometime weeping, sometime crying out aloud, and continually crossing themselves, prayed in Latin, crossing them with her hand bade them farewell, and wishing them to pray for her even until the last hour.

"This done, one of the women have a Corpus Christi cloth lapped up three-corner-ways, kissing it, put it over the Queen of Scots' face, and pinned it fast to the caule of her head. Then the two women departed from her, and she kneeling down upon the cushion most resolutely, and without any token or fear of death, she spake aloud this Psalm in Latin, In Te Domine confido, non confundar in eternam, etc. Then, groping for the block, she laid down her head, putting her chin over the block with both her hands, which, holding there still, had been cut off had they not been espied. Then lying upon the block most quietly, and stretching out her arms cried, In manus tuas, Domine, etc., three or four times. Then she, lying very still upon the block, one of the executioners holding her slightly with one of his hands, she endured two strokes of the other executioner with an axe, she making very small noise or none at all, and not stirring any part of her from the place where she lay: and so the executioner cut off her head, saving one little gristle, which being cut asunder, he lift up her head to the view of all the assembly and bade God save the Queen. Then, her dress of lawn (her wig) from off her head, it appeared as grey as one of threescore and ten years old, polled very short, her face in a moment being so much altered from the form she had when she was alive, as few could remember her by her dead face. Her lips stirred up and a down a quarter of an hour after her head was cut off.


1565 Mary Stuart

"Then Mr. Dean [Dr. Fletcher, Dean of Peterborough] said with a loud voice, 'So perish all the Queen's enemies', and afterwards the Earl of Kent came to the dead body, and standing over it, with a loud voice said, 'Such end of all the Queen's and the Gospel's enemies.'

"Then one of the executioners, pulling off her garters, espied her little dog which was crept under her cloths, which could not be gotten forth by force, yet afterward would not depart from the dead corpse, but came and lay between her head and her shoulders, which being imbrued with her blood was carried away and washed, as all things else were that had any blood was either burned or washed clean, and the executioners sent away with money for their fees, not having any one thing that belonged unto her. And so, every man being commanded out of the hall, except the sheriff and his men, she was carried by them up into a great chamber lying ready for the surgeons to embalm her." Recorded by Robert Wynkfield (spelling & grammar updated)

Mary Stuart wrote this letter to her former brother-in-law, King Henry III of France just 6 hours before her execution at Fotheringhay Castle. Here Mary writes that she is dying as a martyr to her Catholic faith, & she expresses concern for the loyal servants who joined her English imprisonment.

"8 February 1587
"To the most Christian king, my brother and old ally,
"Royal brother, having by God's will, for my sins I think, thrown myself into the power of the Queen my cousin, at whose hands I have suffered much for almost twenty years, I have finally been condemned to death by her and her Estates. I have asked for my papers, which they have taken away, in order that I might make my will, but I have been unable to recover anything of use to me, or even get leave either to make my will freely or to have my body conveyed after my death, as I would wish, to your kingdom where I had the honor to be queen, your sister and old ally.

"Tonight, after dinner, I have been advised of my sentence: I am to be executed like a criminal at eight in the morning. I have not had time to give you a full account of everything that has happened, but if you will listen to my doctor and my other unfortunate servants, you will learn the truth, and how, thanks be to God, I scorn death and vow that I meet it innocent of any crime, even if I were their subject. The Catholic faith and the assertion of my God-given right to the English crown are the two issues on which I am condemned, and yet I am not allowed to say that it is for the Catholic religion that I die, but for fear of interference with theirs. The proof of this is that they have taken away my chaplain, and although he is in the building, I have not been able to get permission for him to come and hear my confession and give me the Last Sacrament, while they have been most insistent that I receive the consolation and instruction of their minister, brought here for that purpose. The bearer of this letter and his companions, most of them your subjects, will testify to my conduct at my last hour. It remains for me to beg Your Most Christian Majesty, my brother-in-law and old ally, who have always protested your love for me, to give proof now of your goodness on all these points: firstly by charity, in paying my unfortunate servants the wages due them - this is a burden on my conscience that only you can relieve: further, by having prayers offered to God for a queen who has borne the title Most Christian, and who dies a Catholic, stripped of all her possessions. As for my son, I commend him to you in so far as he deserves, for I cannot answer for him. I have taken the liberty of sending you two precious stones, talismans against illness, trusting that you will enjoy good health and a long and happy life. Accept them from your loving sister-in-law, who, as she dies, bears witness of her warm feeling for you. Again I commend my servants to you. Give instructions, if it please you, that for my soul's sake part of what you owe me should be paid, and that for the sake of Jesus Christ, to whom I shall pray for you tomorrow as I die, I be left enough to found a memorial mass and give the customary alms.Wednesday, at two in the morning, Your most loving and most true sister,  Mary R"

Queen Elizabeth I sent a letter, King James VI of Scotland just 4 days after the execution. In it, she asserts her innocence in his mother's death.

"My dear Brother, I would you knew (though not felt) the extreme dolor that overwhelms my mind, for that miserable accident which (far contrary to my meaning) hath befallen. I have now sent this kinsman of mine, whom ere now it hath pleased you to favour, to instruct you truly of that which is too irksome for my pen to tell you. I beseech you that as God and many more know, how innocent I am in this case : so you will believe me, that if I had bid aught I would have bid by it. I am not so base minded that fear of any living creature or Prince should make me so afraid to do that were just; or done, to deny the same. I am not of so base a lineage, nor carry so vile a mind. But, as not to disguise, fits not a King, so will I never dissemble my actions, but cause them show even as I meant them. Thus assuring yourself of me, that as I know this was deserved, yet if I had meant it I would never lay it on others' shoulders; no more will I not damnify myself that thought it not.

"The circumstance it may please you to have of this bearer. And for your part, think you have not in the world a more loving kinswoman, nor a more dear friend than myself; nor any that will watch more carefully to preserve you and your estate. And who shall otherwise persuade you, judge them more partial to others than you. And thus in haste I leave to trouble you: beseeching God to send you a long reign.  Your most assured loving sister and cousin,   Elizabeth R."


Queen Elizabeth I - New Year's Gifts 1581-1582



1580 Queen Elizabeth I 1533-1603 Unknown Artist after Zuccarro

An explanation of these lists appeared on the Museum of London blog.  Thought I would share it here to give a background on these amazing lists.

In Elizabethan London, New Year’s Day was the big time to give and receive gifts, particularly at court. The tradition appears to date back to at least the 13th century but under Queen Elizabeth I it reached new heights in terms of the extravagance and range of the gifts given.

Courtiers and members of the Queen’s household were expected to present her with gifts. As can be imagined competition to impress the Queen was fierce and there must have been immense pressure to come up with gifts that were valuable enough (many resorted to giving money, usually gold coins, in extravagant silk purses) or useful (she received many perfumed gloves and gold-trimmed hankies) or just intriguing.


In the latter category are many animal jewels, such as an emerald, diamond and ruby serpent with a pendant pearl, given in 1581 by the Countess of Oxford or a golden cat playing with mice and again decorated with diamonds and pearls given the same year by Lady Howard. One can imagine the emerald and diamond salamander or the pearl ship pin from the Cheapside Hoard being equally acceptable New Year’s gifts. The Queen loved puns and many of these jewels would have held hidden meanings and witty jokes for her amusement.


A number of rolls or lists detailing the gifts she received for New Year still survive and give a fascinating glimpse of life in the Elizabethan court. Many of the queen’s admirers liked to give her a gift which would remind her of themselves. Sir Christopher Hatton, whose portrait is on display in the Cheapside Hoard exhibition, on loan from the National Portrait Gallery, frequently used a knot motif and so in around 1585 he gave Elizabeth a headdress, decorated with expensive golden knots. In 1574 the fan that the Earl of Leicester gave her was decorated with bears, part of his device. Others gave gifts that they hoped would get them noticed and some of these were rather fabulous. For example, on New Year’s Day 1581 Sir Walter Raleigh presented Elizabeth with a crown set with Peruvian emeralds which he had captured in a raid on the Spanish fleet the previous year. However, the rolls show that she also received plainer gifts such as a quince pie from John Betts, who was a pastry servant, or a box of lute strings or eighteen larks in a cage.


In return the Queen would give gifts too, and whilst these were sometimes generous in the extreme, more often than not they were of a lower value than those she received. Often she would give an image of herself, such as the cameo portrait of the Queen which Hatton is shown holding in his portrait. A similar, though smaller cameo can be seen on display as part of the Cheapside Hoard. But if you wanted to impress the Queen it seems to have been much more a case of five gold rings rather than a partridge in a pear tree!


New Year's Gifts for Queen Elizabeth: 1581-1582

Anno 24° Reginæ Elizabethæ, 1581-2

Juells given to Her Majestie at Newyere’s-tyde.

First, a shackyll of golde with these words graven, serviet eternum dvlcis quem torqvet eliza. And a paddlock of golde hanging by a little cheyne of golde. Geven by Mounseur. 6 oz. dim. qa.
Item, more, one flower of golde, with a white rose and a butterflye, with other flowers garnished with little sparcks of dyamonds and rubyes, and a smale saphire. Geven also by Mounseur.
Item, more, a flower of golde, garnished with sparks of rubyes and diamonds, and a hynde sitting on it with two lytle perles pendante. Geven also by Mounseur.
Item, more, a juell being a shipp of golde garnished with six fayre dyamondes, and other smale dyamondes and rubyes, the sayles spredd abrode, with a word enamuled on them. Geven also by Mounseur.
Item, a litle boke of golde enamuled, garnished and furnished with smale diamondes and rubyes, both claspes, and all hanging at a chayne of golde, viz. six peces of golde enamuled, two of them garnisehd with raged staves of smale sparcks of diamondes, and four of them in eche, two smale diamonds and two smale sparcks of rubyes, 16 lesser peeces of golde, in every of them a smale diamonde, and also 24 peeces of golde, in every of them four perles iwth a ring of golde to hang it by. All geven by therle of Leycetor, Master of the Horse.
Item, a payre of braceletts of golde, containing eight peeces, in every of them an amatest, and eight other peeces, in every of them a perle. Geven by therle of Arondell.
Item, a bodkyn of golde, garnished at the ende with four smale diamondes and a smale rubye, with a crown of ophales, and very smale perle pendante peare fashione. Geven by therle of Hertforde.
Item, a juell of golde, being a serpent, having two emeraldes, and the rest garnished with sparcks of dyamonds and rubyes, and a smale perle pendant. Geven by the Countes of Oxforde.
Item, a knife, and a spone, and a forke of christall, garnished with golde sleightley, and sparkcs of garnetts. Geven by the Countes of Lyncolne.
Item, a chaine of golde, with pillors and pomaunders, garnished with smale perles, in 36 of them are 10 raged perles in a peece, and 12 pomaunders, garnished with seede perles, and 48 other peeces of golde betwixt them. Geven by the Lord Howarde; all together, 13 oz.
Item, a juell of golde, being the personage of a woman, having a rubye in her belly, and the rest garnished with smale rubyes and dyamondes, and a smale perle pendant. Gevne by L. Thomas Howarde.
Item, a payre of braceletts of golde, containing 22 peeces; in tenn of them are agath hedds, and 12 of them garnet, and two smale perles in a peece. Geven by the Lady Barones Burley.
Item, a juell of golde, being a catt, and myce playing with her, garnished with smale dyamondes and perle. Geven by the Lady Howarde.
Item, seven dosen buttons of golde, two lacking; in one of them a smale perle, and in other a smale emeralde. Geven by the Lady Barones Cheynye.
Item, a juell of golde, being an armlet, with a buckyll and pendant of golde, garnihed and furnished with dyamondes and rubyes, six peeces of golde enamuled, fully furnished with smale rubyes; betwixt every of the same peeces 80 meane perle hanging unto the smae peeces and perle, 13 pendants of golde garnished with smale rubyes and smale diamondes; thone pendant is a flower of very smale urbyes, and thother of very smale diamondes, one perle broken off. And more, 144 buttons of golde, pescodd fashion, halfe part enamuled greene. Geven by Sir Christofer Hatton, Vice-chamberlayne.
Item, a payre of braceletts of golde, contayning 16 peces enamuled; in eight of them are two smale sparcks of diamonds and smale rubyes, and in the other eight are four perles in a pece. Geven by Sir Francis Walsingham, Secretarye.
Item, a juell of golde, sett with a greate white stone in it, cut losenged, and bordered rownde with smale rubyes and diamonds, with a pendaunte cut lyke a marmyzat. Geven by Sir Thomas Henage, Treasuror of the Chamber.
Item, a juell of golde, being a pomaunder, garnished with sparcks of diamonds, rubyes, and perles. Geven by Sir William Druery.
Item, two serpents of gold knytt together, with three very smale perles hanging at it. Geven by Sir Henry Lee.
Item, a flower of golde, garnished with sparcks of diamonds, rubyes, and ophales, with an agathe of her Majesties phisnamy and a perle pendante, with devices painted in it. Geven by Eight Maskers in Christmas-weeke.
Item, more, an anker of golde, garnished with sparcks of dyamondes, and a woman lying on it. Geven by the said Maskers.
Item, a cage of golde, with a hope in it. Geven by Sir Henry Cobham.
Item, abooke of golde namuled, garnished with eight amatestes. Geven by Mr. Packington.
Item, a forcke of corrall, garnished slightly with golde. Geven by Mrs. Frances Drury.
Juells geven to her Majestie at other times than New-yere’s Gifts.
First, one greene frogg, the backe of emeraldes, smale and greate, and a pendaunte emeralde, with a smale cheyne of golde to hang by. Geven by the Counties of Huntington.
Item, one shilde of agathe, garnished with golde, with 13 smale sparcks of diamonds, and a pendaunte with four smale sparks of diamonds on the one side, and on the other side of the shilde seven smale white roses with sparcks of rubyes, on the pendaunte one smale sparke of rubye. Geven by therle of Hertforde.
Item, one gauntlet of golde, garnished with smale seede perles, and sparcks of dimounds, Geven by Sir Thomas Parrat. More, two bodkynnes and two eyes, garnished with smale sparks of rubyes and dimoundes, one broken. Geven by the said Sir Thomas Parrat.
Item, one bodkin of golde skutchion-wise, garnished with smale sparcks of rubyes and dimounds. Geven by Sir Thomas Knevet, of the Pryvie Chamber.
Item, a juell of golde, garnished with smale sparcks of dimonds and a litle paire of ballance in it being broken. No reporte made who gave the same.


Autumn fashion - A few glorious dresses


Henry Salem Hubbell (American artist, 1870–1949) By the Fireside


Walter Westley Russell (English artist, 1867-1949) Tying Her Shoe


Edmund Tarbell (American painter, 1862-1938) Portrait of Mrs Tarbell 1884



George Peter Alexander Healy (American artist, 1813–1894) Mrs Bryan Byrd


Walter Westley Russell (English artist, 1867-1949) The Blue Dress 1911


John Everett Millais (English painter, 1829-1896) Mrs Charles Freeman


Walter Westley Russell (English artist, 1867-1949) Camillia


Vasily Tropinin (Russian artist, 1776-1857) Portrait of Leviskaya Volkonskaya


George Washington Lambert (Russian-born Australian artist,  1873-1930) Miss Thea Proctor (George Washington Lambert's father 1833-1873 was from Baltimore, Maryland)


John Everett Millais (English painter, 1829-1896) Evelyn Tennant


Arthur Percy Dixon (British artist, 1884-1916)  The Miniature


John Prescott Knight (British artist, 1803–1881) Clare (Miss Clara) (1838–1895)


William Holman Hunt (English artist, 1827-1910) Fanny Holman Hunt 1866-68


Dante Gabriel Rossetti (1828-1882) Veronica Veronese 1872


Ethel Mars (American artist, 1876–1956) Woman with a Fan