Friday, October 2, 2015

Biography - Margareta von Habsburg of the Netherlands 1480-1530

Margareta von Habsburg of the Netherlands 1480-1530 was appointed regent by her father Emperor Maximilian, between 1507-1515. She served as intermediary between him & his subjects in the Netherlands; negotiated a treaty of commerce with England for Flemish cloth interests; & played a role in the formation of the League of Cambrai in 1508. Her nephew, Karl V, removed her from office but soon recognized her as one of his wisest advisers. He appointed her as governor, General-Stadholder of the Netherlands from 1518-1530.

Margareta or Mary von Habsburg of the Netherlands

In 1529, together with Louise of Savoy, she negotiated the Treaty of Cambrai, the so-called Ladies' Peace.

Louise of Savoy as Sibylla Agrippa

Margareta von Habsburg's mother was Duchess Marie of Bourgogne. Her mother was born in Brussels in 1457; & she died tragically in Brugge in 1482, when she fell off her horse, which then fell on top of her. She was the only daughter of the duke Karl of Burgundy.

Maria von Burgund, or Maria duchess of Burgundy.

Margareta von Habsburg's personal life was hectic. Her 1st marriage to King Charles VIII of France ended in divorce. Her 2nd husband, Juan, the Crown Prince of Aragón & Castilla, died shortly after their marriage in 1497. In 1501, she wed once again to Duke Philiberto II of Savoie, who died 3 years later. She also served as Countess of Artois, Bourgogne (Franche-Comté), Mâcon, Auxerre and Charolais, & Dame de Salins from 1493 as Marguerite III. Although she married 3 times, she had no children.

Biography - French king's mistress Diane de Poitiers 1499-1566 killed by drinking gold or perhaps a plot of Catherine de' Medici?

1550 Diane de Poitiers after François Clouet

"Dying to look good - French king's mistress Diane de Poitiers (1499-1566) killed by drinking gold elixir of youth."  By Claire Bates,  Daily Mail, December 22, 2009

"Miracle beauty products may be a staple on women's dressing tables today, but they're not a recent invention. The mistress of the 16th-century French king, Henry II, drank gold in an effort to preserve her youth, according to a study published in the British Medical Journal. Unfortunately the remedy eventually killed her.

Diane de Poitiers (1499-1566)

"When French experts dug up the remains of Diane de Poitiers in 2008, they found high levels of gold in her hair. Since she was not a queen & did not wear a crown, scientists said it was hard to see how jewellery could have contaminated her hair & body. Experts now say she probably consumed drinkable gold, believed at the time to preserve youth & treat a host of other ailments.

Diane de Poitiers (1499-1566)

"The French court believed gold harnessed the power of the Sun, which would be transferred to the drinker. Alchemists often acted as apothecaries & prescribed solutions made up of gold chloride & diethyl ether. These were popular at the French Court.

Lady in bath (Portrait of Diane de Poitiers (1499-1566)

"It is very likely Diane de Poitiers was killed by her desire to look young. Unusually she was 20 years older than her royal lover. Gold was a popular 'miracle youth cure' in the 16th century. Contemporary reports mention the famed beauty had an unusually white face without the need for makeup & that she looked as fresh as a 30-year-old when she was over twice that age.

Henri II of France

"French forensic experts who analysed her bones found traces of mercury, which was used in the preparation of gold remedies. The noble was famed for her athleticism but her remains also revealed she suffered from thinning hair & fragile bones, which are common symptoms of chronic gold intoxication.

Portrait of Diane de Poitiers (1499-1566)

"The body of the French king's favorite was only discovered in 2008. After the king's death Diane de Poitiers had been banished from court by his widow Catherine de'Medici to the chateau in Anet given to her by the king.

Diane de Poitiers (1499-1566)

"She died there, aged 66, in 1566 & was buried in a grand tomb in a specially built funeral chapel. However her grave was desecrated during the French Revolution & her body flung into a common grave outside the chateau's walls.

Diane de Poitiers (1499-1566)

"Scientists Joel Poupon & Philippe Charlier, who usually work in hospital morgues in Paris, worked together to identify de Poitiers in the recently opened Normandy grave. The bones belonged to someone of her age & athletic physique. Crucially one of the legs revealed a healed fracture - de Poitiers was reported to have broken her leg in a riding accident."

Catherine de Medici (1519-1589)

Diane de Poitiers (1499-1566) was a French noblewoman & a prominent courtier at the courts of kings Francis I & his son, Henry II of France. She became notorious as the latter's favorite mistress. It was in this capacity that she wielded much influence & power at the French Court, which continued until Henry was mortally wounded in a tournament accident, during which his lance wore her favour (ribbon) rather than his wife's. Queen Catherine de' Medici, whom Henry had married in 1533, assumed control, restricting access to him as he lay dying. Although the king was alleged to have called out repeatedly for Diane, she was never summoned or admitted, & on his death, she was also not invited to the funeral. Immediately thereafter, Catherine de' Medici banished Diane.

1525 Diane de Poitiers

Biography - Elisabetta Gonzaga 1471–1526 expelled by Pope Leo X

Elisabetta Gonzaga (1471–1526) Elisabetta was born in Mantua, Italy, the 2nd daughter of Federico I Gonzaga, Marquess of Mantua & Margaret of Wittelsbach. Her brother was Francesco II Gonzaga. Elisabetta Gonzaga married Guidobaldo da Montefeltro, the duke of Urbino, in 1489. Guidobaldo was sickly & impotent; & they had no children, but Elisabetta refused to divorce him & nursed him through his illnesses.

1503 Duchess Elisabetta Gonzaga of Urbino attr to Raphael Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino (1483–1520)

In 1504, they adopted Francesco Maria I della Rovere, the child of Guidobaldo's sister, who was then 14. Elisabetta's education led her to attracted writers, artists, & scholars to their court.

Guidobaldo da Montefeltro by Raphael Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino (1483–1520)

Her nobility gave her contact & involvement in the power politics of 16th-century Italy. She was the sister-in-law of Isabella d'Este.

Isabella d'Este 1474-1539

In June 1502, Cesare Borgia occupied Urbino, putting to flight Guidobaldo & forcing Elisabetta to remain in Mantua, where she had been staying as a guest. She remained there until 1503, & then joined Guidobaldo in Venice. They were restored to power in 1504.

Giorgione (Italian painter, 1477–1510) Francesco Maria della Rovere

In 1506, Elisabetta reluctantly accompanied Lucrezia Borgia on her journey to Ferrara, where Lucrezia was married to Alfonso I d'Este.

Bartolomeo Veneto, Portrait traditionally assumed to be Lucrezia Borgia 1480-1519

In 1508, the adopted Francesco was betrothed to Eleonora Gonzaga, Elisabetta's niece, further consolidating the family dynasty. Following Guidobaldo's death in 1508, at the age of 36, she continued to live in Urbino as regent to the underage heir Francesco. However in 1516, she was expelled from Urbino by Pope Leo X, who wanted to give the duchy to his nephew Lorenzo de Medici. Together with her niece Leonora & without a penny, they found refuge in Ferrara.

Titian Tiziano Vercelli (Italian painter, 1488-1576) Portrait of Francesco Maria della Rovere & Eleonora Gonzaga 1536-38

Elisabetta Gonzaga was immortalized for her cultured & virtuous life by the writer Baldassare Castiglione, whose famous work of 1528, The Courtier, was based on his interactions & conversations with her. In the 20C, she was the focus of Saul Bellows' The Gonzaga Manuscripts.

Biography - Duchess Suzane de Bourbon 1491-1521 died without heirs

1500 Suzanne de Bourbon-Beaujeu

Suzanne de Bourbon (1491–1521) was Duchess of Bourbon and Auvergne from 1503 to her death. Her husband was Charles de Bourbon.

She was the daughter & only surviving offspring of Peter II, Duke of Bourbon, & Anne of France, daughter of King Louis XI of France. She became duchess regant in 1503, after the death of her father. Her mother, Anne, acted as her regent during her minority & negotiated for several different marriages to ensure that she had a spouse who would protect her position.

On 10 May 1505, at Château du Parc-les-Moulins, Suzanne married her cousin Charles de Bourbon, head of the Montpensier family, a cadet branch of the Bourbons. Her husband was made her co-ruler through marriage.  Suzanne of Bourbon had 3 children, Francis de Bourbon, Count of Clermont, (1517-18) who only lived 6 months. She also had stillborn twins. Suzanne died at Château de Châtellerault. Her husband kept his position as Duke of Bourbon after her death. Her death without heirs caused her lands to eventually become a part of the kingdom of France.

Biography - Princess Claude de France 1499-1524 could not become queen, so was married to her cousin who would become king

Claude de France (1499-1524) was a princess & queen consort of France & ruling Duchess of Brittany. She was the eldest daughter of Louis XII of France & Anne, Duchess of Brittany.

1530-40 Claude de France (1499-1524) Duchesse de Bretagne, reine de France (1514) by Corneille de Lyon Corneille de Lyon (c.1500-75)

Because her mother, Anne, Duchess of Brittany, had no surviving sons, Claude became heiress to the Duchy of Brittany.

Francis I King of France (1594-1547)

French nobles urged Claude's father Louis XII to marry Claude to her cousin Francis, Duke of Angoulême, "who is at least all French," & was also the heir-presumptive to the French crown. In 1506, the 6-year-old Claude was betrothed to Francis. In 1514, when her mother died, Claude became Duchess of Brittany.

Claude de France (1499-1524) Duchesse de Bretagne, reine de France (1514) Jean Clouet (1475–1540)

In 1514, on 18th of May Francis married, to Claude of France. Because of the Salic Law that stated that women could not inherit the throne of France, the throne passed to Francis I at the death of Louis XII, as he was the descendant of the eldest surviving male line of the Capetian Dynasty.

Claude de France (1499-1524) Duchesse de Bretagne, reine de France (1514)

Claude, the pawn of so much dynastic maneuvering since she was born, was short in stature & afflicted with scoliosis, which gave her a hunched back. She was eclipsed at court by her mother-in-law, Louise of Savoy, & her sister-in-law, the literary Marguerite, Queen consort of Navarre.

Claude de France (1499-1524) Duchesse de Bretagne, reine de France (1514)

When Francis became King in 1515, 2 of Claude's ladies-in-waiting were the English sisters Mary & Anne Boleyn, & another was Diane de Poitiers. Mary became the king's mistress before returning home in about 1519.

Claude de France (1499-1524) Duchesse de Bretagne, reine de France (1514)

Claude's life was spent in an endless round of annual pregnancies. Meanwhile, her husband was busy with his many mistresses, but he was usually relatively discreet. Claude imposed a strict moral code on her own personal household.

Claude de France (1499-1524) Duchesse de Bretagne, reine de France (1514) with her children

Claude died in 1524, when she was only 24. She was initially succeeded as ruler of Brittany by her eldest son, the Dauphin Francis, who became Duke Francis III, with Claude's widower King Francis I as guardian. After the Dauphin's death in 1536, Claude's 2nd son, later became King of France as Henry II.

1st Child of Claude de France - Louise-Louise, Dauphine of France (1515-1517) by Jean Clouet (1475–1540)

Claude's widowed husband himself remarried several years after Claude's death, to Eleanor of Austria, the sister of Emperor Charles V. The atmosphere at court became even more debauched, & there were rumors that King Francis's death in 1547, was due to syphilis.

2nd Child of Claude de Fance Charlotte, Dauphine of France (1516-1524) by Jean Clouet (1475–1540)

3rd Child of Claude de France - Francis, Duke of Brittany (1518-1536) by Jean Clouet (1475–1540)

4th Child of Claude de France - Henry II, King of France (1519-1559) by Jean Clouet (1475-1540) Married to Catherine de Medici

5th Child of Claude of France - Madeleine (1520-1537) Married James V of Scotland

6th Child of Claude de France - Charles de France (1522-45) Duke of Orleans by Corneille de Lyon (c.1500-75)

7th Child of Claude de France - Margaret, Duchess of Berry (1523-1574) Married Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy

European Women 1500-1520

1500 Giovanni Antonio Boltraffio (1467-1516) Portrait of a Lady as St Lucy

1500 Gentile Bellini (1429-1507) Portrait of Caterina Cornaro, Queen of Cyprus

1500 Master of the Joseph Sequence (fl 1479-1500) Johanna I van Castilië

1500 perhaps by Niklas Reiser Maria von Burgund (1457-1482),

1500 Pietro Perugino (1448-1523) Pietro Magdalen

1500s Claude de France (1499-1524) and her daughters (Louise, Charlotte, Madeleine and Marguerite) and Eleonore of Habsbourg,

1503 Albrecht Durer (1471-1528) Kopf der Maria

1505 Boccaccio Boccaccino (1460-1525) Gypsy Girl

1505 Giorgione (Giorgio Barbarelli from Castelfranco 1477-1510) The Old Woman

1505 Albrecht Durer (1471-1528) Young Venetian Lady

1505 Albrecht Durer (1471-1528) Portrait of a Venetian Woman

1505 Jan Provoost (1462-c 1525) Portrait of a Female Donor

1506 Giorgione (Giorgio Barbarelli from Castelfranco 1477-1510) Portrait of a Young Woman, Laura

1506 Lorenzo Lotto (1480-1556) Portrait of a Woman

1507 Albrecht Dürer (1471-1528) Portrait of a Young Girl

1508 Ridolfo del Ghirlandaio (1483-1561) Portrait of a Woman

1509 attr Hans Holbein the Elder Katharina Schwarz

1509 Giorgione (Giorgio Barbarelli from Castelfranco 1477-1510) Portrait of a Courtesan

1510 Hans Holbein the Elder Portrait of a Woman

1510 Alessandro Araldi (1460-1530) Barbara Pallavicino

1510 Sebastiano del Piombo, Daughter of Herodias

1510 c Beatrice d'Este by Bartolomeo Veneto

1510 Sebastiano del Piombo, Portrait of a Young Girl as a Wise Virgin

1510 Vittore Carpaccio,  Portrait of a Woman

1510 Giorgione (Giorgio Barbarelli from Castelfranco 1477-1510) Two Women and a Man The Trio

1511 Tiziano Vecellio (Titian) Portrait of a Woman Known as La Schiavona

1512 Palma il Vecchio (1580-1528)Young Woman in Green Dress

1513 Andrea del Sarto (1486-1530) Portrait of the Artist's Wife

1514 Andrea del Sarto (1486-1530) Portrait of a Lady with a Book

1514 Titian (Tiziano Vecellio)- Profane Love - Vanity

1515 Altobello Melone (1490-1543) Alda Gambara

1515 Palma Vecchio, 1515-1520 The Three Sisters

1515 Palma Vecchio, (1515-1520) Young Girl in Profile

1515 Pietro degli Ingannati,  Portrait of a Young Lady

1516 Hans Holbein the Younger (1498-1543) Dorothea Kannengiesser

1516 Jacopo Pontormo (1494-1557) Portrait of a Woman

1517 Correggio, Ritratto di Dama

1519 Domenico Beccafumi (1484-1551) Tanaquil

1510 Bernadino Licinio Portrait of a Lady

1515 Bernadino Licinio Portrait of a Lady

1519s Giovanni Cariani Lady Behind a Parapet

1515-20 Palma Vecchio, Lady in Green

c 1505-1520 Juan de Borgona (1470-1536) Lady with Hare

Giovanni Antonio Boltraffio (Italian artist, 1467-1516) Portrait of a Woman

A Woman Unknown Artist c 1505

 Bartolomeo Veneto (1470-1531) Portrait of a Woman c 1503

Bernardino di Bosio Zaganelli (Early Renaissance Italian artist, 1460s-1510)  c 1500

German Lady Artist unknown c 1500

Giovanni Francesco Caroto (Italian High Renaissance Painter, ca.1480-1555) Isabelle d'Este c 1505-10

Girolamo di Benvenuto (Italian High Renaissance Painter, 1470-1524) Portrait of a Young Woman, c 1508

Michel Sittow (1469-1525) Catherine of Aragon

Portrait of Eleonora Gonzaga (by Shearman) aka The Boston Raphael attributed to Raphael Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino (1483–1520) 

Ridolfo Ghirlandaio (Florentine painter, 1483-1561) Woman c 1509