Monday, August 8, 2016

Dog Days of Summer - John Singleton Copley 1738-1815

Dogs from John Singleton Copley 1738-1815

1755 John Singleton Copley (American artist, 1738-1815). The Gore Children with Dog

1758  John Singleton Copley (American artist, 1738-1815). Mary and Elizabeth Royall

1767 John Singleton Copley (American artist, 1738-1815). Girl with Bird and Dog

1771 John Singleton Copley (American artist, 1738-1815). Mary Elizabeth Martin

1783 John Singleton Copley (American artist, 1738-1815) Charles Callis Western and His Brother Shirley Western)

1785 John Singleton Copley (American, artist, 1738-1815) Daughters of King George III (Sophia, Mary and Amelia),

Dog Days of Summer is the name for the most sultry period of summer, from about July 3 to Aug. 11. Named in early times by observers in countries bordering the Mediterranean, the period was determined to extend from 20 days before to 20 days after the conjunction of Sirius (the dog star) & the sun.  The Greek poets Hesiod (ca. 750-650 BCE) & Aratus (ca. 310–240 BCE) refer, in their writings, to "the heat of late summer that the Greeks believed was actually brought on by the appearance of Sirius," a star in the constellation, that the later Romans, & we today refer to as Canis Major, literally the "greater dog" constellation. Homer, in the Iliad, references the association of "Orion's dog" (Sirius) with oncoming heat, fevers, & evil, in describing the approach of Achilles toward Troy:
Sirius rises late in the dark, liquid sky
On summer nights, star of stars,
Orion's Dog they call it, brightest
Of all, but an evil portent, bringing heat
And fevers to suffering humanity.

The term "dog days" was used by the Greeks in Aristotle's Physics.  Astronomer Geminus, around 70 B.C., wrote: "It is generally believed that Sirius produces the heat of the 'dog days,' but this is an error, for the star merely marks a season of the year when the sun"s heat is the greatest." The lectionary of 1559 edition of the Episcopal Book of Common Prayer indicates: "Naonae. Dog days begin" with the readings for July 7 & end August 18. But the readings for September 5 indicate: "Naonae. Dog days end."  This corresponds very closely to the lectionary of the 1611 edition of the King James Bible which indicates the Dog Days beginning on July 6 & ending on September 5.

Summer Fans - 18C American Women

1700 Gerrit Duyckinck 1660-1712 A Woman

1737 Pieter Vanderlyn 1687-1778 Young Lady With a Fan

1746 Robert Feke 1707-1751 Anne Shippen Mrs Chales Willing 1710-1791

1754 Joseph Blackburn fl 1752-1778 Abigail Chesebrough (Mrs. Alexander Grant)

1770 John Durand Mrs John Lothrop

1770 Winthrop Chandler Mrs. Ebenezer Devotion

1772 Winthrop Chandler 1747-1785 Eunice Huntington Devotion Lyman

1775 John Wollaston Elizabeth Harrison Randolph circa 1755

1775 William Williams II (fl 1767-75) A Gentleman and Lady in Landscape

1780 Winthrop Chandler Mrs Samuel Chandler

1783 Charles Willson Peale 1731-1827 Mrs Joseph Blookfield

1787 Charles Willson Peale 1741-1827 Mrs. Walter Stewart (Deborah McClenachan) (1763–1823)

1781 Rufus Hathaway 1770-1822 Phebe King

1790 Charles Willson Peale (1741-1827) Rachel Leeds Kerr

1790 Ralph Earl (1751-1801). Mary Smith Booth

1790 Rufus Hathaway 1770 - 1822 Molly Wales Fobes

1792 Charles Peale Polk Mrs. Elijah Etting

1793 Charles Peale Polk Emily Smiley Snowden

1794 Ralph Earl (1751-1801). Lucy Bradley.

1794 Gilbert Stuart (1755-1828). Matilda Stoughton de Jaudenes y Nebot.

1794 Charles Peale Polk Diana wife of James Lawson

1796 Ralph Earl (1751-1801) Mrs. Sherman Boardman (Sarah Bostwick)

1796 Ralph Earl (1751-1801). Apphia Ruggles (Mrs. Jared Lane)

1790s The Beardsley Limner (American painter, active 1785-1805 possibly Sarah Bushnell Perkins 1771-1831)

1797 Richard Brunton fl 1790-1832 Deborah Richmond

Morning Madonna

Virgin and Child 1495-1505, a painting by Flemish Unknown Masters

In this blog, I try to begin each day with a painting of the Madonna & Child. It centers me; connects me to the past; & encourages me to post some of the religious paintings which were the core of early Western art.