Sunday, October 4, 2015

Biography - Caterina Sforza 1463–1509 married at 10, outlived 3 husbands, imprisioned, died at 46


Caterina Sforza, Countess of Forlì (1463–1509) was the illegitimate daughter of Galeazzo Maria Sforza, Duke of Milan & Lucrezia Landriani, the wife of the courtier Gian Piero Landriani, a close friend of the Duke. It is believed that Caterina spent the early years of her life with the family of her natural mother. Lucrezia was always beside her daughter in the crucial moments of her life, even in her final years in Florence. With the help of her mother, Caterina fought to retain her power & position & the lives of herself and her children throughout her life.


Caterina Sforza, Lady of Imola, Countess of Forli (1463-1509) Lorenzo di Credi

When she was 10 in 1473, Caterina was betrothed to Girolamo Riario, the putative son of Paolo Riario & Bianca della Rovere, sister of Pope Sixtus IV. There were persistent rumors, however, that Girolamo was a natural son of the Pope. Despite the bride's being just 10 years of age, the marriage of Caterina & Girolamo was celebrated in January 1473, but consummated 4 years later, when Caterina reached the tender age of 14.

Pope Sixtus IV, the rumored father of the groom, gave the young groom Girolamo the Lordship of Imola. After a triumphal entrance into Imola in 1477, Caterina went to Rome with her husband, where they lived for many years at the service of the Pope. The following year, in March 1478, Caterina gave birth to her 1st child. Caterina subsequently gave birth to 5 more children in the next 9 years.

The lives of Caterina & Girolamo changed abruptly with the death of Pope Sixtus IV in 1484. Rebellions & disorder immediately spread through Rome. Girolamo's residence, the Orsini palace in Campo de' Fiori, was stripped of its content & almost destroyed. Girolamo was killed in 1488, by a conspiracy led by members of the Orsis, a noble family of Forlì. Their palace was sacked, while Caterina & her children were taken prisoner.


Sandro Botticelli (1445–1510) Detail of the Three Graces from Botticelli's Primavera. The woman on the far right is Caterina.

"Caterina's relationship with Antonio Maria Ordelaffi developed in the summer of 1489, more than a year after her husband's death... Caterina was a 26-year-old widow, Antonio Maria the 29-year-old heir of the Ordelaffi. The prospect of a marriage between the 2 was celebrated by the people of Forli. But, in condemning his niece's 'disorderly' manner of living, Ludovico Sforza seemed to fear a loss of interest in the strategic city... Ultimately, the affair was broken up. In an effort to preserve Riario interests, Cardinal Raffaelo Riario arranged for Ordelaffi's removal from 'danger' to safety in Venice."

"...Caterina appointed Giaccomo Feo as the new castellan of Ravaldina... But Caterina's relationship with Giacomo scandalized her contemporaries. He was despised for his arrogance & hated for his influence over Caterina... Giacomo was brutally assassinated in 1495...Caterina then revealed that Giacomo had been more than her lover; she had been secretly married to him. Her vengeance against those responsible for Giacomo's death was swift & brutal. Through all the conflict & its aftermath, Caterina survived in power."   (Jansen, 2002, p. 44)  She died at 46 in Florence.

Biography - Francis I & his mistress Anne d'Etampes 1508-1580 arts & letters & sex



Francis I of France (1494-1547)

Francis I of France (1494-1547) was France's Renaissance king who oversaw France during the turbulent early years of the Reformation. A humanist & patron of the arts, his court briefly included Leonardo da Vinci.  At his court, he also installed Benvenuto Cellini, Francesco Primaticcio, & Rosso del Rosso; but in the buildings at Chambord, St Germain, Villers-Cotterets, & Fontainebleau the French tradition triumphed over the Italian school.  The humanists Bude, Jacques Colin, & Pierre Duchatel were the king's intimates; & Clement Marot was his favorite poet.


Jean Clouet (1475–1540) Francis I of France (1494-1547)

In 1515, after his conquest of Milan, Francis invited the 65-year-old old Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519) to settle in France. The king gave Leonardo the manor of Cloux outside Amboise, where the painter spent the last 3 years of his life. Although suffering from a paralysis of the right hand, Leonardo apparently was still able to draw & teach. He produced studies for the Virgin Mary from "The Virgin and Child with St. Anne." He drew studies of cats, horses, dragons, St. George, anatomical studies, the nature of water, the Deluge, & of various machines. Leonardo died on May 2, 1519 in Cloux, France. Legend has it that King Francis I was at his side when he died, cradling Leonardo's head in his arms.


Francis I of France (1494-1547)

By 1545, several of Leonardo’s major works, including Mona Lisa, were part of Francis’s collection. Francis also purchased the works of other Italian painters, including Michelangelo, (1475–1564); Raphael, (1483–1520); & Titian, (1488-1576).   Francis I instituted in 1530, at the instance of Guillaume Bude (Budaeus), Lecteurs royaux, who in spite of the opposition of the Sorbonne were granted full liberty to teach Hebrew, Greek, Latin, mathematics, &c.


Francis I of France (1494-1547) by Joos Van Cleve circa 1530

The king liked books, & a chest containing his favorite books—mostly ancient histories & medieval romances—followed him on his travels. He enlarged the library at Blois, which he had inherited. He employed agents in Italy & elsewhere to acquire precious classical manuscripts, many of them in Greek, for his library at Fontainebleau. The 2 royal libraries were integrated in 1544, eventually forming the nucleus of the present-day Bibliotèque Nationale in Paris. His paintings also were the beginning of the collection now in the Louvre.


1530 Anne de Pisseleu D'Heilly, Duchesse d'Etampes (1508-1580) attr to Corneille de Lyon (Netherlandish artist, active by 1533–d 1575)

It is reported that from 1526 to his death, Anne de Pisseleu, whom he recreated into the Duchesse d'Etampes, essentially dominated him. The daughter of a nobleman of Picardy, she came to court before 1522, as maid of honour to Louise of Savoy, Duchess d’Angoulême who was the mother of Francis I.


Jean Clouet (1475–1540) Anne de Pisseleu D'Heilly, Duchesse d'Etampes (1508-1580)

"Tradition has it that it was at Mont-de-Marsan in March 1526, that Francis first met Anne, the daughter of Guillaume d'Heilly, seigneur de Pisseleu, who was to become his mistress. Anne was 18 at the time and attached to the household of Madame de Vendome. By 1527, she had joined the 'fair band' of ladies which accompanied the king on hunting expedition." See: Renaissance Warrior and Patron: The Reign of Francis I By R. J. Knecht p 249


Anne de Pisseleu D'Heilly, Duchesse d'Etampes (1508-1580)

Francis I made Anne his mistress, probably upon his return from his captivity at Madrid in 1526, giving up his long-term mistress, Françoise de Foix, for her. Anne had her hands full keeping the King happy; engaging in political intrigues at court; & containing her rival Diane de Poitiers, mistress of Henry II who would become King of France.


Anne de Pisseleu D'Heilly, Duchesse d'Etampes (1508-1580) by Jean Clouet (1475–1540)

Anne was described as being sprightly, pretty, witty, & cultured, "the most beautiful among the learned and the most learned among the beautiful." She apparently encouraged his interest in the arts & letters. She succeeded in keeping the favor of the king, until his death in 1547.


1557 Anne de Pisseleu D'Heilly, Duchesse d'Etampes (1508-1580) by Jean Clouet (1475–1540)

The liaison received some official recognition; when the new Queen of France, Eleanor of Austria, entered Paris in 1530, the King & Anne occupied the same window. Determined to give Anne some dignity at court, Francis I wanted to find her a husband who was of sufficiently high birth to gain acceptance of the courtiers. This honor & indignity fell to the son of an outlaw, to Jean de Brosse, Earl of Penthievre. Their sham marriage took place in Nantes August 25, 1532. To get Anne's new husband out of the way, the King appointed him governor of the Bourbonnais. The King, then, by letters patent of 23 June 1534, granted him the county of Etampes, erected for him a duchy January 18, 1536, & finally he got the Cordon of the Order of the Holy Spirit. Now Anne was titled.


Anne de Pisseleu D'Heilly, Duchesse d'Etampes (1508-1580) by Jean Clouet (1475–1540)

"There was a new scandal at court: Anne d'Etampes took a lover, Etienne Dolet. The King was such a puppet that he ignored the inappropriate behavior of his mistress...Etienne Dolet was executed on August 5, on Place Maubert in Paris. It was his 37th birthday...Once the King discovered that Dolet was Anne's lover, he had him burned at the stake." Both the King & Anne were witnesses to the execution. See: Shari Beck, A Portrait in Black and White: Diane De Poitiers in Her Own Words, 2011, p. 256-260


Francis I of France (1494-1547)

She was a friend to new ideas & tolerant of Protestants, whose beliefs she openly embraced after the King's death. With the death of Francis I in 1547, & the accession of Henry II, the Duchess d’Étampes was dismissed from court. She died in obscurity.


Biography - Agnès Sorel 1422-1450 mistress of King Charles VII 1403–1461 of France



Agnes Sorel mistress of Charles VII of France (1403-1461) by Jean (or Jehan) Fouquet (French artist, 1420–1481)

Agnès Sorel (1422-1450), the daughter of soldier Jean Soreau, & Catherine de Maignelais, entered the life of Charles VII (1403–1461) of France in 1442. At that time, she was in the household of Isabelle of Lorraine, wife of King René. When Charles saw her for the first time, he fell madly in love and brought her to his court to make her his mistress.


Jean (or Jehan) Fouquet (French artist, 1420–1481) c 1445 Portrait of Charles VII, King of France (1403–1461)

Her presence was felt immediately at the royal court in Chinon, where her presence allegedly brought the king out of a protracted depression. Her strong influence on the king plus her extravagant tastes, soon earned her powerful, jealous enemies at court.

In 1444, she became the first official "favorite" of a king of France. In Charles court, she was became interested in affairs of state. She had the most beautiful headboards, best tapestry, best linen & covers, best dishes, ring goods & jewels, best cooks & best everything. -- writes Chastelain (1405-1475).


Agnes Sorel mistress of Charles VII of France (1403-1461)  by an unknown artist

To add to the luxury the king bestowed on Agnes, in 1448, her gave her the castle of Beauty-sur-Marne. "And the beauty which held the title of "the most beautiful of the world" should be called "Demoiselle of Beauty:" Thus the king had given her for her lifetime the house of Beaulté lez Paris." (Enguerrand of Monstrelet 1390-1453)

It is in this atmosphere that Charles VII asserted his authority. He called together John Bureau, Jacques Coeur & Etienne Chevalier, all confidants of the beautiful Agnès, & all interfering in public affairs, & spoke these words, attributed to François I as a reminder: "Sweet Agnès, more honor you deserve / the cause being to recover France / than what can be rendered inside a cloister of nuns or to a devoted hermit."


Agnes Sorel on the Melun triptych portrayed as the Madonna with Child by Jean (or Jehan) Fouquet (French artist, 1420–1481)

Agnès gave birth to 3 daughters: Marie de Valois, Charlotte, & Jeanne de France. While pregnant with their 4th child, she joined Charles on the campaign of 1450 in Jumièges, wanting to be with him as moral support. There, she suddenly became ill, dying on February 9 at the age of 28. Her death came just 3 days after delivery of her child, most likely from complications of childbirth.

However, it is also speculated, that the dauphin, the future Louis XI, whose advances she repelled, poisoned her with mercury. Recent examination of her remains showed that her body contained very high levels of mercury, which was a perfect poison. However, in those days, mercury was also used for the treatment of worms. A dosage accident is considered another possibility, but her doctor reportedly was one of the most renowned of the realm.


La Dame de Beauté by Jeanne Bourin (a slightly romanticized version of Agnès Sorel, but I love the sheep)

She is buried at Loches, in Tourraine. Her tomb, initially situated in the church of Notre-Dame was desecrated during the revolution & her statue there destroyed.


Biography - Lucrezia Borgia (1480–1519)


Lucrezia Borgia (1480–1519) was the illegitimate daughter of Rodrigo Borgia, who later became Pope Alexander VI, & Vannozza dei Cattanei, one of her father's many mistresses. Lucrezia spoke & wrote 5 languages: Italian, Valencian, French, Latin, & Greek.


Cristofano dell'Altissimo (1525–1605) Pope Alexander VI 1401-1503

Lucrezia's family epitomized the ruthless Machiavellian politics & sexual corruption often alleged to characterize both Renaissance politics & the papacy.  Very few facts seem to be known of the extent of her complicity in the political, murderous dealings of her father & brothers.


Assumed to be Vannozza Cattanei Lucrezia Borgia's mother 1442-1518

Her family arranged several marriages for her to men from important families in order to advance their own political & financial ambitions. Lucrezia was married to Giovanni Sforza (Lord of Pesaro), Alfonso of Aragon (Duke of Bisceglie), & Alfonso I d'Este (Duke of Ferrara).

Lucretia was described by contemporaries as strikingly beautiful with heavy blonde hair which fell past her knees, a beautiful complexion, hazel eyes which seemed to change color, a full, high bosom, & a natural grace which made her appear to "walk on air." Another description states that "her mouth is rather large, the teeth brilliantly white, her neck is slender & fair, & the bust is admirably proportioned."


Bartolomeo Veneto (1470–1531) Assumed to be Lucrezia Borgia (1480–1519)

When Rodrigo became Pope Alexander VI, he sought to be allied with the most powerful princely families & founding dynasties of Italy. To achieve these ends, he called off Lucrezia's previous engagements & arranged for her to marry Giovanni Sforza, a member of the house of Sforza who was Lord of Pesaro & titled Count of Catignola.  Giovanni was an illegitimate son of Costanzo I Sforza. He married Lucrezia, who was just 13-years-old, in 1493 Rome. The Sforzas ruled the Duchy of Milan from 1450 to 1535. Much like the Borgia family, the Soforzas gained & maintained their power through military force; advantageous marriage alliances; court intrigues; & brute force.

Soon the Borgia family no longer needed the Sforzas.  The Pope needed new, more advantageous political alliances. It is speculated, that he may have ordered the execution of Giovanni. It is said that Lucrezia was informed of this by her brother Cesare, & that she warned her husband, who escaped from Rome.  It is also possible, that his departure resulted from a plot on the part of Cesare & Lucrezia to drive her husband away. In any event, the family was said to be pleased with the chance to arrange another advantageous marriage for Lucrezia. A papal annulment would end her previous marriage without bloodshed. 

Pope Alexander IV asked Giovanni's uncle, Cardinal Ascanio Sforza, to persuade Giovanni to agree to a divorce. Giovanni refused & accused Lucrezia & her family of paternal & fraternal incest. The pope then claimed, that his daughter's marriage had not been consummated & was thus invalid. Escaping an unfortunate end, Giovanni signed confessions of impotence & documents of annulment before witnesses.


Pinturicchio (1454–1513), 1494 painting Disputation of Saint Catherine, is said to be modeled after Lucrezia Borgia (1480–1519)

Lucretia became pregnant just at the time her marriage was annulled for non-consummation, and just when she had testified that she was a virgin. In June 1497, she "retired" to the convent of San Sisto to await the outcome of the annulment which was finalized in December of 1497.  Two months later, in February 1498, the bodies of a her servant, Pedro Calderon, & her maid, Pantasilea, were found floating in the Tiber.  In March 1498, the Ferrarese ambassador reported, that Lucrezia had given birth. A son was born in the year before Lucrezia's marriage to Alfonso of Aragon. The baby was named Giovanni, after her "impotent" former husband, but is known to historians as the Roman Infante.


Pinturicchio (1454–1513) Pope Alexander VI. (Rodrigo Borgia) Detail from a Fresco of the Resurrection, painted in 1492-1495

In 1501, two papal bulls were issued concerning the identity of child, Giovanni Borgia (1498–1548). In the 1st, he was recognized as brother Cesare's child from an affair before his marriage. The 2nd contradictory bull recognized him as the son of Pope Alexander VI. Lucrezia's name was not mentioned in either document.  Only circumstantial evidence supports the assertion, that she was the child's mother. The 2nd bull was kept secret for many years, & baby Giovanni was assumed to be brother Cesare's son. In 1502, Giovanni became Duke of Camerino, one of brother Cesare's recent conquests, assumed to be the natural inheritance of the his oldest son. Giovanni Borgia was passed from guardian to guardian; before conveniently ending up with Lucrezia Borgia in Ferrara, where he was claimed to be her half-brother rather than her son.

Following her annulment from Sforza, Lucrezia was married to the Neapolitan Alfonso of Aragon (1481–1500), the half-brother of Sancha of Aragon, who was the wife of Lucrezia's brother Gioffre Borgia. The marriage was a short one, lasting from 1498, until Alfonso's murder in 1500. It was widely rumored that Lucrezia's brother Cesare was responsible for Alfonso's death, as he had recently allied himself (through marriage) with France against Naples.


Pinturicchio (1454–1513), Alfonso of Aragon (age 7) 1481-1500

After the death, of her 2nd husband, Lucrezia's father, Pope Alexander VI, arranged a 3rd politically advantageous marriage. She then married 24-year-old widower Alfonso I d'Este, Duke of Ferrara in early 1502 Ferrara. Lucrezia hoped she would have a better chance of leading her own life in Ferrara, away from her ambitious father & brother.

Neither partner in this newly arranged marriage was accustomed to being involved with just one person. Beginning in 1503, Lucrezia entered into a long relationship with her brother-in-law, Francesco II Gonzaga, Marquess of Mantua, plus a love affair with the poet Pietro Bembo. The affair between Francesco & Lucrezia was passionate as reflected in their love letters. The affair ended, when Francesco contracted syphilis & had to end the sexual aspects of his relationship with Lucrezia.


Alfonso I. d'Este, Duke of Ferrara 1476-1534

The people of Ferrara seemed to adore Lucrezia, praising her for her beauty & "inner grace of personality."  Surrounding herself with artists, courtiers, poets, & writers, she helped make Ferrara a center for culture.

Rumors about the Borgia family have persisted throughout the centuries. Many of these concern allegations of partying, incest, poisoning, & murder; however, no actual evidence exists to support these rumors. It was claimed that she possessed a hollow ring, which she used frequently to poison drinks. Many historians view Lucrezia Borgia as a political pawn, whose marriages were used for her family's political gains. Born into a power hungry & greedy family, Lucrezia seemed to be the product of her upbringing. She seemed to accepted her family's ambitions & the personal consequences the exacted on her life for the good of her family.

In 1512, Lucrezia began to withdraw from public life to spend more time in her apartments or in nearby convents, apparently turning her thoughts to religion. Lucrezia Borgia died in Ferrara in 1519, from complications after giving birth to her 8th child.  She was only 39. She was buried in the convent of Corpus Domini.


Biography- Queen Anna de Foix-Candale 1484-1506 married an elderly king & died at age 21



1509 Queen Anna de Foix-Candale of Hungary and Bohemia (1484-1506)

Anne was the daughter of Gaston of Foix, Count of Candale, & Infanta Catherine of Navarre. Her mother was the youngest daughter of Queen Eleanor of Navarre, & Gaston IV, Count of Foix.

Anne grew up at the French royal court in Blois. She was educated in Latin & the classics. The nephew of the French monarch, the Duke of Longueville, is reported to have been in love with her & wished to marry her; but it was prevented, because a more advantageous political marriage was planned for Anne.

The elderly, twice-divorced & childless King Vladislaus II of Hungary of the Jagiellon dynasty had been searching a wife capable of giving him a son. His sights were set on a powerful alliance, closely related to French royalty was acceptable.

Anne was engaged to the elderly king in 1500, the marriage contract confirmed in 1501, & wed in 1502 at the French court. On her way to Hungary, she was much celebrated in Italy, & In Venice, a conflict was caused when France & Hungary were unable to agree about who should pay the expenses. On 29 September 1502, Anne wed Vladislaus in Székesfehérvár & she was crowned Queen of Hungary there that same day.

Anne brought a French court & French advisors with her to Hungary. The relationship was happy at least from the king's view, & he is reported to have regarded her as a friend, assistant & a trusted advisor. She was economically indebted to Venice. In 1506, her signature was placed on a document alongside the king's regarding an alliance with the Habsburg.

Anne enjoyed great popularity after the birth of a son, but the pregnancy ruined her health. She died a little more than 3 weeks later, as the result of complications from her son's delivery, at the age of 21 or 22.


1500s Women attributed to father & son Lucas Cranach (Elder 1472 - 1553) & (Younger 1515-1586) + their workshops & followers



Lucas Cranach the Younger (Northern Renaissance Painter, (1515-68)) and his workshop Princess Elizabeth of Saxony



1562 Lucas Cranach the Younger (1515-68) and his workshop Lucretia Freifrau von Berlepsch



Lucas Cranach (Northern Renaissance Painter, 1472-1553) and his workshop Portrait of a Woman 1528



Lucas Cranach (Northern Renaissance Painter, 1472-1553) and his workshop 1526 - Portrait of Margareth von Ponickau



Lucas Cranach (Northern Renaissance Painter, 1472-1553) and his workshop Portrait of a Young Woman 1530



Lucas Cranach (Northern Renaissance Painter, 1472-1553) and his workshop Katharina Luther 1528



Lucas Cranach (Northern Renaissance Painter, 1472-1553) and his workshop Portrait of Magdalena of Saxony, Electress of Brandenburg Wife of Elector Joachim II of Brandenburg, 1529



Lucas Cranach (Northern Renaissance Painter, 1472-1553) and his workshop Margaret of Austria 1520s



Lucas Cranach (Northern Renaissance Painter, 1472-1553) and his workshop Portrait of a Woman 1539



Lucas Cranach (Northern Renaissance Painter, 1472-1553) and his workshop The Saxon Princesses (Sibyl, Emilia and Sidonia of Saxe) c 1535



Lucas Cranach (Northern Renaissance Painter, 1472-1553) and his workshop Martha Luther wife of Hans 1527



Lucas Cranach (Northern Renaissance Painter, 1472-1553) and his workshop Portrait of a Young Lady Holding Grapes



Lucas Cranach (Northern Renaissance Painter, 1472-1553) and his workshop Princess Maria of Saxony



Lucas Cranach (Northern Renaissance Painter, 1472-1553) and his workshop Portrait of a Donatrix



Lucas Cranach (Northern Renaissance Painter, 1472-1553) and his workshop Sibylle von Kleve c 1531



Lucas Cranach (Northern Renaissance Painter, 1472-1553) and his workshop Portrait of a young Girl 1540



Lucas Cranach (Northern Renaissance Painter, 1472-1553) and his workshop St. Helena with the True Cross, Lucas Cranach the Elder



Lucas Cranach (Northern Renaissance Painter, 1472-1553) and his workshop Portrait of a Young Woman 1522



Lucas Cranach (Northern Renaissance Painter, 1472-1553) and his workshop St Catherine and St Barbara



Lucas Cranach (Northern Renaissance Painter, 1472-1553)  and his workshop  Christiana Eulenau 1534


Lucas Cranach (Northern Renaissance Painter, 1472-1553)  and his workshop  A Princess of Saxonly 1517


Lucas Cranach (Northern Renaissance Painter, 1472-1553)  and his workshop  A Young Woman 1525


Lucas Cranach (Northern Renaissance Painter, 1472-1553)  and his workshop  Portrait of Catherine Bore wife of Martin Luther 1529


Lucas Cranach (Northern Renaissance Painter, 1472-1553)  and his workshop  Portrait of Anna Cuspinian 1502


Lucas Cranach (Northern Renaissance Painter, 1472-1553)  and his workshop  Young Mother and Child


Lucas Cranach (Northern Renaissance Painter, 1472-1553)  and his workshop  Portrait of Frau Reuss 1503



Lucas Cranach (Northern Renaissance Painter, 1472-1553)  and his workshop  Magdalena of Saxony Margravine of Brandenburg 1520



Lucas Cranach (Northern Renaissance Painter, 1472-1553)  and his workshop  Portrait of a Woman 1513



Lucas Cranach (Northern Renaissance Painter, 1472-1553)  and his workshop  María Magdalena



Lucas Cranach (Northern Renaissance Painter, 1472-1553)  and his workshop  María Magdalena



1520 Lucas Cranach (Northern Renaissance Painter, 1472-1553)  and his workshop  Barbara Jagielion (1478-1534)



1526 Lucas Cranach (Northern Renaissance Painter, 1472-1553)  and his workshop  Portrait of a Woman



1526 Lucas Cranach (Northern Renaissance Painter, 1472-1553)  and his workshop  Porträt der Prinzessin Sibylle von Cleve als Braut



Lucas Cranach (Northern Renaissance Painter, 1472-1553) and his workshop Bethrothal portrait of Sybelle of Cleves



Lucas Cranach (Northern Renaissance Painter, 1472-1553) and his workshop Female Half Figure with Hat



Lucas Cranach (Northern Renaissance Painter, 1472-1553) and his workshop St Dorthea



Lucas Cranach (Northern Renaissance Painter, 1472-1553) and his workshop Sybelle of Cleves, sister of Anne of Cleves



Lucas Cranach (Northern Renaissance Painter, 1472-1553) and his workshop Portrait of a Lady 1541



 1518 Lucas Cranach (Northern Renaissance Painter, 1472-1553) and his workshop Anna Buchner



 1525-30 Lucas Cranach (Northern Renaissance Painter, 1472-1553) and his workshop Young woman with a red hat



 1526 Lucas Cranach (Northern Renaissance Painter, 1472-1553) and his workshop Sybille of Cleves,Electress Saxony



 1534 Lucas Cranach (Northern Renaissance Painter, 1472-1553) and his workshop Christiana Eulenau



 1540 Lucas Cranach (Northern Renaissance Painter, 1472-1553) and his workshop Portrait of a lady



 1543 Lucas Cranach (Northern Renaissance Painter, 1472-1553) and his workshop Anna von Minckwitz



 1547 Lucas Cranach (Northern Renaissance Painter, 1472-1553) and his workshop Katherine of Mecklenburg, Duchess of Saxony



 1550 Lucas Cranach (Northern Renaissance Painter, 1472-1553) and his workshop Anna of Denmark electress of saxony 1550



 1555 Lucas Cranach (Northern Renaissance Painter, 1472-1553) and his workshop Portrait of Katharina Jagiellonka



 1555 Lucas Cranach (Northern Renaissance Painter, 1472-1553) and his workshop Queen Bona Sforza d'Aragona (1494-1557)



 1564 Lucas Cranach (Northern Renaissance Painter, 1472-1553) and his workshop Portrait of a Lady



 1565 Lucas Cranach (Northern Renaissance Painter, 1472-1553) and his workshop Barbara Radziwill



 1565 Lucas Cranach (Northern Renaissance Painter, 1472-1553) and his workshop Miniature of Elisabeth of  Habsburg



 1579 Lucas Cranach (Northern Renaissance Painter, 1472-1553) and his workshop  Margarethe Elisabeth von Ansbach-Bayreuth



1555 Lucas Cranach (Northern Renaissance Painter, 1472-1553) and his workshop Portrait of Anna Jagiellonka



 Lucas Cranach (Northern Renaissance Painter, 1472-1553) and his workshop Portrait of Sibylle von Cleve, Electress of Saxony (1510-1554)


 Lucas Cranach (Northern Renaissance Painter, 1472-1553) and his workshop Sybille of Cleves, Electress of Saxony in Coburg dress



Lucas Cranach (Northern Renaissance Painter, 1472-1553) and his workshop Wife of Duke Heinrichs des Frommen, Katharina von Mecklenburg Detail



1503 Lucas Cranach the Elder (1472-1553) Portrait of Frau Reuss



1527 Lucas Cranach the Elder, Catharina von Bora wife of Martin Luther



1526 Lucas Cranach the Elder (1472-1553) Portrait of a Woman


1526 Lucas Cranach the Elder (1472-1553) Porträt der Prinzessin Sibylle von Cleve als Braut



1525 Lucas Cranach the Elder (1472-1553) Maria Magdalena


1532 Lucas Cranach (Northern Renaissance Painter, 1472-1553) and his workshop Melancholy

Cranach & his relatives & followers painted the suicide of Lucretia in almost 40 versions.


Lucas Cranach (Northern Renaissance Painter, 1472-1553) and his workshop  Lucretia Committing Suicide 



Lucas Cranach (Northern Renaissance Painter, 1472-1553) and his workshop Lucretia c 1509 Cranach painted the suicide of Lucretia in almost 40 versions.



Lucas Cranach (Northern Renaissance Painter, 1472-1553) and his workshop Lucretia Committing Suicide 1512



Lucas Cranach (Northern Renaissance Painter, 1472-1553) and his workshop Lucretia Committing Suicide 1529



Lucas Cranach (Northern Renaissance Painter, 1472-1553) and his workshop Lucretia Committing Suicide



Lucas Cranach (Northern Renaissance Painter, 1472-1553) and his workshop Lucretia Committing Suicide



Lucas Cranach (Northern Renaissance Painter, 1472-1553) and his workshop Lucretia Committing Suicide



Lucas Cranach the Elder 1550