Wednesday, February 27, 2013

Birds at market & in the kitchen 1500-1800s

Joachim Beukelaer (Flemish painter c 1534-c 1574) Market Scene - Selling Poultry 1563

Pieter Aertsen (Dutch Northern Renaissance Painter, c 1508-1575) Martha Preparing Dinner Cooking birds

 Bartolomeo Passarotti (Italian artist, 1529-1592)  Les marchandes de volaille, 1577 Selling birds

Pieter Aertsen (Dutch Northern Renaissance Painter, c 1508-1575) Kitchen Maid in an Interior Preparing birds

Joachim Beukelaer (Flemish painter c 1534-c 1574) The Four Elements Air Poultry vendors

Pieter Aertsen (Dutch Northern Renaissance Painter, c 1508-1575) A Cook with poultry

 Pieter Aertsen (Dutch Northern Renaissance Painter, c 1508-1575) Market Scene Selling birds

Floris Gerritsz van Scooten  (Dutch artist, 1590–1655) Larder

Joachim Beukelaer (Flemish painter c 1534-c 1574) Kitchen Interior 1560s

Gabriel Metsu (Dutch Baroque Era Painter, 1629-1667) The Poultry Seller

 Joachim Beukelaer (Flemish painter c 1534-c 1574) The Well-Stocked Kitchen including fowl

Gabriel Metsu (Dutch Baroque Era Painter, 1629-1667) The Poultry Woman

 Bernardo Strozzi (Italian artist, c 1581-1644) Kitchen The Cook preparing the poultry c 1620

 Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn (Dutch artist, 1606-1669) Plucking Fowl

 Vincenzo Campi (Italian painter, c 1536-1591) Poultry Vendors

1651 Frans van Mieris the elder (Dutch artist, 1635–1681) Lady Stuffing a Bird

1680s Abraham Hondius (Dutch painter, c.1625–1691) Man with Dead Birds

Henry Walton (English artist, 1746-1813) The Market Girl

Nathaniel Bacon (English painter, 1585–1627) Cookmaid

 Unknown English artist, A maid in a kitchen, seated by a table laden with birds and poultry

Henry Walton (English artist, 1746-1813) Plucking the Turkey

Gustave Courbet (French artist, 1819-1877) Girl with Seagulls Trouville

Henry Charles Bryant (English artist, 1835–1915) Market Scene 1878 Selling birds and poultry

William Henry Hunt (English artist, 1790-1864) Plucking the Fowl

Henry Charles Bryant (English artist, 1835–1915) Portsmouth Market 1883 Birds and poultry at market

Daily care of the dovecote 1802

The Domestic Encyclopaedia: or, A Dictionary of Facts, and Useful Knowledge by Anthony Florian Madinger Willich. London 1802

"PIGEON-HOUSE, or DoveCote: a structure usually of wood, for the accommodation and rearing of pigeons.

"Dove-cotes ought to be built of a moderate height, and spacious, so that the birds may find sufficient room to fly about them with ease; and, in case they spy an external object which should alarm them, that they can readily escape. In constructing the nests, it will he advisable to interweave wickers, in imitation of those formed by wild pigeons; as they will thus be more easily domesticated, and have no inducement to forsake their habitations.

Jean-Baptiste Greuze (French Rococo Era Painter, 1725-1805) Girl with Doves 1800

"Should any repairs become necessary in the will be proper to complete them before the middle of the day; because, if the pigeons be disturbed in the afternoon, they will not rest quietly during the night, and the greater pan will perhaps sit moping on the ground, till the ensuing day. Such unfavourable accidents, in the breeding season, will either occasion the destruction of ninny eggs in embryo; or, if there should be any nestlings, they will consequently be starved.

"In Parkinson's Experienced Farmer, we meet with a remark made by a skillful pigeon-breeder, who cautioned him "against letting the first-flight fly to increase his stock," but advised him to take them without exception; because they will otherwise appear at the Benting season, that is, between seed-time and harvest, when pigeons are very scarce, and many of the young birds would pine to death, from mere weakness.—Pigeons rise early: and, as they require to be supplied with food only during the benting season, it should not be carried to the cote later than three or four o'clock in the morning: for, if it be served after that hour, they will hover restlessly about the house, and thus be prevented from taking their proper exercise. During the greater part of the year, they ought to provide their own food; as they will find abundance in the fields, from the commencement of harvest to the end of the sowing season...those which are constantly fed at home, will not be prolific.

"The utmost cleanliness ought to prevail in pigeon-houses: hence the holes should be carefully examined, before the breeding-season arrives. If any of the young die during the summer, they will speedily become putrid, and emit a disagreeable stench, which is extremely injurious to the inhabitants of the dove-cote: thus, from the insupportable filth, and smell, they are often unwillingly compelled to quit the eggs laid for a second brood; so that the principal part of the season is lost.

Emile Munier (French Academic Painter, 1840-1895) Teasing the Doves 1895

"Farther, as pigeons are very liable to be infected with fleas, all the nests ought to be cleaned; and, if it be conveniently practicable, they should be washed out, and the dung, or oilier impurities removed, immediately after the first flight is hatched: this business, however, should, on all occasions, be performed at an early hour in the morning; and the remaining eggs must likewise be removed, so as to render the habitation perfectly clean for the harvest-flight.

"Thus managed, pigeons will thrive and multiply to an uncommon degree; but, as they have a great antipathy to owls, which, sometimes enter their habitations, such intruders must be immediately destroyed, rats, cats, weasels, and squirrels are likewise their mortal enemies, and will speedily depopulate a whole dove-cote. To prevent these depredations, it will be necessary to examine the different avenues to the pigeon-house, regularly once a week, or oftener, and with minute attention."

Cooking the Birds from the Dovecote + a warning - "Cock-birds...are quarrelsome"

The American Domestic Cookery by Maria Eliza Ketelby Rundell New York 1814

"Pigeons: Bring two young ones at a time: and breed every month, if well looked after, and plentifully fed. They should be kept very clean, and the bottom of the dovecote be strewed with sand once a month at least. Tares and white peas are their proper food. They should have plenty of fresh water in their house, Starlings and other birds are apt to come among them, and suck the eggs. Vermin likewise are their great enemies, and destroy them. If the breed should be too small, put a few tame pigeons of the common kind, and of their own colour, among them. Observe not to have too large a proportion of cock-birds: for they are quarrelsome, and will soon thin the dove-cote.

"Pigeons are fond of salt, and it keeps them in health. Lay a large heap of clay near the house, and let the salt-brine that may be done with in the family be poured upon it.

"Bay salt and cummin seeds mixed, is a universal remedy for the diseases of pigeons. The back and breasts are sometimes scabby: in which case, take a quarter of a pound of bay salt, and as much common salt, a pound of fennel seeds, a pound of dill seed, as much cummin seed, and an ounce of sassafras; mix all with a little, wheaten flour, and some fine worked clay; when all are well beaten together, put it into two earthen pots, and bake them in the oven, when cold put them on the table in the dove-cote; the pigeons will eat it, and thus be cured."

Charles Spencelayh (British genre painter, 1865-1958) The Pet Dove

There were even formal prayers for success in the dovecote


From The Protestant's Companion: A Collection of Presevatives Against Popery published by T Brettell, London. 1829

"Everlasting God! before whose view are all the angels, and by whose nod all things are governed, who also, in thy excellence, doth not cease to regard the meanest objects which are necessary for human frailty, and who givest food to all flesh, and fillest every living being with blessing; as supplicants we implore thee to shed thy benediction on this pigeon-house (or poultry, or keep of geese, ducks and drakes, &c.), that redounding to us, thy servants, by the agency of thy grace, the glory of thy majesty may be exalted."

Charles Joshua Chaplin, (French artist, 1825-1891) A Beauty with Doves

Degas' mystery birds

This is a painting, That I find just plain confusing - intriguing, but confusing. The Met says, "Degas made ​​sketches of this composition in a notebook he used during his second stay in Rome in 1857-58. Originally conceived as a depiction of a pensive woman overlooking an oriental metropolis, the picture assumed a mysterious air When Degas added the two red ibises around 1860-62. "

Edgar Degas (1834-1917) Young Woman with Ibis 1860-62