Sunday, August 21, 2016
Parasols for Sun & Umbrellas for Rain - A brief history
Pierre Auguste Renoir (French artist, 1841-1919). Woman with a Parasol 1872
The term parasol usually you Refers to an item intended to protect people from the sun. Umbrella Refers to a device blackberries suited to protect them from rain.
Jacques-Joseph Tissot (French artist, 1836-1902) Summer
Usually the difference is the material; some parasols are not waterproof.
William McGregor Paxton (1869-1941) Child in Sunlight, The Chinese Parasol 1908
Some parasols & amp; umbrellas are meant to be fixed to one point, Often used with garden furniture or at the beach.
1886 Olga Boznańska (Polish Impressionist painter, 1865-1945) Portret młodej kobiety z Czerwona Parasolka
Both umbrellas & amp; Exclusively parasols can be hand-held, portable devices. Both can be Carried simply as fashion accessories & amp; not used for protection from sun or rain at all.
John Singer Sargent (American expatriate artist, 1856-1925) Eleanor Brooks
"Para" means stop or shield and "sol" means sun.
Emanuel Phillips Fox (1865 -1915) The Arbor
The word "umbrella" evolved from the Latin "umbel" (an "umbel" is a flat-topped rounded flower) or "umbra" meaning "shaded." In the early sculptures at Nineveh, an ancient city on the eastern bank of the Tigris in ancient Assyria, the parasol Appears frequently.
Pierre Auguste Renoir (French artist, 1841-1919). Young Woman with a Japanese Umbrella
In Persia, the parasol is Repeatedly found in the carved work of Persepolis, the ceremonial capital of the Achaemenid Empire (ca. 550-330 BCE).
Camille Pissarro (French artist, 1830-1903). Woman with a Parasol
In some sculptures in Persia, the figure of a king Appears attended by a servant, who carries an umbrella over His head. In other Persian sculptures on the rock at Takht-i-Bostan, supposed to be not less than 12 centuries old, to deer-hunt is Represented, alla quale a king looks on, seated on a horse with an umbrella held over His Head by an attendant.
Jacques-Joseph Tissot (French artist, 1836-1902) The Traveller
In ancient Egypt, the parasol is sometimes depicted as a flagellum, a fan of palm-leaves or colored feathers fixed on a long handle, resembling Those depicted in several Victorian paintings.
Claude Monet (French artist, 1840-1926). The Walk, Woman with a Parasol 1875
Another Egyptian engraving depicts an Ethiopian princess traveling through Upper Egypt in a chariot with a sort of umbrella fastened to a stout pole rising in the center.
Jacques-Joseph Tissot (French artist, 1836-1902) A Portrait (Miss Lloyd) 1876
The umbrella was used Generally Throughout Egypt, partly as a mark of distinction, but more for its useful rather than its ornamental qualities. In some paintings on an Egyptian temple wall, a parasol is held over the figure of a god any carried in procession.
In Greece, the parasol (skiadeion), was an indispensable adjunct to a lady of fashion in the late 5C BC.
Claude Monet (French artist, 1840-1926). Detail Camille Monet in the Garden 1871
Aristophanes (446-386BC), a much acclaimed comic playwright of ancient Athens, mentions it among the common articles of female use Which could apparently open and close. Geographer Pausanias (d. 470BC) Describes a tomb near Triteia in Achaia decorated with a painting ascribed to 4C BC Nikias, Plutarch's Slaves of Fear of 413BC, depicting a woman, " and by her stood a female slave, bearing a parasol . "
Pierre Auguste Renoir (French artist, 1841-1919). Woman with Parasol
Its use Seems To sono stati confined to women. For a man to carry one was Considered a mark of effeminacy. In Aristophanes' Birds , in 415BC Greek comedy, Prometheus uses one as a comical disguise.
Édouard Manet (French artist, 1832-1883) Woman with a Parasol in 1881.
It had anche its religious signification. In the Scirophoria, the feast of Athene Sciras, a white parasol was borne by the priestesses of the goddess from the Acropolis to the Phalerus.
Richard Edward ago Emil Miller (American artist, 1875-1943) The Pool 1910
In the feasts of Dionysos, the god of wine, the umbrella was used, and in an old bas-relief the same god is Represented as descending to inferos with a small umbrella in his hand. Dionysos inspired ritual madness, joyful worship, ecstasy, carnivals, celebration and was a major figure of Greek mythology.
Walt Kuhn. (American artist, 1877-1949) Under the Parasol
In the Panathenaea, the daughters of the Metics, or foreign residents, the carried parasols over the heads of Athenian women as a mark of inferiority. In Rome, the umbrella Seems To sono stati commonly used by women to Themselves shade from the heat by means of the Umbraculum, formed of skin or leather, and capable of being lowered at will. There are frequent references to the umbrella in the Roman classics, and it Appears That it was a post of honor among maid-servants to bear it over the heads of Their mistresses.
James Jacques Joseph Tissot (French artist, 1836-1902) A Widow 1868 (with Parasol)
Allusions to the parasol are reasonably frequent in the poets Ovid, Martial, & amp; Juvenal.
Claude Monet (French artist, 1840-1926). Detail Woman in a Garden
The Roman umbrella Does Not Appear to sono stati used as protection from rain. The umbrella Appears frequently on Etruscan pottery, as anche on later gems and rubies. One gem, figured by Pacudius, shows an umbrella with a bent handle, sloping backwards.
Claude Monet (French artist, 1840-1926). Woman with a Parasol 1886
From China's Terracotta Army, a carriage with an umbrella Securely fixed to the side Appears from Qin Shihuang's tomb, c. 210 ECB.
Edgar Degas (French artist, 1834-1917) Lady with a Parasol, 1870-72
In written records, the oldest Chinese reference to a collapsible umbrella dates to the year 21 AD, When Wang Mang (r. 9-23) had one designed for a ceremonial four-wheeled carriage. The Chinese character for umbrella is傘(sǎn) and is a pictograph resembling the modern umbrella in design .
Jacques-Joseph Tissot (French artist, 1836-1902) Detail In the Sunshine
The Chinese & amp; Japanese traditional parasol, Often seen today near temples, remains similar to the original ancient Chinese design. A late Song Dynasty Chinese divination book That was printed in about 1270 CE features a picture of a collapsible umbrella That is exactly like the modern umbrella of today's China .
John Singer Sargent (American expatriate artist, 1856-1925) Two Girls with Parasols at Fladbury
In India, the Sanskrit epic Mahabharata (about 4C) Relates the Following Legend: Jamadagni was a skilled bow shooter, and his devoted wife Renuka would always recover each of His arrows immediately. However one time, it took her a whole day to fetch the arrow, and she later blamed the heat of the sun for the delay. The angry Jamadagni shot an arrow at the sun. The sun begged for mercy and offered Renuka an umbrella.
Childe Hassam (1859-1935) A Rainy Day, New York
In 17C Ava in India, It seems to sono stati part of the king's title, That he was "King of the white elephant, and Lord of the twenty-four umbrellas."
Jacques-Joseph Tissot (French artist, 1836-1902) In an Inglese Garden
In 1855, the King of Burma was called "His great, glorious, and most excellent Majesty, who reigns over the kingdoms of Thunaparanta, Tampadipa, and all the great umbrella-wearing chiefs of the Eastern countries."
Martha Walter (American Impressionist, 1875-1976) Summer Sunshine
According to a 1687 account of Siam, the use of the umbrella was granted to only some of the subjects by the king. An umbrella with several circles, as if two or three umbrellas were fastened on the same stick, was for the king alone. The nobles Carried to single umbrella with painted cloths hanging from it.
Jacques-Joseph Tissot (French artist, 1836-1902) Detail Portsmouth Dockyard
The district of Tenochtitlan called Atzacoalco of the Aztec Empire was reported to have used an umbrella made from feathers & amp; gold as its Pantli or flag. It was the carried by the army general.
Scarce allusions to European umbrellas Throughout the Middle Ages probably Indicates That they were not in common use. Apparently Europeans depended on cloaks, not umbrellas, for protection against storms.
Winslow Homer (1836-1910) Young Woman 1880
The general use of the parasol in France & amp; England was ADOPTED, probably from China about the middle of the 17C, When depictions of umbrellas are frequently seen. John Evelyn, in his Diary for June 22, 1664, mentions a collection of rarities shown him by one Thompson, a Roman Catholic priest, sent by the Jesuits of Japan and China to France. Among the curiosities were "fans like Those our ladies use, but much larger, and with long handles, strangely carved and filled with Chinese characters," Which is evidently a description of the parasol.
Charles Courtney Curran (1861-1942).
In Randle Cotgrave's "Dictionary of the French and Inglese Tongues" (1614), the French Ombrelle is translated "An umbrello; in (fashion of) round and broad please make, wherewith the Indians (and from them our great ones) preserve Themselves from the heat of a scorching sunne; and hence any little shadow, and make, or thing, wherewith women hide Their faces fro the sunne. "
Kersey's Dictionary (1708) Describes an umbrella as a "screen commonly used by women to keep off rain."
Emanuel Phillips Fox (1865 -1915) The Green Parasol 1912
Daniel Defoe's (c 1661-1731) Robinson Crusoe constructs His own umbrella in imitation of the ones he had seen used in Brazil. "I covered it with skins," he says, "the hair outwards, So THAT it cast off the rain like a pent-house, and kept off the sun so effectually, That I could walk out in the hottest of the weather with greater advantage than I could before in the coolest. "
Edgar Degas (French artist, 1834-1917) At the Races
Explorer Captain James Cook (1728-1779) in one of His voyages, mentions some of the natives of the South Pacific Islands, with umbrellas made of palm leaves.
Albert Edelfelt (Finnish painter, 1854-1905) Woman and Parasol, 1886
In John Florio's "A World of Words" (1598), the Italian word Ombrella is translated "to the fans, to canopies. anche in testern or cloth of state for a prince. anche a kind of round fan or shadowing That they use to ride with in the summer in Italy, a little shade. "
The 17C is dawning as the parasol Becomes acceptable for all people, not just the royalty. At this point, the availability & amp; Both the use of the umbrella & amp; the parasol by all classes explodes.
Enoch Wood Perry (American painter, 1831-1913) Portrait of Prescott and Mary Scott 1881