Wednesday, August 10, 2016

Summer Fans - Spanish

George Owen Wynne Apperley (British artist, 1884-1960) Enriqueta con toca de madroños

Ramon Casas (Spanish artist, 1866-1932)

George Wesley Bellows (American painter, 1882–1925) Portrait of Elizabeth Alexander

Robert Henri (American artist, 1865-1929) Spanish Girl

Eduardo León Garrido (Spanish artist, 1856-1949) The Fan

Diego Velázquez (Spanish painter, 1599–1660) Lady with a Fan

Casimiro Sainz ( Spanish artist, 1853-1898)

Adrien Henri Tanoux (French artist, 1865-1923) Portrait of a Spanish Lady

Charles Hermans (Belgian artist, 1839-1924) Spanish Beauty

Eugene Pierre Francois Giraud (French artist, 1806-1881) A Spanish Beauty with a Fan

Mary Cassatt (American painter, 1844-1926) Spanish Dancer

Robert Henri (American artist, 1865-1929) Spanish Girl

Summer Fans - Joseph Addison on fans (and females) 1711

The Spectator was one of England's earliest commercial periodical endeavors to make a deliberate effort to appeal to a female readers. As the paternalistic Joseph Addison remarked in the issue of 12 March 1711, "there are none to whom this Paper will be more useful, than to the Female World. I have often thought there has not been sufficient Pains taken in finding out proper Employments and Diversions for the Fair ones." 

It was part of The Spectator's mission & marketing strategy to remedy this neglect. In his 1779 Life of Addison, Dr. Samuel Johnson noted that "that general knowledge which now circulates in common talk was in [Addison's] day rarely to be found. and in the female world any acquaintance with books was distinguished only to be censured." Whole papers of The Spectator came to be devoted to reading recommendations for women or advice on "proper" female comportment. There were also lampoons on the extravagance of women's fashion, including this satire on the elaborate & absurd etiquette of women's fans, plus another on the proliferation of facial beauty marks.

Joseph Addison's essay: No. 102 from The Spectator of Wednesday, June 27, 1711.

Joseph Addison 1672-1719 by Sir Godfrey Kneller


'Women are armed with Fans as Men with Swords, and sometimes do more Execution with them. To the end therefore that Ladies may be entire Mistresses of the Weapon which they bear, I have erected an Academy for the training up of young Women in the Exercise of the Fan, according to the most fashionable Airs and Motions that are now practis'd at Court. The Ladies who carry Fans under me are drawn up twice a-day in my great Hall, where they are instructed in the Use of their Arms, and exercised by the following Words of Command,

Handle your Fans,
Unfurl your fans.
Discharge your Fans,
Ground your Fans,
Recover your Fans,
Flutter your Fans.

By the right Observation of these few plain Words of Command, a Woman of a tolerable Genius, who will apply herself diligently to her Exercise for the Space of but one half Year, shall be able to give her Fan all the Graces that can possibly enter into that little modish Machine.

But to the end that my Readers may form to themselves a right Notion of this Exercise, I beg leave to explain it to them in all its Parts. When my Female Regiment is drawn up in Array, with every one her Weapon in her Hand, upon my giving the Word to handle their Fans, each of them shakes her Fan at me with a Smile, then gives her Right-hand Woman a Tap upon the Shoulder, then presses her Lips with the Extremity of her Fan, then lets her Arms fall in an easy Motion, and stands in a Readiness to receive the next Word of Command. All this is done with a close Fan, and is generally learned in the first Week.

The next Motion is that of unfurling the Fan, in which is comprehended several little Flirts and Vibrations, as also gradual and deliberate Openings, with many voluntary Fallings asunder in the Fan itself, that are seldom learned under a Month's Practice. This Part of the Exercise pleases the Spectators more than any other, as it discovers on a sudden an infinite Number of Cupids, [Garlands,] Altars, Birds, Beasts, Rainbows, and the like agreeable Figures, that display themselves to View, whilst every one in the Regiment holds a Picture in her Hand.

Upon my giving the Word to discharge their Fans, they give one general Crack that may be heard at a considerable distance when the Wind sits fair. This is one of the most difficult Parts of the Exercise; but I have several Ladies with me, who at their first Entrance could not give a Pop loud enough to be heard at the further end of a Room, who can now discharge a Fan in such a manner, that it shall make a Report like a Pocket-Pistol. I have likewise taken care (in order to hinder young Women from letting off their Fans in wrong Places or unsuitable Occasions) to shew upon what Subject the Crack of a Fan may come in properly: I have likewise invented a Fan, with which a Girl of Sixteen, by the help of a little Wind which is inclosed about one of the largest Sticks, can make as loud a Crack as a Woman of Fifty with an ordinary Fan.

When the Fans are thus discharged, the Word of Command in course is to ground their Fans. This teaches a Lady to quit her Fan gracefully when she throws it aside in order to take up a Pack of Cards, adjust a Curl of Hair, replace a falling Pin, or apply her self to any other Matter of Importance. This Part of the Exercise, as it only consists in tossing a Fan with an Air upon a long Table (which stands by for that Purpose) may be learned in two Days Time as well as in a Twelvemonth.

When my Female Regiment is thus disarmed, I generally let them walk about the Room for some Time; when on a sudden (like Ladies that look upon their Watches after a long Visit) they all of them hasten to their Arms, catch them up in a Hurry, and place themselves in their proper Stations upon my calling out Recover your Fans. This Part of the Exercise is not difficult, provided a Woman applies her Thoughts to it.

The Fluttering of the Fan is the last, and indeed the Master-piece of the whole Exercise; but if a Lady does not mis-spend her Time, she may make herself Mistress of it in three Months. I generally lay aside the Dog-days and the hot Time of the Summer for the teaching this Part of the Exercise; for as soon as ever I pronounce Flutter your Fans, the Place is fill'd with so many Zephyrs and gentle Breezes as are very refreshing in that Season of the Year, tho' they might be dangerous to Ladies of a tender Constitution in any other.

There is an infinite Variety of Motions to be made use of in the Flutter of a Fan. There is the angry Flutter, the modest Flutter, the timorous Flutter, the confused Flutter, the merry Flutter, and the amorous Flutter. Not to be tedious, there is scarce any Emotion in the Mind that does not produce a suitable Agitation in the Fan; insomuch, that if I only see the Fan of a disciplin'd Lady, I know very well whether she laughs, frowns, or blushes. I have seen a Fan so very angry, that it would have been dangerous for the absent Lover that provoked it to have come within the Wind of it; and at other times so very languishing, that I have been glad for the Lady's sake the Lover was at a sufficient Distance from it. I need not add, that a Fan is either a Prude or Coquet according to the Nature of the Person that bears it. To conclude my Letter, I must acquaint you that I have from my own Observations compiled a little Treatise for the use of my Scholars, entitled The Passions of the Fan; which I will communicate to you, if you think it may be of use to the Publick. I shall have a general Review on Thursday next; to which you shall be very welcome if you will honour it with your Presence. I am, &c.

P. S. I teach young Gentlemen the whole Art of Gallanting a Fan.'

N. B. I have several little plain Fans made for this Use, to avoid Expence.'

Dog Days of Summer - Pierre Auguste Renoir (1841-1919)

Pierre-Auguste Renoir (French Impressionist Painter, 1841-1919) Head of Dog 1870

Pierre-Auguste Renoir (French Impressionist Painter, 1841-1919) Madame Georges Charpentier and her Children, Georgette and Paula

Pierre-Auguste Renoir (French Impressionist Painter, 1841-1919) Tama the Japanese Dog

Pierre-Auguste Renoir (French Impressionist Painter, 1841-1919) Young Woman With A Dog 1876

Pierre-Auguste Renoir (French Impressionist Painter, 1841-1919) The Inn Of Mother Anthony 1866

Pierre-Auguste Renoir (French Impressionist Painter, 1841-1919) Woman With A Black Dog

Pierre-Auguste Renoir (French Impressionist Painter, 1841-1919) Woman In Blue And Zaza In A Landscape

Pierre-Auguste Renoir (French Impressionist Painter, 1841-1919) Madame Renoir With Bob 1910

Pierre-Auguste Renoir (French Impressionist Painter, 1841-1919) The Cup Of Tea

Pierre-Auguste Renoir (French Impressionist Painter, 1841-1919) Madame Renoir With A Dog 1880

Pierre-Auguste Renoir (French Impressionist Painter, 1841-1919) Portrait of Madame Hagen 1883

Pierre-Auguste Renoir (French Impressionist Painter, 1841-1919) Girl with Dog 1888

Pierre-Auguste Renoir (French Impressionist Painter, 1841-1919) Detail from the Luncheon of the Boating Party

Pierre-Auguste Renoir (French Impressionist Painter, 1841-1919) Apple Vendor c 1889 (This is either a dog or a seal out of water!)

Pierre-Auguste Renoir (French Impressionist Painter, 1841-1919) The Henriot Family 1871

Pierre-Auguste Renoir (French Impressionist Painter, 1841-1919) Misa Sert with Lap Dog

Dog Days of Summer is the name for the most sultry period of summer, from about July 3 to Aug. 11. Named in early times by observers in countries bordering the Mediterranean, the period was determined to extend from 20 days before to 20 days after the conjunction of Sirius (the dog star) & the sun.  The Greek poets Hesiod (ca. 750-650 BCE) & Aratus (ca. 310–240 BCE) refer, in their writings, to "the heat of late summer that the Greeks believed was actually brought on by the appearance of Sirius," a star in the constellation, that the later Romans, & we today refer to as Canis Major, literally the "greater dog" constellation. Homer, in the Iliad, references the association of "Orion's dog" (Sirius) with oncoming heat, fevers, & evil, in describing the approach of Achilles toward Troy:
Sirius rises late in the dark, liquid sky
On summer nights, star of stars,
Orion's Dog they call it, brightest
Of all, but an evil portent, bringing heat
And fevers to suffering humanity.

The term "dog days" was used by the Greeks in Aristotle's Physics.  Astronomer Geminus, around 70 B.C., wrote: "It is generally believed that Sirius produces the heat of the 'dog days,' but this is an error, for the star merely marks a season of the year when the sun"s heat is the greatest." The lectionary of 1559 edition of the Episcopal Book of Common Prayer indicates: "Naonae. Dog days begin" with the readings for July 7 & end August 18. But the readings for September 5 indicate: "Naonae. Dog days end."  This corresponds very closely to the lectionary of the 1611 edition of the King James Bible which indicates the Dog Days beginning on July 6 & ending on September 5.

Morning Madonna

William Adolphe Bouguereau (French academic painter, 1825–1905) Holy Family with John the Baptist.  Mary works with yarn as the young boys play.

In this blog, I try to begin each day with a painting of the Madonna & Child. It centers me; connects me to the past; & encourages me to post some of the religious paintings which were a large part of the core of early Western art.  In the 4C, as the Christian population was rapidly growing & was now supported by the state, Christian art evolved & became grander to suit new, enlarged public spaces & the changing contemporary tastes of elite private clients.