Saturday, October 22, 2016

A Sleeping 17C Baby


Bernardo Strozzi (Italian painter, 1581-1644) Sleeping Child


Tuesday, October 18, 2016

Wednesday, October 12, 2016

Origin of the name "Quakers" 1650


Origin of the name "Quakers" 1650
From It Happened Today


George Fox 1624-1691

IN 1643, some English lads visited a fair. All claimed to be Christians. George Fox joined them in ordering a jug of ale. “I, being thirsty, went in with them, for I loved any who had a sense of good, or that sought after the Lord.” But, “When we had drunk a glass apiece, they began to drink healths, and called for more drink.” One called out, “Whoever won’t drink pays!” Fox was upset that “Christians” would challenge each other to a drinking bout. So he rose, took a coin from his pocket and laid it on the table, saying, “If that’s the way it’s going to be, I’m leaving.” 

Fox went home, but was so troubled by the incident he couldn’t sleep. Instead, he walked up and down, praying and crying to the Lord. Soon he left home and wandered alone, seeking answers. He became convinced that only those actually born of God are Christians, and they must worship God not with outward show, but with the spirit. 

Certain that no one had answers for his unhappiness, he reached a crisis: “When all my hopes in them and in all men were gone, so that I had nothing outwardly to help me, nor could I tell what to do, then, oh, then, I heard a voice which said, ‘There is one, even Christ Jesus, that can speak to thy condition’; and when I heard it, my heart did leap for joy.”  Ever after, Fox relied on inner illumination from the Lord. He formed a group called the Society of Friends. These believers worked against many intolerant and wicked practices in society, often getting into trouble for refusing to take off their hats to important people, preaching publicly without licenses, and refusing to take oaths to anyone but Christ. 

For being different, Fox was jailed many times, once in a dungeon that was the latrine hole for other prisoners. On this day, 30 October 1650, he was brought before Justice Bennet of Derby on a charge of blasphemy. Quoting Isaiah 66:2, he urged the judge to “tremble at the word of God.” In mockery, Bennet called him a “quaker,” and this is thought to be the origin of the name “Quakers.” 

George Fox died in 1691, exclaiming on his deathbed, “I am clear! I am clear!” For many years he had kept a journal. Two hundred years after his death, Baptist preacher Charles Spurgeon addressed a body of Quakers, saying of that journal “It is a rich mine. Every page of it is precious as solid gold.”


Monday, October 10, 2016

Illuminated Manuscripts - 15C Craftsmen & Shopkeepers in Nuremberg, Germany



Textile Dyer. Landauer Twelve Brother's House manuscript Nuremberg City Library, Germanic National Museum Amb 279.2 ° Folio 0a recto (Landauer I)

In 14C Germany, a wealthy trader by the name of Mendel established a charitable endowment in the city of Nuremberg, called Twelve Brothers House Foundation (Zwölfbrüderhausstiftungen). A dozen older citizens were given a place to live in exchange for their performing work duties.  In the 15C, Mendel's grandson began having sketches made of each of the brothers engaged in their chosen craft together with detailed notes about the tools & practices relating to their work. 


Bookbinder. Landauer Twelve Brother's House manuscript Nuremberg City Library, Germanic National Museum Amb 279.2 ° Folio 0a recto (Landauer I)


Organ Pipe Maker Landauer Twelve Brother's House manuscript Nuremberg City Library, Germanic National Museum Amb 279.2 ° Folio 0a recto (Landauer I)


Brewer. Twelve Brother's House manuscript Nuremberg City Library, Germanic National Museum Amb 279.2 ° Folio 0a recto (Landauer I)


Cooper Landauer Twelve Brother's House manuscript Nuremberg City Library, Germanic National Museum Amb 279.2 ° Folio 0a recto (Landauer I)


Butcher. Landauer Twelve Brother's House manuscript  Nuremberg City Library, Germanic National Museum Amb 279.2 ° Folio 0a recto (Landauer I)


Baker Landauer Twelve Brother's House manuscript Nuremberg City Library, Germanic National Museum Amb 279.2 ° Folio 0a recto (Landauer I)


Candlestick Maker. Landauer Twelve Brother's House manuscript Nuremberg City Library, Germanic National Museum Amb 279.2 ° Folio 0a recto (Landauer I)


Goldsmith. Landauer Twelve Brother's House manuscript Nuremberg City Library, Germanic National Museum Amb 279.2 ° Folio 0a recto (Landauer I)


Carpenter. Landauer Twelve Brother's House manuscript Nuremberg City Library, Germanic National Museum Amb 279.2 ° Folio 0a recto (Landauer I)


Stonemason. Landauer Twelve Brother's House manuscript Nuremberg City Library, Germanic National Museum Amb 279.2 ° Folio 0a recto (Landauer I)


Court Messenger. Landauer Twelve Brother's House manuscript Nuremberg City Library, Germanic National Museum Amb 279.2 ° Folio 0a recto (Landauer I)


Apothecary. Landauer Twelve Brother's House manuscript Nuremberg City Library, Germanic National Museum Amb 279.2 ° Folio 0a recto (Landauer I)


Gardener. Landauer Twelve Brother's House manuscript Nuremberg City Library, Germanic National Museum Amb 279.2 ° Folio 0a recto (Landauer I)


Roof Repairer. Landauer Twelve Brother's House manuscript Nuremberg City Library, Germanic National Museum Amb 279.2 ° Folio 0a recto (Landauer I)


Glaizer. Landauer Twelve Brother's House manuscript Nuremberg City Library, Germanic National Museum Amb 279.2 ° Folio 0a recto (Landauer I)


Leatherworker. Landauer Twelve Brother's House manuscript Nuremberg City Library, Germanic National Museum Amb 279.2 ° Folio 0a recto (Landauer I)


Gunsmith. Landauer Twelve Brother's House manuscript Nuremberg City Library, Germanic National Museum Amb 279.2 ° Folio 0a recto (Landauer I)


Armour Maker. Landauer Twelve Brother's House manuscript Nuremberg City Library, Germanic National Museum Amb 279.2 ° Folio 0a recto (Landauer I)


Metal Worker. Landauer Twelve Brother's House manuscript Nuremberg City Library, Germanic National Museum Amb 279.2 ° Folio 0a recto (Landauer I)


Bell Maker. Landauer Twelve Brother's House manuscript Nuremberg City Library, Germanic National Museum Amb 279.2 ° Folio 0a recto (Landauer I)


Nailsmith. Landauer Twelve Brother's House manuscript Nuremberg City Library, Germanic National Museum Amb 279.2 ° Folio 0a recto (Landauer I)


Merchant. Landauer Twelve Brother's House manuscript Nuremberg City Library, Germanic National Museum Amb 279.2 ° Folio 0a recto (Landauer I)


Swordsmith. Landauer Twelve Brother's House manuscript Nuremberg City Library, Germanic National Museum Amb 279.2 ° Folio 0a recto (Landauer I)


Knifesmith. Landauer Twelve Brother's House manuscript Nuremberg City Library, Germanic National Museum Amb 279.2 ° Folio 0a recto (Landauer I)


Tailor. Landauer Twelve Brother's House manuscript Nuremberg City Library, Germanic National Museum Amb 279.2 ° Folio 0a recto (Landauer I)


Weaver. Landauer Twelve Brother's House manuscript Nuremberg City Library, Germanic National Museum Amb 279.2 ° Folio 0a recto (Landauer I)


Hatmaker. Landauer Twelve Brother's House manuscript Nuremberg City Library, Germanic National Museum Amb 279.2 ° Folio 0a recto (Landauer I)

In the most strict definition of the term, an illuminated manuscript only refers to manuscripts decorated with gold or silver, but in both common usage and modern scholarship, the term is now used to refer to any decorated or illustrated manuscript from the Western traditions.