Saturday, December 3, 2016

Advent - A brief history

Advent is observed in many Western Christian churches as a time of expectant waiting, self-examination, & preparation for the celebration of the birth of Jesus at Christmas. The name Advent comes from the Latin word Adventus, which signifies a coming.  

Advent has probably been observed since the 4C.  It would seem that Advent could not have occurred, until the Roman Catholic Church & state decided to declare December 25 as the day of the birth of Christ, in 345.  Advent was 1st recorded about 380 AD in Spain.
St. Perpetuus, Bishop of Tours 460-490, from Images of All the Saints of the Year... Paris: Chez Israƫl Henriet, 1636)

As far back as the 5C, there existed the custom of giving exhortations to the people in order to prepare them for Christmas. The oldest document, the 2nd book of the History of the Franks by St. Gregory Bishop of Tours (536-594), states that St. Perpetuus, one of his predecessors, had decreed a fast 3 times a week, from the feast of St. Martin until Christmas.  St Perpetuus, who died December 30, 490, was the 6th Bishop of Tours, from 460 to 490. It is unclear whether St. Perpetuus established a new custom, or merely enforced an already existing law.


St Gregory, Bishop of Tours (536-594) & King Chilperic I, from the Grandes Chroniques de France de Charles V, 14C illumination.

In the 4C & 5C, Advent was the preparation for the January "Epiphany" rather than Christmas.  It was also a time for new Christians to be baptized & welcomed into the church, while existing members of the church examined their hearts & focused on penance. Religious leaders exhorted the people to prepare for the feast of Christmas by fasting. Early documents show that many church leaders treated Advent as a 2nd Lent.

The 9th canon of the first Council of Macon, held in 582, ordained that between St. Martin's day & Christmas, the Mondays, Wednesdays, & Fridays, should be fasting days.  In 567, the 2nd Council of Tours enjoined the monks to fast from the beginning of December till Christmas.

The obligation of observing Advent, which, though introduced so imperceptibly, had by degrees acquired the force of a sacred law, began to be relaxed, & the 40 days from St. Martin's day to Christmas were reduced to 4 weeks. 

Sometime in 6C Rome, the focus of Advent shifted to the second coming of Christ. In the 9C, Pope St. Nicholas reduced the duration of Advent from 6 weeks to 4 weeks. The 1st mention of Advent's being reduced to 4 weeks is to be found in a 9C letter of Pope St. Nicholas I to the Bulgarians.

After having reduced the time of the Advent fast, the church seemed to change the mandatory fast into a simple abstinence & required only the clergy to observe this abstinence. The Council of Salisbury, held in 1281, seemed to expect none but monks to keep it. On the other hand Pope Innocent III, mentions that, in France, fasting was uninterruptedly observed during the whole 40 days.

By degrees, the custom of fasting fell into disuse; and in 1362, Pope Urban V asked only that the clerics of his court should keep abstinence during Advent.  In his 4th Council, he enjoins the parish priests to exhort the faithful to go to Communion on the Sundays, at least, of Lent & Advent; & he strongly urges them to fast on the Mondays, Wednesdays, & Fridays, at least, of each week in Advent.

And finally, sometime in the middle ages--approximately the 1500's--an additional focus on the anticipation before Christ's birth was added to that of His 2nd coming. 

Today Advent in most Christian churches begins on the Sunday nearest November 30, & covers 4 Sundays. Because the day it begins changes from year to year, so does the length of each Advent season.   

Madonnas attributed to Vittorio Crivelli (Italian artist, c 1440-1501)

Attributed to Vittorio Crivelli (Italian artist, c 1440 to 1501) Madonna and Child with Angels


Attributed to Vittorio Crivelli (Italian artist, c 1440 to 1501) Madonna and Child


Attributed to Vittorio Crivelli (Italian artist, from 1440 to 1501 c) Detail of above Madonna and Child


Attributed to Vittorio Crivelli (Italian artist, c 1440 to 1501) Madonna and Child


Attributed to Vittorio Crivelli (Italian artist, c 1440 to 1501) Virgin and angels


Attributed to Vittorio Crivelli (Italian artist, c 1440 to 1501) Madonna and Child


Attributed to Vittorio Crivelli (Italian artist, from 1440 to 1501 c) Detail Madonna and Child


Attributed to Vittorio Crivelli (Italian artist, from 1440 to 1501 c) Detail Madonna and Child enthroned


Attributed to Vittorio Crivelli (Italian artist, from 1440 to 1501 c) Detail of the Madonna and Child with Saints 


Attributed to Vittorio Crivelli (Italian artist, c 1440 to 1501) Madonna and Child


Attributed to Vittorio Crivelli (Italian artist, c 1440 to 1501) Madonna and Child


Attributed to Vittorio Crivelli (Italian artist, c 1440 to 1501) Madonna and Child


Attributed to Vittorio Crivelli (Italian artist, c 1440 to 1501) Madonna and Child Enthroned with Angels Making Music


Attributed to Vittorio Crivelli (Italian artist, c 1440 to 1501) Madonna and Child Detail from panel with Saint Marcos and Lorenzo


Attributed to Vittorio Crivelli (Italian artist, c 1440 to 1501) Madonna and Child with Angels Making Music


Attributed to Vittorio Crivelli (Italian artist, c 1440 to 1501) Madonna and Child with Angels Making Music


Attributed to Vittorio Crivelli (Italian artist, from 1440 to 1501 c) Detail of above Madonna and Child with Angels Making Music 


Attributed to Vittorio Crivelli (Italian artist, c 1440 to 1501) Madonna and Child


Attributed to Vittorio Crivelli (Italian artist, from 1440 to 1501 c) Madonna and Child

In this blog, I try to begin each day with a painting of the Madonna & Child. It centers me; connects me to the past; & encourages me to post some of the religious paintings which were a large part of the core of early Western art.  In the 4C, as the Christian population was rapidly growing & was now supported by the state, Christian art evolved & became grander to suit new, enlarged public spaces & the changing contemporary tastes of elite private clients.

Friday, December 2, 2016

1600s Women Artist - Women by Artemisia Gentileschi 1593–1652 including the murder of Holofernes by Judith

Artemisia Gentileschi (Italian artist, 1593–1652) Saint Cecilia c 1620


Artemisia Gentileschi (Italian artist, 1593–1652) Judith and Her Maid Servant with the Head of Holofernes c 1613

Artemisia Gentileschi 1593–1652 was an Italian Early Baroque painter, influenced by Caravaggio. She was the 1st female painter to become a member of the Accademia di Arte del Disegno in Florence.


Artemisia Gentileschi (Italian artist, 1593–1652) Jael and Sisera c 1620

Artemisia painted pictures of strong, suffering women from myth & the Bible - victims, suicides, warriors. She was especially drawn to the biblical stories of Judith beheading Holofernes story & to the sexual assault of Susanna.


Artemisia Gentileschi (Italian artist, 1593–1652) Susanna and the Elders c 1610

Artemisia was born in Rome, the eldest child of the Tuscan painter Orazio Gentileschi. She learned painting under her father, whose style took inspiration from Caravaggio during that period, but her approach to subject matter was realistic & natural, where Orazio's were idealized.


Artemisia Gentileschi (Italian artist, 1593–1652) Judith Beheading Holofernes c 1612

Susanna & the Elders was one of the earliest works of 17-year-old Artemisia, depicting the sexual assault of the two Elders as a traumatic event. Artemisia was herself assaulted sexually, although it was after the completion of this painting.


Artemisia Gentileschi (Italian artist, 1593–1652) Penitent Magdalene c 1631

In 1612, her father was working with Agostino Tassi to decorate the vaults of Casino della Rose inside the Pallavicini Rospigliosi Palace in Rome. Orazio hired the painter to tutor his daughter privately. During this tutelage, Tassi raped Artemisia. Another man, Cosimo Quorlis helped Tassi with the rape.


Artemisia Gentileschi (Italian artist, 1593–1652) Judith Beheading Holofernes c 1620

After the initial rape, Artemisia continued to have sexual relations with Tassi, believing that they were going to be married. However, Tassi reneged on his promise to marry Artemisia; after he claimed that he heard a rumour, that she was having an affair with another man.


Artemisia Gentileschi (Italian artist, 1593–1652) Susanna and the Elders c 1622

The livid father Orazio pressed charges against Tassi, when he learned that Artemisia & Tassi were not going to be married. Orazio also claimed that Tassi stole a painting of Judith from the Gentileschi household. The major issue of the trial was the initial rape of Artemisia. If Artemisia had not been a virgin before Tassi raped her, the Gentileschis would not have been able to press charges.


Artemisia Gentileschi (Italian artist, 1593–1652) Judith and Her Maidservant with the Head of Holofernes

In the ensuing 7-month trial, it was discovered that Tassi also had planned to murder his wife, had committed adultery with his sister-in-law, & had planned to steal some of Orazio’s paintings.


Artemisia Gentileschi (Italian artist, 1593–1652) Corsica and Satyr c 1640

During the trial, Artemisia was given a gynecological examination & was tortured using thumbscrews. But the young artist finally won the court case. At the end of the trial Tassi was sentenced to imprisonment for 1 year, although he never served the time.


Artemisia Gentileschi (Italian artist, 1593–1652) Mary Magdalen

One month after the trial, Orazio hastily arranged for his daughter to marry Pierantonio Stiattesi, a modest artist from Florence. Shortly afterwards the couple moved to Florence, where Artemisia received a commission for a painting at Casa Buonarroti & became a successful court painter, enjoying the patronage of the Medici family and Charles I.


Artemisia Gentileschi (Italian artist, 1593–1652) Salome with the Head of John the Baptist

While in Florence, Artemisia & Pierantonio had four sons & one daughter. But only the daughter, Prudenzia, survived to adulthood. During the 1620s she also worked in Genoa and Venice; but by 1630, she settled in Naples, where she remained for the rest of her life, except for a brief excursion to London.


Artemisia Gentileschi (Italian artist, 1593–1652) Mary Magdalen as Melancholy c 1622

Well over 35 extant paintings are attributed to Artemisia, but it is difficult to sort out which are actually hers. Her most powerful paintings are of vulnerable but strong women, and these are examples of those.


Artemisia Gentileschi (Italian artist, 1593–1652) Esther Before Ahasuerus c 1630

Artemisia Gentileschi (Italian artist, 1593–1652 St Catherine of Alexandria

Artemisia Gentileschi (Italian artist, 1593–1652) Susanna and the Elders c 1649

Artemisia Gentileschi (Italian artist, 1593–1652 Lucretia c 1642

Artemisia Gentileschi (Italian artist, 1593–1652) Lot and his Daughters c 1636

Women by Giorgione - Giorgio Barbarelli from Castelfranco 1477-1510 including Judith & Holofernes

Giorgione (Giorgio Barbarelli from Castelfranco 1477-1510) Portrait of a Young Woman, Laura 1506 (Giorgione scholar Francis P DeStefano, who holds a PhD from Fordham University in history, suggests that this is a portrait of Mary Magdelen.)


Giorgione (Giorgio Barbarelli from Castelfranco 1477-1510) Portrait of a Courtesan c 1509


Giorgione (Giorgio Barbarelli from Castelfranco 1477-1510) Judith with the Head of Holofernes

Giorgione (Giorgio Barbarelli from Castelfranco 1477-1510) Mary Magdalene


Giorgione (Giorgio Barbarelli from Castelfranco 1477-1510) The Storm 1505


Giorgione (Giorgio Barbarelli from Castelfranco 1477-1510) Two Women and a Man The Trio 1510


Giorgione (Giorgio Barbarelli from Castelfranco 1477-1510) Venus Sleeping 1510


Giorgione (Giorgio Barbarelli from Castelfranco 1477-1510) The Old Woman 1505


Giorgione (Giorgio Barbarelli from Castelfranco 1477-1510) Nymphs and Children in a Landscape with Shepherds


Giorgione (Giorgio Barbarelli from Castelfranco 1477-1510) Ceres-1510


Giorgione (Giorgio Barbarelli from Castelfranco 1477-1510) Pastoral Concert


Giorgione (Giorgio Barbarelli from Castelfranco 1477-1510) Youth with a Guitar and Two Girls on a River Bank