Saturday, May 30, 2015

An early icon of Mary

Advocata Nostra, said to be the oldest icon of Mary in Rome, at the Dominican Sisters Convent on Via Trionfale on Monte Mario. Reportedly, this icon can be traced back to its origin in Jerusalem, where tradition holds, that it was painted by St Luke after the Resurrection, at the request of the apostles. Further tradition states that after St Luke had sketched the outline, the image of Our Lady appeared on it. No human hand was involved. Such works are referred to as achiropita—"made without hands." c 500s?

Drinking in Early America - 1811 Philadelphia's Dr Benjamin Rush writes of the harmful effects of drinking

An Inquiry into the effects of Spirituous Liquors upon the Human Body, and their influence upon the happiness of society ... Originally published at Philadelphia in 1811

1768 A Caricature Group of Drinkers by John Hamilton Mortimer (British painter, 1740-1779)

The Effects of Ardent Spirits upon the Human Body & Mind by Benjamin Rush, MD Philadelphia, 1816.

By ardent spirits, I mean those liquors only which are obtained by distillation from fermented substances of any kind. To their effects upon the bodies & minds of men, the following inquiry shall be exclusively confined.

The effects of ardent spirits divide themselves into such as are of a prompt, & such as are of a chronic nature. The former discover themselves in drunkenness; & the latter in a numerous train of diseases & vices of the body & mind.

I. I shall begin by briefly describing their prompt or immediate effects in a fit of drunkenness.

This odious disease—for by that name it should be called—appears with more or less of the following symptoms, & most commonly in the order in which I shall enumerate them.

1. Unusual garrulity.

2. Unusual silence.

3. Captiousness, & a disposition to quarrel.

4. Uncommon good-humor, & an insipid simpering, or laugh.

5. Profane swearing & cursing.

6. A disclosure of their own or other people’s secrets.

7. A rude disposition to tell those persons in company whom they know, their faults.

8. Certain immodest actions. I am sorry to say this sign of the first stage of drunkenness sometimes appears in women, who, when sober, are uniformly remarkable for chaste & decent manners.

9. A clipping of words.

10. Fighting; a black eye, or a swelled nose, often mark this grade of drunkenness.

11. Certain extravagant acts which indicate a temporary fit of madness. Those are singing, hallooing, roaring, imitating the noises of brute animals, jumping, tearing off clothes, dancing naked, breaking glasses & china, & dashing other articles of household furniture upon the ground or floor. After a while the paroxysm of drunkenness is completely formed. The face now becomes flushed, the eyes project, & are somewhat watery, winking is less frequent than is natural; the under lip is protruded—the head inclines a little to one shoulder—the jaw falls—belchings & hiccough take place—the limbs totter—the whole body staggers. The unfortunate subject of this history next falls on his seat—he looks around him with a vacant countenance, & mutters inarticulate sounds to himself—he attempts to rise & walk: in this attempt he falls upon his side, from which he gradually turns upon his back: he now closes his eyes & falls into a profound sleep, frequently attended with snoring, & profuse sweats, & sometimes with such a relaxation of the muscles which confine the bladder & the lower bowels, as to produce a symptom which delicacy forbids me to mention. In this condition he often lies from ten, twelve, & twenty-four hours, to two, three, four, & five days, an object of pity & disgust to his family & friends. His recovery from this fit of intoxication is marked with several peculiar appearances. He opens his eyes & closes them again—he gapes & stretches his limbs—he then coughs & pukes—his voice is hoarse—he rises with difficulty, & staggers to a chair—his eyes resemble balls of fire—his hands tremble—he loathes the sight of food—he calls for a glass of spirits to compose his stomach—now & then he emits a deep-fetched sigh, or groan, from a transient twinge of conscience; but he more frequently scolds, & curses every thing around him. In this stage of languor & stupidity he remains for two or three days, before he is able to resume his former habits of business & conversation...

Toby Phillpot 1786 by Carrington Bowles

It belongs to the history of drunkenness to remark, that its paroxysms occur, like the paroxysms of many diseases, at certain periods, & after longer or shorter intervals. They often begin with annual, & gradually increase in their frequency, until they appear in quarterly, monthly, weekly, & quotidian or daily periods. Finally, they afford scarcely any marks of remission, either during the day or the night. There was a citizen of Philadelphia, many years ago, in whom drunkenness appeared in this protracted form. In speaking of him to one of his neighbors, I said, “Does he not sometimes get drunk?” “You mean,” said his neighbor, “is he not sometimes sober?”

It is further remarkable, that drunkenness resembles certain hereditary, family, & contagious diseases. I have once known it to descend from a father to four out of five of his children. I have seen three, & once four brothers, who were born of sober ancestors, affected by it; & I have heard of its spreading through a whole family composed of members not originally related to each other. These facts are important, & should not be overlooked by parents, in deciding upon the matrimonial connections of their children.

1773 Human Passions - Greed for liquor by Thomas Sanders after John Collier (Tim Bobbin) (British artist, 1708-1786)

II. Let us next attend to the chronic effects of ardent spirits upon the body & mind. In the body they dispose to every form of acute disease; they moreover excite fevers in persons predisposed to them from other causes. This has been remarked in all the yellow-fevers which have visited the cities of the United States. Hard-drinkers seldom escape, & rarely recover from them. The following diseases are the usual consequences of the habitual use of ardent spirits:

1. A decay of appetite, sickness at stomach, & a puking of bile, or a discharge of a frothy & viscid phlegm, by hawking, in the morning.

2. Obstructions of the liver. The fable of Prometheus, on whose liver a vulture was said to prey constantly, as a punishment for his stealing fire from heaven, was intended to illustrate the painful effects of ardent spirits upon that organ of the body.

3. Jaundice, & dropsy of the belly & limbs, & finally of every cavity in the body. A swelling in the feet & legs is so characteristic a mark of habits of intemperance, that the merchants in Charleston, I have been told, cease to trust the planters of South Carolina as soon as they perceive it. They very naturally conclude industry & virtue to be extinct in that man, in whom that symptom of disease has been produced by the intemperate use of distilled spirits.

4. Hoarseness, & a husky cough, which often terminate in consumption, & sometimes in an acute & fatal disease of the lungs.

5. Diabetes, that is, a frequent & weakening discharge of pale or sweetish urine.

6. Redness, & eruptions on different parts of the body. They generally begin on the nose, & after gradually extending all over the face, sometimes descend to the limbs in the form of leprosy. They have been called “rum-buds,” when they appear in the face. In persons who have occasionally survived these effects of ardent spirits on the skin, the face after a while becomes bloated, & its redness is succeeded by a death-like paleness. Thus, the same fire which produces a red color in iron, when urged to a more intense degree, produces what has been called a white-heat.

7. A fetid breath, composed of every thing that is offensive in putrid animal matter.

8. Frequent & disgusting belchings. Dr. Haller relates the case of a notorious drunkard having been suddenly destroyed, in consequence of the vapor discharged from his stomach by belching, accidentally taking fire by coming in contact with the flame of a candle.

9. Epilepsy.

10. Gout, in all its various forms of swelled limbs, colic, palsy, & apoplexy.

11. Lastly, madness. The late Dr. Waters, while he acted as house-pupil & apothecary of the Pennsylvania hospital, assured me, that in one-third of the patients confined by this terrible disease, it had been induced by ardent spirits

Drinking in Early America - 1733 Molasses Act & Rum Production in the British American colonies.

Europeans introduced sugarcane to the New World in the 1490s. Cane plantations soon spread throughout the Caribbean & South America & made immense profits for planters & merchants. By 1750, British & French plantations produced most of the world’s sugar & its byproducts, molasses & rum.  At the heart of the plantation system was the labor of millions of enslaved workers, transplanted across the Atlantic like the sugar they produced.  The establishment of the 13 British American colonies, with their surplus of raw materials, made it possible for Great Britain to engage in highly lucrative trading via the Triangular Trade routes across the Atlantic. Sugarcane plantations slave labor. Ships from England traded goods for slaves in Africa. The ships then took the slaves to the sugar plantations in the West Indies. The West Indies sent molasses to the colonies who used the molasses to manufacture rum.

William Clark, Ten Views In the Island of Antigua, in Which are Represented the Process of Sugar Making.... From Drawings Made by William Clark, During a Residence of Three Years in the West Indies (London,1823). "Holeing a Cane-Piece, on Weatherell's Estate." Shows first gang of enslaved men and women using long-handled hoes to dig cane holes; others are marking the field for where the holes will be placed. A black driver is supervising the work. 

In the hot Caribbean climate, it took about a year for sugar canes to ripen. At nine or ten feet high, they towered above the workers, who used sharp, double-edged knives to cut the stalks. Once cut, the stalks were taken to a mill, where the juice was extracted.  Caribbean islands became sugar-production machines, powered by slave labor. In pursuit of sugar fortunes, millions of people were worked to death, & then replaced by more enslaved Africans brought by still more slave ships.

William Clark, Ten Views In the Island of Antigua, in Which are Represented the Process of Sugar Making.... From Drawings Made by William Clark, During a Residence of Three Years in the West Indies (London, 1823)  "Cutting the Sugar Cane, on Delap's Estate," men and women in first gang, black driver supervising; white manager/overseer on horseback. 

Blocks of sugar were packed into hogsheads for shipment. Workers rolled the barrels to the shore, & loaded them onto small craft for transport to larger, oceangoing vessels.  And, in the early 1600s sugar planters in the Caribbean began converting the waste products from sugar making into rum. Rum was first produced to meet the local demand for alcoholic beverages & to supplement the diet of plantation slaves. After the juice was squeezed from the sugarcane in mills, it was boiled in large cauldrons. Impurities rose to the surface & were skimmed off. The juice was transferred to smaller cauldrons & then to wooden barrels or earthenware molds. The remaining impurities became molasses, which was processed & distilled to make rum. The entire enterprise—making sugar, molasses, & rum—relied on the labor of slaves.  Before long, rum was an important export. Like tobacco, rum was used as currency by some merchants. Like sugar, it was easily packed & shipped in barrels. But, unlike sugar, it could be warehoused for long periods of time & age increased its value.

William Clark, Ten Views In the Island of Antigua, in Which are Represented the Process of Sugar Making.... From Drawings Made by William Clark, During a Residence of Three Years in the West Indies (London,1823)  "Interior of a Boiling House," this shows the process of sugar making and the coppers (large vats) in which the cane juice was boiled and crystallized into sugar. 

The Navigation Act of 1733, also known as the Molasses Act, levied heavy taxes on sugar from the West Indies to the American colonies in an attempt to force colonists to purchase the more costly sugar from Britain. The Molasses Act of 1733 was never fully enforced because of the British policy of Salutary Neglect, which basically allowed British officials to turn a 'blind eye' to trade violations.

Prior to the passage of the 1733 Molasses Act British American colonists would get molasses from all islands of the West Indies, including those possessed by the French, Dutch, Spanish & Portuguese.  Molasses was an important ingredient in the colonial era. It is a byproduct of sugar cane refinement & has many uses. It was the number one source of sweetener in the world, up until the 1880's & essential for the distillation of rum. The rum industry in the West Indies was one of its major sources of income, & the rum industry in New England was growing. It was essential in the slave trade between the Colonies, the Indies, & Africa.

William Clark, Ten Views In the Island of Antigua, in Which are Represented the Process of Sugar Making.... From Drawings Made by William Clark, During a Residence of Three Years in the West Indies (London,1823). "Exterior of a Distillery, on Weatherell's Estate." Shows slaves feeding cane trash into the furnaces, people rolling hogsheads of rum, cattle carts hauling the hogsheads, white overseers/managers; in background windmills used for grinding the cane.

The problem with molasses was created due to the fact that the non-British West Indian islands were better producers of sugar cane, & therefore molasses. Those islands were able to produce more molasses & thus were capable of selling it at a lower cost to the American colonists. The non-British West Indian islands were also better trading partners. The British islands refused to purchase colonial exports such as fish, lumber & flour because they did not need it, the non-British islands were in need of these items. The colonist were also prohibited from trading with the British West Indies in grain or livestock because it would compete with Great Britain's market, therefore they were sold to the non-British islands. Due to these factors; refusal to buy products; outlawing the sale of others; & the higher price of molasses; the purchase of molasses from the British West Indies became virtually non-existent.

William Clark, Ten Views In the Island of Antigua, in Which are Represented the Process of Sugar Making.... From Drawings Made by William Clark, During a Residence of Three Years in the West Indies (London,1823). "Shipping Sugar, Willoughby Bay"; shows slaves rolling hogsheads of sugar, brought to shore by ox carts, aboard lighters for transport to ocean- going vessels. 

After complaints about this the British passed the Molasses Act of 1733 which, did not forbid the purchase of molasses from non-British isles, but levied a tax upon all molasses imported into the colonies from non-British isles.  The enforcement of the Molasses Act was difficult, if not non-existent. The colonist found numerous loopholes in the way the tax was enforced. Such ways around the law included going to ports off route & unloading the products bought in the non-British West Indies prior to reaching their destination, & thus avoiding the tax collector. The colonists would also alter markings on products indicating their point of origin & even bribe tax collection officers. This law proved to be completely unmanageable but remained in effect until 1763 when the Act expired.

An anonymous satire on the Excise Bill 1733 shows the Prime Minister Robert Wapole seated astride a wine barrel. His government's taxes on wine and tobacco were seen as an infringement of British liberty, especially in the British American colonies

Drinking in Early America - Rules for Drinking by Peter Stuyvesant c 1592-1612-1672, the Dutch Governor of the New Netherlands

Peter Stuyvesant c 1592-1612-1672 
Dutch Governor of the New Netherlands
Rules For Drinking Responsibly

One of Governor Peter Stuyvesant's first edicts upon arriving in New Amsterdam included new restrictions regarding drinking & selling alcohol in the chaotic Dutch settlement of New Netherlands. The documents note that New Amsterdam's excessive alcohol consumption "causes not only the neglect of honest handicraft and business, but also the debauching of the common man and the Company’s servants and what is still worse, of the young people from childhood up, who seeing the improper proceedings of their parents and imitating them leave the path of virtue and become disorderly."

And so the following list of edicts laid out rules on such diverse topics as bar fights, drinking on Sunday, & providing liquor to Indians:

1. "Henceforth no new taproom, tavern or inn shall be opened."

2. "The taverns, taprooms and inns, already established, may continue for at least four consecutive years, but in the meantime the owners shall be obliged to engage in some other honest business at this place."

 3. "The tavern-keepers and tapsters are allowed to continue in their business for four years at least, but only on condition, that they shall not transfer their former occupation."

4. "The tavern keepers and tapsters shall henceforth not be allowed, to sell or give beer, wine, brandy or strong waters to Indians or provide them with it by intermediaries."

5. "To prevent all fighting and mishaps they shall daily report to the Officer, whether anybody has been hurt or wounded at their houses, under the penalty of forfeiting their business and a fine of one pound Flemish for every hour after the hurt or wound has been inflicted and been concealed by the tapster or tavern-keeper."

6. "The orders, heretofore published against unseasonable night tippling and intemperate drinking on the Sabbath, shall be obeyed by the tavern-keepers and tapsters with close attention."

7. "They shall be held, not to receive any beer or wine or distilled waters into their houses or cellars, directly or indirectly, before they have so reported at the office of the Receiver."

8. "Finally, all tavern-keepers and tapsters, who intend to continue in their occupation, shall eight days after the publication hereof present themselves in person and give their names to the Director General and Council and there solemnly promise, that they will faithfully obey what rules have been or may be made."

Portrait of Peter Stuyvesant attributed to Henri Couturier

Peter Stuyvesant (also known as Pietrus Stuyvesant), the son of a clergyman of Friesland, was born in the Netherlands.  Stuyvesant served in the Dutch Army before receiving his appointment as director-general of New Netherland in 1646. He had served in the West Indies & was governor of the colony of Curacoa. He lost a leg during the unsuccessful assault on the Portuguese island of St. Martin, after which he returned to the Netherlands in 1644.

Two years later he was appointed director-general of New Netherlands, & took the oath of office in July, 1646. He sailed to the new world & reached New Amsterdam on May 11, 1647. Soon after his inauguration on 27 May, he organized a council & established a court of justice.

In deference to the popular will, he ordered a general election of 18 delegates, from whom the governor & his council selected a board of 9, whose power was advisory & not legislative. A dictatorial leader, Stuyvesant was unpopular with the other settlers. However, during his 18 year administration, the population grew from 2,000 to 8,000.

Peter Stuyvesant immediately after his arrival he tried to reorganize the colony: he ordered the strict observance of Sunday rest & prohibited the sale of alcoholic beverages & weapons to the Indians. He also tried to increase state-income by heavier taxation on imports. To improve the quality of the colony he stimulated the colonists to build better houses & taverns, & established a market & an annual cattle-fair. He also showed interest in founding a public school.

He tried to settle an old problem: the question of the boundaries with other colonies. However, the government of the New England colony could not accept his terms. Because of the Dutch claim of jurisdiction in Connecticut, he also became involved in a controversy with Governor of that colony.

The first 2 years of his administration were not successful. He had serious discussions with the patroons, who interfered with the company's trade & denied the authority of the governor, & he was also embroiled in contentions with the council, which sent a deputation to the Hague to report the condition of the colony to the states-general. This report was published as "Vertoogh van Nieuw Netherlandt" (The Hague, 1650). The states-general afterward commanded Stuyvesant to appear personally in Holland; but the order was not confirmed by the Amsterdam chamber, & Stuyvesant refused to obey, saying, " I shall do as I please."

In September, 1650, a meeting of the commissioners on boundaries took place in Hartford, whither Stuyvesant traveled in state. The line was arranged much to the dissatisfaction of the Dutch, who declared that "the governor had ceded away enough territory to found fifty colonies each fifty miles square." Stuyvesant grew haughty in his treatment of his opponents, & threatened to dissolve the council. A plan of municipal government was finally arranged in Holland, & the name of the new city of New Amsterdam--was officially announced on 2 February, 1653. Stuyvesant made a speech on this occasion, knowing that his authority would remain undiminished. The governor was now ordered to Holland again; but the order was soon revoked on the declaration of war with England. Stuyvesant prepared against an attack by ordering his subjects to make a ditch from the North river to the East river, & to erect breastworks. In 1665 he sailed into the Delaware with a fleet of 7 vessels & about 700 men & took possession of the colony of New Sweden, which he called New Amstel.

In his absence New Amsterdam was ravaged by Indians, but his return inspired confidence. Although he organized militia & fortified the town, he subdued the hostile savages chiefly through kind treatment. In 1653, a convention of two deputies from each village in New Netherlands had demanded reforms, & Stuyvesant commanded this assembly to disperse, saying, "We derive our authority from God & the company, not from a few ignorant subjects." The spirit of resistance nevertheless increased, & the encroachments of other colonies, with a depleted treasury, harassed the governor. In 1664, Charles II ceded to his brother, the Duke of York, a large tract of land, including New Netherlands; & 4 English war vessels bearing 450 men, commanded by Captain Richard Nicholls, took possession of the harbor. 

On 30 August Sir George Cartwright handed the governor a summons to surrender, promising life, estate, & liberty to all who would submit to the king's authority. Stuyvesant read the letter before the council, &, fearing the concurrence of the people, tore it into pieces. On his appearance, the people who had assembled around the city-hall greeted him with shouts of "The letter ! the letter ! " &, returning to the council-chamber, he gathered up the fragments, which he gave to the burgomasters to do with the order as they pleased. He sent a defiant answer to Nicholls, & ordered the troops to prepare for an attack, but yielded to a petition of the citizens not to shed innocent blood, & signed a treaty at his Bouwerie house on 9 September, 1664. The burgomasters proclaimed Nicholls governor, & the town was called New York.

In 1665, Stuyvesant went to Holland to report, & labored to secure from the king the satisfaction of the 6th article in the treaty with Nicholls, which granted free trade. During his administration commerce had increased greatly, the colony obtaining the privilege of trading with Brazil in 1648, with Africa for slaves in 1652, & with other foreign ports in 1659. Stuyvesant endeavored unsuccessfully to introduce a specie currency & to establish a mint in New Amsterdam. He was a thorough conservative in church as well as state, & intolerant of any approach to religious freedom. He refused to grant a meeting-house to the Lutherans, who were growing numerous; drove their minister from the colony; & frequently punished religious offenders by fines & imprisonment.

The Surrender

Stuyvesant's Houses & Slaves

On his return from Holland after the surrender, he spent the remainder of his life on his farm outside the city, called the Great Bouwerie, beyond which stretched woods & swamps to the little village of Haarlem.  A colonial bouwerie was a complete self-sustained farm, with crops, orchards, & livestock.  A colonial plantation, might concentrate on growing a specific cash crop such as tobacco. 

Peter Styvesant's Town House, N.Y.C., 1658 as imagined in the 19C

At the time, the farm sat in the area in today’s Greenwich Village & East Village which was then mostly virgin wilderness, dotted with swamps, ponds, hills, & rocks. There was one other Dutch farm in that location & several others that belonged to quasi-freed slave families. Earlier in 1644, the Dutch West India Company had granted partial freedom to 9 slaves who had been petitioning to be released. Despite appearing to grant some liberty to the slaves, it was a decision that mostly benefited the Company.  The slaves were emancipated & given plots of land outside of the city proper, for which the freedmen paid an annual tax in wheat, beans, maize, or a pig. This way, the freedmen could provide for their families, & in turn the Company would not have to care for children or the elderly.  Stuyvesant took advantage of the fragile situation. In addition to the land he was granted by the Dutch West India Company, he quickly began purchasing these "Negro Lots" wherever possible, & in some cases, he simply issued decrees that transferred the land back to the Company and into his hands.  In addition to his own 550 acres that he consolidated, his son-in-law Nicholas Bayard managed to accumulate another 200 acres nearby. Stuyvesant himself kept about 40-50 slaves, by far the largest amount in New Netherlands.  These slaves kept his town home & his bouwerie in order.

Peter Styvesant's Bouwerie as imagined in the 19C

Stuyvesant continued to live on his country estate on Manhattan Island which was maintained by slaves, until his death in 1672.

Drinking - London's 1400s Public Taverns & Inns

Medieval Inn & Tavern Names

From – January 31, 2014

British Library Medieval, Additional 27695, c. 1330-40

From 1423 to 1426 the names of over 50 taverns & inns were recorded by William Porland, who was the clerk for London’s fraternity of Brewers. In an article in the Journal of the English Place Name Society, Barrie Cox takes a look at these names & some of the reasons how they got them. Here are few:

1. The Swan – this was the most popular name, with 6 taverns in London using it. Other taverns were named for birds as well, including The Crane & The Cock. There were even taverns called The White Cock & The Red Cock.

2. The Dolphin (Dolphyn) was the name of a tavern near St. Magnus’ Church. Other animal names for taverns include The Horse, The Lamb & The Old Bull.

3. The Seven Stars (vij Sterres) – according to medieval knowledge, the 7 stars represented the sun, the moon, Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, Venus & Mercury. Another tavern had the name The Three Moons.

4. The King’s Head (kyngeshed) – a few other taverns had a similar name, including The Horse’s Head, The Ram’s Head & The Saracen’s Head

5. Two taverns were named after saints: The Christopher, after the patron saint of travellers, & The St. Julian, who was the patron saint of hospitality.

6. The Pewter Pot (peauterpotte) could be found in Ironmonger Lane in Cheapside. It probably got its name for a type of drinking vessel.

7. The Pannier (panyer) on Paternoster Rowe would have been based on the French word panier, which means bread basket. Barrie Cox writes “this seems appropriate as a name for a lowly eating- & drinking-house.”

8. The Cony (Cony yn Conyhooplane) was a Middle English word for a rabbit, leading Cox to believe “the name suggests a small tavern where a rabbit stew could be enjoyed.”

Other names of medieval taverns include The Ball, The Basket, The Bell, The Cross, The Cup, The Garland, The Green Gate, The Hammer, The Lattice, The Rose & 2 that were called The Ship.

Barrie Cox’ article ‘Some London Inn & Tavern Names 1423-1426′ appears the Journal of the English Place Name Society, Vol.30(1997-8). He also wrote the book English Inn & Tavern Names, which was published in 1994 & is available from the Institute for Name Studies, University of Nottingham.