Saturday, September 26, 2015

1720s-30s English houses & landscapes by Peter Tillemans (1684–1734)

Peter Tillemans (Flemish artist, 1684–1734) A View of the Garden and Main Parterre of Winchendon House, Buckinghamshire, from the East, with Figures in the Foreground

Peter Tillemans (c. 1684-1734) was a Flemish painter, best known for his works on sporting & topographical subjects. Tillemans was born in Antwerp, the son of a diamond-cutter, & studied painting there.  He was brother-in-law to fellow artist Peter Casteels (1684-1749); & in 1708 the two young men were brought over to England by a dealer named Turner to copy Old Master paintings.  By 1711, he had joined Godfrey Kneller's (1646-1723) new Great Queen Street Academy of painting as a founding member, where Tillemans declared his speciality as 'landskip'.  He later joined the Society of St Luke (and was its Steward, 1725). Tillemans lived chiefly in Westminster, but traveled to execute commissions.  
Peter Tillemans (Flemish artist, 1684-1734) Newstead Abbey, Nottinghamshire, West Aspect 1730

By 1715, he had acquired his most faithful patron, Dr Cox Macro of Suffolk. In his country landscapes with gardens paintings, the houses often stand in a countryside brought to life by animals & hunting scenes.  He was employed with Joseph Goupy to paint a series of scenes for the opera-house in the Haymarket. In 1719, he was commissioned by John Bridges (1666-1724) to make about 500 drawings for the History of Northamptonshire.   These drawings were all executed in Indian ink, for which Bridges gave him a guinea a day & the run of his house.  Tillemans resided for some years at Richmond in Surrey, where is brother-in-law lived.  He also stayed at the home of his patron Dr. Cox Macro of Norton Haugh in Suffolk, where he died on 5 Dec. 1734.
Peter Tillemans (Flemish artist, 1684–1734) London from Greenwich Park


Peter Tillemans (Flemish artist, 1684–1734) Panoramic view of Chatsworth House and Park


Peter Tillemans (Flemish artist, 1684–1734) Prospect Of Ashburnham Place Sussex


Peter Tillemans (Flemish artist, 1684–1734) The View from One-Tree Hill in Greenwich Park


Peter Tillemans (Flemish artist, 1684–1734) View of Chatsworth House and Park


Peter Tillemans (Flemish artist, 1684-1734) Idealized View of Chirk Castle


  Peter Tillemans (Flemish artist, 1684–1734) A View of Uppark


Peter Tillemans (Flemish artist, 1684–1734) East View of Newsterad Abbey, Nottinghamshire


Peter Tillemans (Flemish artist, 1684–1734) A View of the Downs near Uppark including a view of the riding hill summerhouse


Peter Tillemans (Flemish artist, 1684–1734) Little Haugh Hall, Suffolk


  Peter Tillemans (Flemish artist, 1684–1734) River Thames


Peter Tillemans (Flemish artist, 1684–1734) View of Knowsley Park from the Riding Hill Summer House, looking towards Prescot Detail

Thursday, September 24, 2015

1738 Unusual Gardens flanking the courtyard of this hunting-lodge castle


Charles Leopold van Grevenbroeck (c 1731-1799)  Arrival of King Louis XV (1723–1774) at La Muette Castle in 1738. Detai

The castle was built by Charles IX (1550-1574), who was obsessed with hounds & hunting & wrote a book on the sport called La Chasse Royal, which was published in 1625, long after his death. Charles IX would reside at the castle for the full hunting season. 

Charles IX around 1572, painted by François Clouet.


Tuesday, September 22, 2015

Families In Gardens & Parks by Thomas Gainsborough (1727-1788)



 Thomas Gainsborough (1727-1788) Mr and Mrs Carter, c.1747–8



Thomas Gainsborough (1727-1788) Conversation in a Park - Self Portrait with his wife Margaret 1746



 Thomas Gainsborough (1727-1788)  Mr. and Mrs. Andrews 1749



Thomas Gainsborough (1727-1788) Lady Lloyd & her son Richard 1746



Thomas Gainsborough (1727-1788) Sarah Kirby and John Joshua Kirby c1751-1752



 Thomas Gainsborough (1727-1788) Unknown Couple



Thomas Gainsborough (1727-1788) The John Gravenor Family 1754



Thomas Gainsborough (1727-1788)  Self-portrait with his wife and daughter, 1748



Thomas Gainsborough (1727-1788) Heneage Lloyd & his sister Lucy


Friday, September 18, 2015

A few depictions of Northern European gardens & agriculture by Pieter van der Borcht (Flemish-born Dutch artist, 1540-1608)


Susanna in bad, Pieter van der Borcht (Flemish artist, 1540-1608) 

A few of Pieter van der Borcht's images include formal gardens & agricultural countryside fields.  Probably these are composites of gardens he had seen in his birthplace of Mechelen & Antwerp, where his family fled from the Spanish troops. He never left Antwerp creating works featuring traditional genre, history, & Biblical subjects.










Wednesday, September 16, 2015

1500s The Ladies get equal time with The Nine Male Worthies


The Nine Worthies are 9 historical, scriptural, & legendary males who personify the ideals of chivalry as were established in the Middle Ages. They usually included 3 good pagans: Hector, Alexander the Great and Julius Caesar; 3 good Jews: Joshua, David and Judas Maccabeus; and 3 good Christians: King Arthur, Charlemagne and Godfrey of Bouillon.  They were 1st described in the early 14C, by Jacques de Longuyon in his Voeux du Paon (1312).  Here George Glover seems to concoct his own version of Lady Worthies.  By the late 14C, Lady Worthies began to accompany the Nine Worthies, although their identities often changed.


 George Glover c 1630 The Nine Woeman Worthys  Margaret wife to Henry the sixt



 George Glover c 1630 The Nine Woeman Worthys Artimetia



 George Glover c 1630 The Nine Woeman Worthys Bonditia



 George Glover c 1630 The Nine Woeman Worthys Debora



 George Glover c 1630 The Nine Woeman Worthys Hester



 George Glover c 1630 The Nine Woeman Worthys Judeth



 George Glover c 1630 The Nine Woeman Worthys Penthisilaea



 George Glover c 1630 The Nine Woeman Worthys Queen Elizabeth



George Glover c 1630 The Nine Woeman Worthys Zenobia


Monday, September 14, 2015

17C Woman - The Good Works of a Wealthy Widow


We have few depictions of women in the 17C British American colonies, but contemporary European prints allow us to see the hairstyles & fashions being worn on the other side of the Atlantic during the early years of the English colonization of America. 

Lady Lettice, Viscountess Falkland, née Moryson (1610-46) Engraving, frontispiece to John Duncon, The Returnes of Spiritual Comfort and Grief (London, 1648)  This is a shrouded, posthumous portrait of Lady Lettice, who was wife of Lucius Cary, 2nd Viscount Falkland (c.1610-43). Cary was famous as an author & cultivator of the arts; he drew a circle of writers around him at Great Tew, including Ben Jonson & Abraham Cowley. He died for the royalist cause at the First Battle of Newbury during the English Civil War.

This excellent lady was daughter of Sir Richard Morison, of Tooley Park, in Leicestershire, knt. & relict of the celebrated Lucius Cary, viscount Falkland, who was killed in the first battle of Newbury. When that great & amiable man was no more, she fixed her eyes on heaven; & though sunk in the deepest affliction, she soon found that relief from acts of piety & devotion, which nothing else could have administered. After the tumults of her grief had subsided, & her mind was restored to its former tranquillity, she began to experience that happiness which all are strangers to but the truly religious. She was constant in the public & private exercises of devotion, spent much of her time in family prayer, in singing psalms, & catechising her children & domestics. She frequently visited her poor neighbours, especially in their sickness, & would sometimes condescend to read religious books to them, while they were employed in spinning. She distributed a great number of pious tracts. Lord Falkland left her all that he was possessed of by will, & committed his 3 sons, the only children he had, to her care. Ob. Feb. 1646, 2Et. circ. 35.
James Granger. A Biographical History of England: From Egbert the Great to the Revolution. 1769


Saturday, September 12, 2015

17C Woman + 1675 Advice on the potential dangers of a Gentlewoman's "wanton" eye


We have few depictions of women in the 17C British American colonies, but contemporary European prints allow us to see the hairstyles & fashions being worn on the other side of the Atlantic during the early years of the English colonization of America. 

Jean Leblond 1605-1666 Marotte; François Ragot (Print made by);Young woman, half-length, turned to left; lace headdress with hairpin, large ruff, and striped dress



Hannah Woolley. The Gentlewoman's Companion: or, A Guide to the Female Sex. London, A Maxwell for Edward Thomas, Bookseller. 1675.

Of the Government of the Eye.


As prudence is the eye of the Soul, so Discretion is the apple of that Eye but as for the natural Eyes, they are the Casements of the Soul, the Windows of Reason: As they are the inlets of Understanding, so they are the outlets or discoverers of many inward corruptions.

A wanton Eye is the truest evidence of a wandring and distracted mind. As by them you ought not to betray to others view, your imperfections within; so be not betray'd by their means, by vain objects without: This made the Princely Prophet pray so earnestly, Lord turn away my eyes from vanity. And hence appears our misery, that those eyes which should be the Cisterns of sorrow, Limbecks of contrition, should become the lodges of lust, and portals of our perdition...


An unclean Eye, is the messenger of an unclean Heart; wherefore confine the one, and it will be a means to rectifie the other. There are many Objects a wandring Eye finds out, whereon to vent the disposition of her corrupt heart.


The ambitious Eye makes Honour her object wherewith she torments her self, both in aspiring to what she cannot enjoy; as likewise, in seeing another enjoy that whereto her self did aspire.


The covetous Eye makes Wealth her object; which she obtains with toil, enjoys with fear, forgoes with grief; for being got, they load her; lov'd they soil her; lost, they gall her.


The envious Eye makes her Neighbours flourishing condition her object; she cannot but look on it; looking, pine and repine at it; and by repining, with envy, murders her quiet and contentment.


The loose or lascivious Eye makes Beauty her object; and with a leering look, or wanton glance, while she throweth out her lure to catch others, she becomes catcht her self.


Gentlewomen, I am not insensible, that you frequent places of eminency for resort, which cannot but offer to your view variety of pleasing Objects. Nay, there where nothing but chast thoughts, staid looks, and modest desires, should harbour, are too commonly loose thought, light looks, and licentious desires in especial honour...


Be assured, there is no one sense that more distempers the harmony of the mind, nor prospect of the Soul, than this window of the body...Do not then depress your Eyes as if Earth were the Center of their happiness, but on Heaven the Haven of their bliss after Earth. To conclude, so order and dispose your looks, that censure may not tax them with lightness, nor an amorous glance impeach you of wantonness...



Thursday, September 10, 2015

17C Woman - Jean Leblond 1605-1666 - Marie de Médicis


We have few depictions of women in the 17C British American colonies, but contemporary European prints allow us to see the hairstyles & fashions being worn on the other side of the Atlantic during the early years of the English colonization of America. 

Jean Leblond 1605-1666 Marie de Médicis Royne de France et de Navarre; print; Anthony van Dyck (After)


Tuesday, September 8, 2015

17C Woman + 1675 Instructions for Chambermaids


We have few depictions of women in the 17C British American colonies, but contemporary European prints allow us to see the hairstyles & fashions being worn on the other side of the Atlantic during the early years of the English colonization of America. 

Jean Leblond 1605-1666 Margot; François Ragot (Print made by); Elderly woman, half-length, turned l, holding the portrait of a young woman (or a mirror reflecting a young woman's image) in her hands


Hannah Woolley. The Gentlewoman's Companion: or, A Guide to the Female Sex. London, A Maxwell for Edward Thomas, Bookseller. 1675.

Instructions for Chambermaids


It will be required of you, that you Dress well that you may be able to supply the place of the waiting-woman, should the chance to fall sick, or be absent from your Lady; you must wash fine Linnen well and starch Tiffanies, Lawns Points, and Laces, mend them neatly; and wash white Sarcenets, with such like things.


You must make your Ladies bed; lay up, and lay out her Night-clothes; see that her Chamber be kept clean, and nothing wanting which she desires or requires to be done. Be modest in your deportment, ready at her call, always diligent, answering not again when reprov'd, but with pacifying words; loving & courteous to your fellow-servants not gigling or idling out your time, nor wantoning in the society of men; you will find the benefit thereof; for an honest and sober man will sooner make that woman his Wife whom he seeth continually imployed about her business, than one who makes it her business to trifle away her own and others time; neither will a virtuous and understanding Mistress long entertain such a servant whom she finds of such a temper.



Sunday, September 6, 2015

16C Etiquette for Gentlemen at Dancing Celebrations, even ourdoors



Pieter Bruegel the Elder (Belgian painter, 1525-1569) Rustic Outdoor Wedding

Fabritio Caroso, Il Ballarino (1581)
"Furthermore never fart when you are dancing; grit your teeth and compel your arse to hold back the fart... Do not have a dripping nose and do not dribble at the mouth. No woman desires a man with rabies. And refrain from spitting before the maidens, because that makes one sick and even revolts the stomach.  If you spit or blow your nose or sneeze, remember to turn your head away after the spasm; and remember not to wipe your nose with your fingers; do it properly with a white handkerchief. Do not eat either leeks or onions because they leave an unpleasant odour in the mouth."  Antonius Arena, Leges dansandi (1530)


Pieter Bruegel the Elder (Belgian painter, 1525-1569) The Peasant Dance Outdoors 1568

"Never doze during the ball, please, my good companion: sleeping during the dance is like denying God."
Antonius Arena, Leges dansandi (1530)

Pieter Bruegel the Elder (Belgian painter, 1525-1569) Open Air Wedding 

"You must always be garbed to perfection and your codpiece must be well tied. We sometimes see codpieces slip to the ground during the basse dance so you must tie them well." 
Antonius Arena, Leges dansandi (1530)


Friday, September 4, 2015

17C Woman + 1675 Advice on the Duty of a Wife to her husband


We have few depictions of women in the 17C British American colonies, but contemporary European prints allow us to see the hairstyles & fashions being worn on the other side of the Atlantic during the early years of the English colonization of America. 

Jean Leblond 1605-1666 L'Ysabelle;  François Ragot (Print made by); Young woman, half-length, turned to right; lace headdress, large collar trimmed with lace, and dark dress with light-coloured, striped sleeves



Hannah Woolley. The Gentlewoman's Companion: or, A Guide to the Female Sex. London, A Maxwell for Edward Thomas, Bookseller. 1675.

Of Marriage, and the duty of a Wife to her Husband.

Marriage is an holy and inviolable bond; if the choice on both sides be good and well- ordered, there is nothing in the World that is more beautiful, more comfortable. It is a sweet Society, full of trust and loyalty. It is a fellowship, not of hot distempered love, but endeared affection; for these two are as different as the inflamed fit of an high Feaver, from the natural heat of a sound and healthy body. Love in the first acceptation is a distemper, and no wonder then that Marriage succeed so ill, which have their original from such disordered amorous desires. This boiling affection is seldom worth any thing.

There are these two Essentials in Marriage, Superiority and Inferiority. Undoubtedly the Husband hath power over the Wife, and the Wife ought to be subject to the Husband in all things. Although the Wife be more noble in her extraction, and more wealthy in portion, yet being once Married is inferior to her Husband in condition. Man, of human-kind, wa Gods first workmanship; Woman was made after Man, and of the same substance, to be subservient and assisting to him...


The more particular duties of a Wife to an Husband, are first, to have a greater esteem for him than for any other person...That Woman that will entertain mean and low thoughts of her Husband, will be easily induced to love another, whom she ought not to affect. On this good esteem depends a great part of the Wives obedience, who will be apt to run into extravagancies when she is once possessed of the weakness of her Husbands understanding: She is to give honour, respect, and reverence to her Husband; so have the wisest ever done, and those which do it not, betray their indiscretion; with reverence she is to express her obedience in all lawful things; and apply and accommodate her self (as much as in her lies) to his humour and disposition.


You must be mindful of what you promised your Husband in Marriage; and the best demonstration thereof will be in your carriage; honour and obey, and love no mans company better than his.


Be quiet, pleasant, and peaceable with him, and be not angry, when he is so; but endeavour to pacifie him with sweet and winning expressions & if casually you should provoke him to a passion, be not long ere you shew some regret, which may argue how much you are displeased with your self for so doing; nay bear his anger patiently, though without a cause.


Be careful to keep your house in good order, and let all things with decency be in readiness when he comes to his repast; let him not wait for his meals, lest by so staying his affairs be disorder'd or impeded. And let what-ever you provide be so neatly and cleanly drest, that his fare, though ordinary, may engage his appetite, and disingage his fancy from Taverns, which many are compell'd to make use of by reason of the continual and daily dissatisfactions they find at home.


Shew respect and kindness to what Friends he brings home with him, but more especially to his Relations for by this means he will find your love to him by your respect to them; and they will be obliged to love you for your own as well s his sake.


Suffer not any to buz in your ears detracting stories of him, and abhor it in your Servants, for it is your duty to hide his faults and infirmities, and not detect them your self, or suffer them to be discovered. Take them for your greatest enemies who perswade you against your Husband; for without question they have some dangerous design in it. Those whom God hath joined together, let no man put asunder; Cursed then is that instrument which occasions their separation.


Breed up your Children in as much or more obedience to him than your self; and keep them in so much awe that they shew no rudeness before him, or make any noise to his disturbance. Make them shew him all awful regard, and kee them sweet, clean, and decent, that he may delight himself in them.


Let him see your love to him in your care for them; educating and bringing them up in the knowledg of Religion, with their Learning.


Be careful to manage what money he doth trust youwith, to his and your own credit: abuse not the freedom you have of his purse, by being too lavish; and pinch not the Guts of your Family at home, that you may pamper your abroad; or throw away that money in buying trifles, which shall evidence your vanity as well as luxury.


To govern an House is an excellent and profitable employment; there Is nothing more beautiful than an Houshold well and peaceably governed; it is a prosession that is not difficult; for she that is not capable of any thing else, may be capable of this.


The principal precepts that belong to the frugal ordering and disposing Houshold-affairs may be compremis'd under these heads.

First to buy and sell all things at the best times and seasons.


Secondly, to take an especial care that the goods in the house be not spoiled by negligence of servants or otherwise.


Let me counsel you not only to avoid unnecessary or immoderate charges, but also with a little cost make a great shew; but above all suffer not your expence to exceed the receipt of your Husbands income. There is a Proverbial saying, That the Masters eye maketh the Horse fat; I am sure the active vigilance of a good and careful Wife is the ready way to enrich a bad Husband.


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