Sunday, August 23, 2015

Doing the Laundry - 20C Europe & Britain

Thomas CS Benham (English painter, 1878- 1922) Jour de séchage

Abram Efimovich Arkhipov  (Russian artist, 1862-1930) The Washer Women

Aristide Maillol (French artist, 1861-1944) Laundry

William Orpen (Irish Painter, 1878-1931)  The Wash House

Louis Valtat (French artist, 1869-1952) Woman with a Wash Tub 1909

Pierre Auguste Renoir (French Impressionist painter, 1841-1919) Laundresses 1912

Marie van Regteren Altena (Dutch artist, 1868-1958) The Linen Room

Pierre Bonnard, (French painter, 1867-1947). The Linen 1900 Detail

Abram Efimovich Arkhipov (Russian artist, 1862-1930) Washer Women

Franz Marc (German painter, 1880-1916) Laundry Fluttering in the Wind

William Orpen (Irish Painter, 1878-1931)  Lottie of Paradise Walk

Egon Schiele (Austrian Expressionist Painter, 1890-1918) House with Drying Laundry 1917

1900 Carlo Cressini (Italian 1864-1938) Laundry

Jean-Eugene Buland (French painter, 1852-1927)  Le déjeuner des laveuses

Rik Wouters (Belgian artist, 1882-1916) Woman Ironing 1912

Andrei Andreevich Tutunov (Russian artist, 1928) The Laundry Drying 1945

Stanley Spencer, (English painter, 1891 – 1959) Sorting Laundry

Doing the Laundry - 19C & 20C America + an early college text on laundry

Lilly Martin Spencer (American artist, 1822 –1902) The Jolly Washerwoman

By 1914. the art of the laundry had become a subject taught in one of  America's finest universities.  Laundering written by Lydia Ray Balderston, who was an Instructor of Laundering, Teachers College, Columbia University, New York City, was included in the series Lippencott's Home Manuals.

Charles Frederic Ulrich (American painter, 1858-1908) Washerwomen

"The earliest known method of washing depended entirely on the action of the running water of streams. If the water was not running, the primitive peoples quite naturally used twisting, shaking, flopping, slapping and pounding. They were dependent on the solvent power of water for many kinds of soil, but if any stain was not soluble in water, there was no way to take it out. We find it stated that in B. C. 2000 Egyptians on the Nile stamped their clothes with the feet, beat them with white clay, and wrung them by twisting and turning, one end being held between the feet. Homer in the "Odyssey" tells of the early wash days in Greece."  Laundering written by Lydia Ray Balderston in 1914

Anna Elizabeth Klumpke (American painter, 1856–1942) In the Wash House

"The story is told that a collar in London in 1832 drew attention to the question of sterilizing the clothes; as a result a poor woman set up a wash-boiler, soap kettle, and other appliances, and so we have the first public wash-house. Here washwomen paid a penny for the privilege of its use, and in 1842 a public laundry was established in Liverpool.Laundering written by Lydia Ray Balderston in 1914

Charles Courtney Curran (American painter, 1861-1942) Hanging Out Linen

"Sunshine is the simplest method of bleaching and is also the safest. To bleach with sunshine, the garment should be washed clean, then spread while wet in the sun. The sun, together with the oxygen of the water, is most effective in its work. This method requires the least knowledge and the most-time, but no destruction of fiber results. Often the garments are spread in the dew. This dew takes the place of sprinkling the clothes. With either process we are dependent upon the oxygen supplied by the moisture.Laundering written by Lydia Ray Balderston in 1914

Charles Courtney Curran (American painter, 1861-1942) A Breezy Day 1887

"A washing solution must be established to suit different kinds of water. Some of the hard waters will require more soda in the soap solution than others. The water should be measured, the soap weighed, and the two heated at a low temperature in the soap tank until all soap is dissolved and the liquor is amber color. The weighed quantity of soda is sprinkled in, and the solution simmered another ten minutes. For a general idea of proportion one may use, if water is hard:   5 lbs. of soap. 10 lbs. of soda. 25 gallons of water."  Laundering written by Lydia Ray Balderston in 1914

Martha Walter (American artist, 1875–1976) Washday

"Water has solvent power. The early laundress washed her clothes in the running brook and the water dissolved out the dirt. To hasten its work the laundress often pounded the clothes with a paddle or stone or trod them. This process was slow, and as time became a consideration it seemed wise to find some cleansing agent that would add its power to that of the water.  The alkaline nature of urine was learned, and it was the custom to have urine collected in large urns in central places in the village. This became the public source of supply for the first chemical aid in washing. Even in our mother's early memory urine was used in dyeing the yarn."  Laundering written by Lydia Ray Balderston in 1914

Charles Courtney Curran (American painter, 1861-1942) Shadows

"Later wood ashes were taken from the housewife's fire, covered with water and the pearlash or potash was dissolved—"leached." The clothes were soaked in this, and the pearl-ash or lye aided in the cleaning process, but it was destructive to the clothing. An illustration of this method is found in the Italian caldron, where the clothes are placed, the finest in the center, covered with canvas, ashes placed on top and water poured over.  To deaden the potash, later it was mixed with kitchen grease, thus making a kind of soap. This soap was of irregular composition, with the potash usually in excess. This potash "broke" the hardness of the water, and the suds acted as a carrier of dirt, thus making a double cleansing agent."  Laundering written by Lydia Ray Balderston in 1914

John Sloan (American painter, 1871-1951) Red Kimono on the Roof 1912

"Finally in this present period (1914), in the domestic laundry, wash-boards and other primitive equipment are giving way to the various mechanical devices which are great labor savers, and time savers, and often indeed fabric savers. Washing machines driven by motors, special washing devices for clothes, boilers and wash-tubs, wringers (even motor driven), and steam drying rooms, are making the work less of a drudgery.  Even the irons are no longer heated with smoking hot coals and dragged over the garment, but by gas or electricity giving off heat with evenness of temperature and continued action."  Laundering written by Lydia Ray Balderston in 1914

Platt Powell Ryder (American artist, 1821–1896) Boiling the Laundry

John Sloan (American painter, 1871-1951) Backyards, Greenwich Village 1914

William Merritt Chase (American painter, 1849-1916) Wash Day Back Yard Reminiscence of Brooklyn 1886

John Sloan (American painter, 1871-1951) Woman's Work 1912

Robert Spencer (American painter, 1879-1931) Washer Woman 1919

Robert Frederick Blum (American artist, 1857–1903) In the Laundry

William Aiken Walker (American painter, 1839-1921) Autumn Scene in North Carolina with Cabin, Wash Line, and Cornfield 1908

Robert Spencer (American painter, 1879-1931) Woman Hanging Out Clothes 1917

Edward Potthast (American painter, 1857-1927) The Washerwomen

John Sloan (American painter, 1871-1951) Sun and Wind on the Roof 1915

John Sloan (American painter, 1871-1951) Women Drying Their Hair 1912

 Will Hicok Low (American Painter, 1853-1932) Montlery Sur Long

David McCosh (American artist, 1903-1981) Woman Ironing 1931

Henry Sugimoto (Japanese American artist, 1900-1990) Susie Ironing in Room at the Internment Camp

Doing the Laundry - Ironing in 19C Europe & Britain

Louis Joseph Anthonissen (French artist, 1849-1913)  Atelier de repasseuses à Trouville

Armand Desire Gautier (French, 1825-1894) Woman Ironing

1869 Edgar Degas (French painter, 1834–1917) Woman Ironing.

1870s Edgar Degas (French painter, 1834–1917) Woman Ironing

1882 Edgar Degas (French painter, 1834–1917) . Woman Ironing

1887 Edgar Degas (French painter, 1834–1917) Woman Ironing

Edgar Degas (French artist, 1834–1917) Girl at Ironing Board

Francois Bonvin (French Realist Painter, 1817-1887) A Woman Ironing The Laundress

Francois Bonvin (French Realist Painter, 1817-1887) Woman Ironing 1858

Emmanuel Zairis (Greek artist, 1876-1948) Women Ironing

Max-Liebermann (German painter, 1847 - 1935) A Woman Ironing

Paul Mathey (French artist, 1844-1929) Interior with Woman and Child

 Louis GalliacLouis Galliac (1849-1934) Ironing

Ivana Kobilca (Slovene painter 1861-1926) Ironing Women - 1891

Pablo Picasso (Spanish-born artist, 1881-1973) Woman Ironing 1904

 Unknown artist English school, Laundry Maid c 1880

1893 Albert Edelfelt (Finnish Academic Painter, 1854-1905) Laundresses