Friday, October 28, 2016

1500s Saxon Family Trees (The Spalatin Chronicle Family Trees) - Illuminated Manuscripts




















Frederick III, Elector of Saxony (1463–1525), Frederick the Wise, was the protector of Martin Luther, whom he offered asylum in his castle Wartburg.  Frederick III also asked his chief secretary George Burkhardt (known as George Spalatin), to compile a history of the German regions of Saxony & Thuringia.  Spalatin created a family history for the rulers of the various regions depicted as family tree miniatures decorated with family crests (The Spalatin Chronicle Family Trees), painted by the workshop of Lucas Cranach the Elder (German artist, 1472–1553).  Cranach & his workshop also painted many full-sized portraits of Frederick the Wise in the years after his death.



Frederick III (1463–1525), the Wise, Elector of Saxony, attr to Lucas Cranach the Elder (German, 1472–1553) or to his workshop


The label of this painting at the Metropolitan Museum of Art reads, "This panel and the portrait of John the Steadfast, the sitter's brother, are one of at least sixty pairs of portraits of his father and uncle ordered by John Frederick the Magnanimous from Cranach when he became Elector in 1532. All three rulers were Cranach's patrons at Wittenberg. So extensive a commission would undoubtedly have been executed mainly by workshop assistants." The portrait of Frederick's brother follows.




John I (1468–1532), the Steadfast, Elector of Saxony. Workshop of Lucas Cranach the Elder (German artist, 1472–1553)



Another of the paintings of Frederick III (1463–1525), the Wise, Elector of Saxony, attr to Lucas Cranach the Elder (German, 1472–1553) or to his workshop


Saturday, October 22, 2016

Thursday, October 20, 2016

England's Queen Charlotte



 1761 Esther Denner (daughter of Balthasar Denner) Queen Charlotte, Princess Sophia Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, 1744 - 1818. Queen of George III About 1763



 1770 Nathaniel Dance Holland (Inglese artist, 1735-1811) Queen Charlotte, Princess Sophia Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, 1744 - 1818. Queen of George III About 1763



1773 Nathaniel Dance Holland (Inglese artist, 1735-1811) Queen Charlotte, Princess Sophia Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, 1744 - 1818. Queen of George III About 1763



Henry Robert Morland. (Inglese artist, 1719-1797) Queen Charlotte, Princess Sophia Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, 1744 - 1818. Queen of George III About 1763



Joshua Reynolds (Inglese artist, 1723-1792) Queen Charlotte, Princess Sophia Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, 1744 - 1818. Queen of George III About 1763




Studio of Allan Ramsey (English artist, 1713-1784) Queen Charlotte, Princess Sophia Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, 1744 - 1818. Queen of George III About 1763


Tuesday, October 18, 2016

Sunday, October 16, 2016

1655 How to punish a chiding & scolding woman


Although women were not slaves in the British American colonies, they were the property of their husbands.

Richard Gardiner, England's Grievance Discovered. 1655

“Iohn Wilis of Ipswich upon his Oath said, that he this Deponent was in Newcastle six months ago, and there he saw one Ann Biulestone drove through the streets by an Officer of the same Corporation, holding a rope in his hand, the other end fastned to an Engine called the Branks, which is like a Crown, it being of Iron, which was musled over the head and face, with a great gap or tongue of Iron forced into her mouth, which forced the blood out. And that is the punishment which the Magistrates do inflict upon chiding, and scoulding women, and that he hath often seen the like done to others.”


Friday, October 14, 2016

England 1670s Quaker Meetings including Women by Egbert van Heemskerck the elder (British artist, 1634-35–1704) Quaker Meeting



 Egbert van Heemskerck the Elder (British artist, 1634-35-1704) Quaker Meeting 1678



 Egbert van Heemskerck the Elder (British artist, 1634-35-1704) Quaker Meeting 1870s Detail



Egbert van Heemskerck the Elder (British artist, 1634-35-1704) Quaker Meeting with Self Portrait 1670s


Wednesday, October 12, 2016

Origin of the name "Quakers" 1650


Origin of the name "Quakers" 1650
From It Happened Today


George Fox 1624-1691

IN 1643, some English lads visited a fair. All claimed to be Christians. George Fox joined them in ordering a jug of ale. “I, being thirsty, went in with them, for I loved any who had a sense of good, or that sought after the Lord.” But, “When we had drunk a glass apiece, they began to drink healths, and called for more drink.” One called out, “Whoever won’t drink pays!” Fox was upset that “Christians” would challenge each other to a drinking bout. So he rose, took a coin from his pocket and laid it on the table, saying, “If that’s the way it’s going to be, I’m leaving.” 

Fox went home, but was so troubled by the incident he couldn’t sleep. Instead, he walked up and down, praying and crying to the Lord. Soon he left home and wandered alone, seeking answers. He became convinced that only those actually born of God are Christians, and they must worship God not with outward show, but with the spirit. 

Certain that no one had answers for his unhappiness, he reached a crisis: “When all my hopes in them and in all men were gone, so that I had nothing outwardly to help me, nor could I tell what to do, then, oh, then, I heard a voice which said, ‘There is one, even Christ Jesus, that can speak to thy condition’; and when I heard it, my heart did leap for joy.”  Ever after, Fox relied on inner illumination from the Lord. He formed a group called the Society of Friends. These believers worked against many intolerant and wicked practices in society, often getting into trouble for refusing to take off their hats to important people, preaching publicly without licenses, and refusing to take oaths to anyone but Christ. 

For being different, Fox was jailed many times, once in a dungeon that was the latrine hole for other prisoners. On this day, 30 October 1650, he was brought before Justice Bennet of Derby on a charge of blasphemy. Quoting Isaiah 66:2, he urged the judge to “tremble at the word of God.” In mockery, Bennet called him a “quaker,” and this is thought to be the origin of the name “Quakers.” 

George Fox died in 1691, exclaiming on his deathbed, “I am clear! I am clear!” For many years he had kept a journal. Two hundred years after his death, Baptist preacher Charles Spurgeon addressed a body of Quakers, saying of that journal “It is a rich mine. Every page of it is precious as solid gold.”


Monday, October 10, 2016

Illuminated Manuscripts - 15C Craftsmen & Shopkeepers in Nuremberg, Germany



Textile Dyer. Landauer Twelve Brother's House manuscript Nuremberg City Library, Germanic National Museum Amb 279.2 ° Folio 0a recto (Landauer I)

In 14C Germany, a wealthy trader by the name of Mendel established a charitable endowment in the city of Nuremberg, called Twelve Brothers House Foundation (Zwölfbrüderhausstiftungen). A dozen older citizens were given a place to live in exchange for their performing work duties.  In the 15C, Mendel's grandson began having sketches made of each of the brothers engaged in their chosen craft together with detailed notes about the tools & practices relating to their work. 


Bookbinder. Landauer Twelve Brother's House manuscript Nuremberg City Library, Germanic National Museum Amb 279.2 ° Folio 0a recto (Landauer I)


Organ Pipe Maker Landauer Twelve Brother's House manuscript Nuremberg City Library, Germanic National Museum Amb 279.2 ° Folio 0a recto (Landauer I)


Brewer. Twelve Brother's House manuscript Nuremberg City Library, Germanic National Museum Amb 279.2 ° Folio 0a recto (Landauer I)


Cooper Landauer Twelve Brother's House manuscript Nuremberg City Library, Germanic National Museum Amb 279.2 ° Folio 0a recto (Landauer I)


Butcher. Landauer Twelve Brother's House manuscript  Nuremberg City Library, Germanic National Museum Amb 279.2 ° Folio 0a recto (Landauer I)


Baker Landauer Twelve Brother's House manuscript Nuremberg City Library, Germanic National Museum Amb 279.2 ° Folio 0a recto (Landauer I)


Candlestick Maker. Landauer Twelve Brother's House manuscript Nuremberg City Library, Germanic National Museum Amb 279.2 ° Folio 0a recto (Landauer I)


Goldsmith. Landauer Twelve Brother's House manuscript Nuremberg City Library, Germanic National Museum Amb 279.2 ° Folio 0a recto (Landauer I)


Carpenter. Landauer Twelve Brother's House manuscript Nuremberg City Library, Germanic National Museum Amb 279.2 ° Folio 0a recto (Landauer I)


Stonemason. Landauer Twelve Brother's House manuscript Nuremberg City Library, Germanic National Museum Amb 279.2 ° Folio 0a recto (Landauer I)


Court Messenger. Landauer Twelve Brother's House manuscript Nuremberg City Library, Germanic National Museum Amb 279.2 ° Folio 0a recto (Landauer I)


Apothecary. Landauer Twelve Brother's House manuscript Nuremberg City Library, Germanic National Museum Amb 279.2 ° Folio 0a recto (Landauer I)


Gardener. Landauer Twelve Brother's House manuscript Nuremberg City Library, Germanic National Museum Amb 279.2 ° Folio 0a recto (Landauer I)


Roof Repairer. Landauer Twelve Brother's House manuscript Nuremberg City Library, Germanic National Museum Amb 279.2 ° Folio 0a recto (Landauer I)


Glaizer. Landauer Twelve Brother's House manuscript Nuremberg City Library, Germanic National Museum Amb 279.2 ° Folio 0a recto (Landauer I)


Leatherworker. Landauer Twelve Brother's House manuscript Nuremberg City Library, Germanic National Museum Amb 279.2 ° Folio 0a recto (Landauer I)


Gunsmith. Landauer Twelve Brother's House manuscript Nuremberg City Library, Germanic National Museum Amb 279.2 ° Folio 0a recto (Landauer I)


Armour Maker. Landauer Twelve Brother's House manuscript Nuremberg City Library, Germanic National Museum Amb 279.2 ° Folio 0a recto (Landauer I)


Metal Worker. Landauer Twelve Brother's House manuscript Nuremberg City Library, Germanic National Museum Amb 279.2 ° Folio 0a recto (Landauer I)


Bell Maker. Landauer Twelve Brother's House manuscript Nuremberg City Library, Germanic National Museum Amb 279.2 ° Folio 0a recto (Landauer I)


Nailsmith. Landauer Twelve Brother's House manuscript Nuremberg City Library, Germanic National Museum Amb 279.2 ° Folio 0a recto (Landauer I)


Merchant. Landauer Twelve Brother's House manuscript Nuremberg City Library, Germanic National Museum Amb 279.2 ° Folio 0a recto (Landauer I)


Swordsmith. Landauer Twelve Brother's House manuscript Nuremberg City Library, Germanic National Museum Amb 279.2 ° Folio 0a recto (Landauer I)


Knifesmith. Landauer Twelve Brother's House manuscript Nuremberg City Library, Germanic National Museum Amb 279.2 ° Folio 0a recto (Landauer I)


Tailor. Landauer Twelve Brother's House manuscript Nuremberg City Library, Germanic National Museum Amb 279.2 ° Folio 0a recto (Landauer I)


Weaver. Landauer Twelve Brother's House manuscript Nuremberg City Library, Germanic National Museum Amb 279.2 ° Folio 0a recto (Landauer I)


Hatmaker. Landauer Twelve Brother's House manuscript Nuremberg City Library, Germanic National Museum Amb 279.2 ° Folio 0a recto (Landauer I)

In the most strict definition of the term, an illuminated manuscript only refers to manuscripts decorated with gold or silver, but in both common usage and modern scholarship, the term is now used to refer to any decorated or illustrated manuscript from the Western traditions.