Tuesday, November 26, 2013

Fashion! - Turquerie from 18C English artist George Knapton 1698-1778

George Knapton  (English artist, 1698-1778) Portrait of Lady Elizabeth Howard

George Knapton was born in London, the son of James Knapton, a Bookseller of Ludgate street. He was apprenticed for 7 years to Jonathan Richardson the Elder from 1715.  By 1720, he was also officially studying art at the St Martin’s Lane Academy, then run by Louis Chéron & John Vanderbank. He spent some years in Italy studying art & socializing with others on the Grand Tour, many of whom became his clients & friends upon their return to England.

George Knapton  (English artist, 1698-1778) Portrait of a Lady thought to be Lady Mary Wortley Montagu

George Knapton  (English artist, 1698-1778) Catherine Collingwood, Lady Throckmorton

Monday, November 25, 2013

Fashion! - The Turquerie turbans of First Lady Dolley Madison 1768-1849

Bass Otis (American artist, 1784-1861)  Dolley Madsion 1768-1849

Dolley Madison always called herself Dolley, & by that name her birth was recorded on May 20, 1768 by the Society of Friends, in Guilford County, North Carolina. In 1783 her father took the family to Philadelphia, city of the Quakers. She married John Todd, Jr., a lawyer, in 1790. Three years later he died in a yellow-fever epidemic, leaving her with a small son. By this time Philadelphia had become the capital city. The young widow attracted distinguished attention. Dolley reported to her best friend that "the great little Madison has asked.... to see me this evening."

1817 Dolley Madsion 1768-1849 at the end of her tenure as First Lady in 1817

Although James Madison was 17 years her senior, & Episcopalian, they were married in September 1794. The marriage, though childless, was notably happy. Madison was even patient with Dolley's son, Payne, who mishandled his own affairs - &, eventually, mismanaged their estate. Discarding the somber Quaker dress after her second marriage, Dolley chose the finest of fashions. A chronicler wrote: "She looked a Queen.... It would be absolutely impossible for any one to behave with more perfect propriety than she did."

1829-30 George Catlin George Catlin (American artist, 1796-1872)  Dolley Madsion 1768-1849

Dolley made her home the center of society. She assisted at the White House, when the President Jefferson asked her help in receiving ladies, & presided at the first inaugural ball in Washington, when James Madison became chief executive in 1809.  Clad in brightly colored gowns & exotic turbans, Dolley Madison helped establish an etiquette of equality in the growing capital.  Although Dolley's social graces made her famous, her husband prized her political acumen. Her gracious tact smoothed many a quarrel.

1846 Eastman Johnson (American artist, 1824-1906) Dolley Madsion 1768-1849

During the War of 1812, Dolley was forced to flee from the White House by the British army. It has been reported that her quick thinking saved a portrait of George Washington from being destroyed by fire. Upon returning to the capital, she found the Executive Mansion in ruins. Undaunted by temporary quarters, she entertained as skillfully as ever.

 Dolley Madsion 1768-1849 engraved by John Francis Eugene Prud'Homme (1800-92) after a drawing of the original by James Herring (1794-1867) (engraving)

The Madisons retired to their plantation Montpelier in Virginia until he died in 1836. She returned to the capital in the autumn of 1837, & friends found tactful ways to supplement her diminished income. She remained in Washington until her death in 1849.

1840s Daguerreotype of Dolley Madison

1848 photograph of Dolley Madison and her niece Anna Payne

1848 William S Elwell (1810-1881) Dolley Madsion 1768-1849

See The White House Historical Society

Saturday, November 23, 2013

Fashion! - European 18C Turquerie wraps with a variety of fur trims & attitudes!

1720 Nicolas de Largillière (French artist, 1656-1746) Lady as a sultana

 1727 Andreas Moeller (1684-1762) Young Maria Theresia

 1742 Portrait of Theodore Elizabeth Catherine, Baroness de Besenval, married, in 1733, to Charles Louis Guillaume, Marquis de Broglie

 1743 Jacques-André-Joseph Aved (1702-1766) Portrait of a lady in Turkish dress

1750 Jean-Baptiste Greuze (French artist, 1725-1805) Marquise de Chauvelin

1754 Martin van Meytens (Swedish artist, 1695-1770) Maria Thersia

1755 Francis Cotes (English Painter, 1726-1770) Mary Radclyffe

 1756 Francis Cotes (English Painter, 1726-1770) Rhoda Delaval (1725–1757), Lady Astley

1759 Martin van Meytens (Swedish artist, 1695-1770) Maria Theresa of Austria

 1760 Heinrich Carl Brandt (Austiran artist, )Elizabeth Augusta von der Pfaltz

 1762 François-Hubert Drouais (French artist, 1727-1775)  Mlle de Romans en turque

 1770 Joshua Reynolds (English artist, 1723–1792) Emily, Duchess of Leinster

 1770-1 Joshua Reynolds (English artist, 1723–1792) Mrs Trecothick in Turkish Dress

1770s Countess Palatine Elisabeth Auguste of Sulzbach (1721-1794)

 1772 Francis Cotes (English Painter, 1726-1770) Elizabeth Myddleton

1772 Princess Louise of Denmark dressed for a Masquerade in Turkish dress

 1774-6 Joshua Reynolds (English artist, 1723–1792) Mrs Richard Paul Jodrell

1780 Maria Anna Angelica Katharina Kauffman (Swiss-Austrian artist, 1741-1807) Portrait of Mary Walsh Mrs Clavering

1790 Jean-Baptiste Greuze (French artist, 1725-1805)  Portrait of Mademoiselle Guimard

 Carle Charles-André van Loo  (French Painter, 1705-1765) Portrait of a lady

Francis Cotes (English Painter, 1726-1770) Catherine Fleming (d.1786), Lady Leicester

George Knapton (English artist, 1698–1778) Lady Mary Montagu

 Jean-Baptiste Le Prince (French Painter, 1734-1781) Lady in Turkish Dress

 Jean-Baptiste Le Prince (French Painter, 1734-1781) Young woman in Turkish costume

 Lady Mary Wortley Montagu

Workshop of Martin van Meytens (Swedish artist, 1695-1770) Maria Theresia

Friday, November 22, 2013

Fashion & St Louis! Where did a lady buy material for a turban in 1818 St Louis?

Anna Maria Von Phul (American artist, 1786-1823) Creole Woman wearing a turban or tignon

The St. Louis area was settled by Native American mound builders of the Mississippian culture from the 800s to the 1400s, followed by other migrating tribal native groups. In the late 1600s, French explorers arrived, & after the French & Indian War, a French fur trading company was established in 1764, which depended on trading posts near Indian villages, where Indians & white trappers exchanged furs for goods.  The fur trade remained the basis of the wealth of elite St. Louis Creole families well into the early 1820s.

Anna Maria Von Phul (American artist, 1786-1823) St Louis area Big Mound in 1818.

The French settlers brought both black & Indian slaves to St. Louis, as both domestic servants & agricultural laborers. In 1769, the Spanish prohibited Indian slavery in Louisiana, but the practice was entrenched among the French Creoles in St. Louis. As a compromise, Spanish governors ended the Indian slave trade but allowed the retention of current slaves & any children born to them.

Anna Maria Von Phul (American artist, 1786-1823) Creole Cart and Driver

The Spanish government secretly returned the unprofitable Louisiana territory to France in October 1800.  In 1803, the city & the region were sold to the United States as part of the Louisiana Purchase.  Early in 1804, the French flag was replaced by that of the United States. The population of the city expanded slowly after the Louisiana Purchase. 

A watercolor depicting the settlement of St. Louis in 1804

After the transfer of Louisiana to the United States, the Spanish had ended subsidies to the Catholic Church in St. Louis.  Thus the resident priest of St. Louis left in 1804, & local Catholics were given periodic services by a traveling priest from Ste. Genevieve roughly six times a year until 1818. In spite of these problems, baptisms continued at the church in St. Louis, with roughly 400 whites & 100 blacks baptized between 1804 & 1816.  St Louis had no resident priest until the arrival of Louis William Valentine Dubourg in early January 1818.  Upon his arrival, he replaced the original log chapel with a brick church, recruited priests, & established a seminary. 

Catholic church of St. Louis, 1818.  The building next to the church was St. Louis College, later St. Louis University.

Protestants relied on services from itinerant ministers from in the late 1790s.  In 1818, was a Protestant church built within St. Louis, organized by Baptist missionary John Mason Peck with 11 members claiming membership in the First Baptist Church.

Anna Maria Von Phul (American artist, 1786-1823) Creole St. Louis Street Scene.

Starting in the early 1810s with the growth of American families moving to St. Louis, brick buildings began to be built in the town.  Architecture reflected the American style as well, with more frame houses & log buildings than the Creole style of the original village.  American business practices also took hold, with signage & advertising of services on buildings present by about 1810, as families began opening new businesses.

Anna Maria Von Phul (American artist, 1786-1823) 1818

Among the early settlers in St. Louis was Irish immigrant Joseph Charless, who published the 1st newspaper west of the Mississippi, the Missouri Gazette, in St. Louis on July 12, 1808.  On the 23d of July, 1808, the following announcement of household items appeared in the Missouri Gazette: "spices, salt, knives, hatchets, guns, kitchen-ware, hunting-shirts, & every variety of coarse dry-goods." 

Anna Maria Von Phul (American artist, 1786-1823) Boy in Beaver Hat, St. Louis. 1818

One 19C historian, Richard Edwards wrote, "Articles now regarded as indispensable to human existence, & occupying a low position in the scale of human comfort, were then esteemed the greatest luxuries, & so expensive as to be enjoyed only on state occasions, & then with parsimony."

Anna Maria Von Phul (American artist, 1786-1823) Creole Woman and Boy St Louis 1818

By August of 1808, a Gazette ad announced, "I will sell to the highest bidder for cash...at the bouse of Mrs. Labadie, in the town of St. Louis...Best Cognoo brandy, that has been more than 3 years in cedar at this town; dry-goods, consisting of oloths, strouds, chintzes, calicoes, muslins, Irish linen; saddlery, chewing tobaooo, etc., & a large quantity of well-assorted castings & hardware."

Anna Maria Von Phul (American artist, 1786-1823) Portrait of a Man 1818

On September 14th, 1808, the Gazette announced: " Hunt & Hankinson have received...Tin & hardware, medicines, stationery, saddlery of all kinds, wrought nails, cut do. of all sizes, men's hats, women's do., wool do., boots & shoes, ladies sprig'd kid & morocco shoes, plain do., Jefferson do., children's do., Lisbon wine, claret do., Cognac brandy, Imperial tea, Young Hyson do., Hyson skin do., loaf sugar, lump do., Muscovado do., coffee, chocolate, mustard, box raisins, best Spanish cigars, dry-goods."

Anna Maria Von Phul (American artist, 1786-1823) Portrait of a Young Lady

Jacob Philipson announced in the Gazette of Nov. 9, 1808, that he was "opening at his new store, opposite post-office, a seasonable supply of dry-goods & a general assortment of groceries, among which are blankets, shoes, madder, & turkey red, linseedoil, tanners' do., fresh teas, coffee, chocolate, & sugar, shad, mackerel, a few German & English Bibles, Testaments, hymn-books, etc., all of which he intends selling for cash at reasonable prices."

Anna Maria Von Phul (American artist, 1786-1823) Portrait of a Young Man

Late in 1808, "Z. Mussina, just arrived from Philadelphia via Pittsburgh, with a large assortment of dry-goods, groceries, queensware, ironmongery, tinware, paints...for sale at the old stand of Madame Labadie (lately occupied by A. C. Dunn) & opposite to Mr. Jacob Philipson."  

Anna Maria Von Phul (American artist, 1786-1823) St Louis Belle 1818

About this time also H. Austin & Co., of Ste. Genevieve offered to sell "brown, drab, & mixed broadcloths at from 82 to $6 per yard; 1000 yards of calicoes from 50 to 75 cents per yard; cotton laces from $1.25 to $2.50; best green coffee at 62} cents per pound; loaf & lump sugar at 50 cents per pound. Goods purchased in New York for cash, & will be sold as low as any in the Territory for cash, or lead at $6 per 100 pounds, delivered at Ste. Genevieve or Herculaneum."

Anna Maria Von Phul (American artist, 1786-1823) Portrait of a Boy Reading

In 1809, the 1st Board of Trustees, composed primarily of members of the Creole elite & newly arrived Americans, primarily concerned itself with slave control, except for one ordinance banning horse racing on city streets. Other ordinances created volunteer fire department companies, required the removal of dead animals from the town, & created a streets overseer who was able to order males to work on streets adjacent to their property. The town also enacted a small property tax & obtained some revenue from issuing business licenses.  By this time, merchants were bringing goods from Baltimore, Philadelphia, & Kentucky into St Louis.

Anna Maria Von Phul (American artist, 1786-1823) Portrait of Young Lady

On May 24, 1809, the Gazette noted: "For sale, 300 yards fine country linen, 1400 yards tow linen, 1500 pounds nails, 2000 gallons old whiskey, also a quantity of white rope. The above-mentioned articles will be sold by the quantity for oash, as low as first cost & carriage from Lexington, Ky., to this place."  July 26, 1809  "The subscriber has opened in the store...an assortment of drygoods, groceries, & hardware, which he is determined to sell at reasonable terms. Matthew Kerr."

Anna Maria Von Phul (American artist, 1786-1823) Study of Boy and Woman

September 13, 1809 "Merchant tailor. Bernard Lalende, lately arrived from Bordeaux, takes the liberty to inform the publio that he intends to follow the tailoring business in all its branches... he will sell at his shop cloth & other stuff, handkerchiefs, thread, wine, coffee, & Imperial tea, also an assortment of the best fiddle-strings."  September 13, 1809 "P. Berthold & Paul, lately arrived from Baltimore & Philadelphia, offer for sale a very elegant assortment of dry-goods & groceries at very moderate prices for cash. They keep their store at Mr. Valois', Main Street."

Anna Maria Von Phul (American artist, 1786-1823) Two Young Ladies

In 1810 the Gazette contained the following announcements: January llth: "Just received an assortment of dry-goods & groceries, for sale at reasonable terms, also a keel-boat seventy feet in length. Samdel Perry."

Anna Maria Von Phul (American artist, 1786-1823) Study of a Boy

February 20th.—" F. Menard has the honor of informing the public that he is now opening, at the house of Mr. Pierre Chouteau, the following articles, which he will sell at wholesale or retail on very low terms: Sugar per one hundred pounds, $20; coffee per one hundred pounds, $40; Marseilles soap, dry-goods, Russia sheeting, brown linen, blankets, Frenoh brandy, rum, claret, etc."  April 26th.—" Thomas Hickey, tailor & ladies' habit maker, has commenced business on the Public Square."

Anna Maria Von Phul (American artist, 1786-1823) Study of a Young Man 1818

April 26th.—"H. M. Shreve A Co. have brought from Philadelphia...a complete & general assortment of dry-goods, groceries, hardware, china, & queens'ware, iron, steel, castings, & stationery, at the most reduced prices."  April 26th.—"Wood A Dunn have just arrived from Philadelphia, & have opened in St. Louis a general assortment of dry-goods suitable to the season, also groceries, queens & hardware, etc. They have also opened in Ste. Genevieve an assortment of dry-goods, groceries, hardware, etc."

Anna Maria Von Phul (American artist, 1786-1823) Study of Boy and Baby

About this time the terms of sale were barter & exchange rather than cash. When "a heap of whiskey & peach brandy" were offered by Frederick Yeiger (1811) for "beef hides," with the remark, "no credit, as he can't write."  It is not surprising that "Joseph Bouju, clock- & watch-maker, silversmith & jeweler," should offer for sale "cherry bounce, ratifia de Grenoble, whiskey, a gig & harness, with his keelboat & apparatus."  Christian Wilt, from Philadelphia, advertised his goods July 25th, in Mussina's stand, & Depestre, De Mun A Co. announced September 9th, that they were just from Philadelphia & Baltimore with an assortment of new goods.

Anna Maria Von Phul (American artist, 1786-1823) Study of Two Young Men

After the end of the War of 1812, the population of St. Louis & the Missouri Territory began expanding quickly. Between 1804 & 1810, the town increased from 1,200 to 1,400, while from 1810 to 1820, the town population more than tripled from 1,400 to 4,600.  In 1812, the Louisiana Territory was renamed the Missouri Territory, & from 1812 to 1821, St. Louis remained the capital of the territory.

Anna Maria Von Phul (American artist, 1786-1823) Portrait of Seated Young Lady
During 1813, the following Gazette advertisements appeared: January 9th.—" To the Ladies. Shawls, fine muslins, bonnets, laces, etc., for sale at a moderate price. M. Tesson."  June 19th.-- "Berthold A Chouteau have on sale a general assortment of dry-goods, groceries, hardware & crockery, etc."

Anna Maria Von Phul (American artist, 1786-1823) Mother and Child

Around 1816, there was an influx of men of business & capital to St. Louis. The end of the War of 1812 saw a great impetus to settlement in Illinois & Missouri, all these new settlements, as well as the old ones, began to look more & more to St. Louis as their place of obtaining supplies.  A flurry of merchants had arrived in town to do business by 1818.  About 1819, business began to be classified, & there were separate dealers in groceries, in dry-goods, in hardware, although many houses still continued to deal in mixed merchandise.

Anna Maria Von Phul (American artist, 1786-1823) Landscape near St Louis 1818

The earliest informal sketches from daily life in St. Louis were done by Anna Maria von Phul 1786-1823.  She came from a religious Moravian family which had moved to Philadelphia just 2 years before she was born.  In 1764, her father Johann Wilhelm von Phul emigrated from Westhofen, Central Pfalz, to Lancaster, Pennsylvania.  He became a successful businessman & married Catharine Graff in 1775.  Both were members of the Moravian Brethren church.

Anna Maria Von Phul (American artist, 1786-1823) Creole Lady 1818

Anna Maria was born in Philadelphia, where her parents had 8 children.  After William von Phul's death in 1792, Catherine Graff von Phul moved part of her family, including her daughter Anna Maria to Lexington, Kentucky, where Anna Maria studied with the artists George & Mary Beck & was encouraged by her friend & neighbor, artist Matthew Harrist Jouett (1788-1827).   Jouette was a well-known Kentucky portraitist who had studied with Gilbert Stuart.  As a 14-year-old, she had attended Mrs Beck's young ladies' academy in Lexington.  George & Mary Beck owned a collection of European prints with which they shared with their aspiring young artists. When Anna Maria's mother died in 1808, George & Mary Beck are reported to have cared for her & her siblings, taking them on visits to Chaumiere des Prairie, Colonel David Meade, III's estate. While living with the Becks,  Anna Maria painted & wrote poetry, dispatching some of the latter to her childhood friend Ann Elizabeth Gist. 

Anna Maria Von Phul (American artist, 1786-1823) Portrait of a Boy

Anna Maria came to St. Louis from Kentucky in 1818, to visit Henry von Phul 1784-1874, her brother's family.  One of her brothers, who had moved to Baltimore, sent Anna Maria art supplies, which would have been in short supply in early Kentucky & St Louis.  Anna Maria brought paper & watercolors with her & filled several sketchbooks with sketches & watercolors of early St. Louis.  Anna Maria had been close to her brother Henry, especially after the death of her mother in 1810.  In a letter to her brother dated May 18th, 1812, Anna Maria chided Henry for not writing "Tis a long time since we have heard from you. Which I hope does not proceed from indisposition or any other cause than indolence." She had apparently made him a gift, for she continues "Since I wrote I have been anxiously waiting to know how you like your little book I sent by Peter."

Anna Maria Von Phul (American artist, 1786-1823) A Lady Wearing a Shawl.

In the same letter, Anna Maria wrote of the effects of the War of 1812 on Lexington, Kentucky.  "You know I suppose L. is the head quarters, that our town is filled with military officers etc. etc. Nat Hart has raised a most respectable corps of Volunteers to go to Vincennes."  Later, Anna Maria describes the financial difficulty experienced by the merchants which proceeded from the war "...from what you say the times are not much better at St. Louis than with us and  that I assure you is bad enough and had New Orleans surrendered it would probably complete the ruin of Lexington even as it is suspicion is abroad, and every one seems afraid of his neighbor.  Many people, and some among our best informed confidently expect a peace....there would be a better opening for business in L. than there has been for years, as all our darling people are either broke, or so embarrass'd that their movements are, and must be circumscribed for some time, at least."

Anna Maria Von Phul (American artist, 1786-1823) Study of Boy with Baby

Her brother Henry had been among the crowd which witnessed the arrival of the 1st steamboat in St. Louis, the General Zebulon Pike in 1817.  When his sister arrived in St Louis, Henry was busy with his associates buying a number of steamboats & forming a company to be the 1st to run boats from St. Louis to New Orleans.  In 1816, her brother had married Rosalie Genevieive Saugrain 1797-1887, who came from a well-known Creole family; and so Anna Maria had access to most of the societies & cultures in St Louis.  She recorded Native American mounds, street scenes, & people from a variety of cultures, all assembled in St. Louis by 1818.

Anna Maria Von Phul (American artist, 1786-1823)  Study of a Man and a Boy

Von Phul aspired to be a professional artist, but died at the home of her sister in Edwardsville, Illinois, in 1823.  Her obituary in the Edwardsville Spectator noted "the pleasure of her conversation" and "the virtues of her heart."  It also remembered "her lively imagination" but did not mention her artwork.  However, family members commented on her art frequently in their letters.   The family saved Anna Maria's artwork & gave it to the Missouri Historical Society in 1953.

The Smithsonian Instution reports that artist Matthew Harrist Jouett (1788-1827) painted a portrait of Anna Maria Von Phul in 1819.  See: Floyd, William Barrow, "Jouett-Bush-Frazer: Early Kentucky Artists," Lexington, KY, 1968.  In 1816, Jouett went to Philadelphia, and then on to Boston, where he studied with Gilbert Stuart for 4 months. Stuart considered Jouett, whom he called "Kentucky," his favorite student.

For watercolors see: Missouri Historical Society. 

Edwards, Richard, and M. Hopewell. Edward's Great West and Her Commercial Metropolis... St Louis: Edward's Monthly, 1860

Scharf, J. Thomas. History of Saint Louis City and County: From the Earliest Periods to the Present Day. Volume 2 St Louis: L. H. Everts, 1883

Van Ravenswaay, "Anna Maria von Phul" Missouri Historical Society Bulletin 10 (April 1954): 367-84.

Von Phul Family Papers, Missouri Historical Society, St Louis