Thursday, March 16, 2017

Economics in the Garden - 17C Dutch Children with those pricey tulips + other symbolic flowers, fruits, pets & toys

1568 Unknown artist Portrait of a Girl holding a Rose & a Basket of Cherries.  Portraits at this period were loaded with levels of symbolism, and so, the rose and the cherries could just be symbols, which the contemporary viewer would have understood. And on another level, they could suggest some tasks the child might be involved in, such as picking cherries.

In the Middle Ages, children usually were portrayed in art as miniature adults with no childish characteristics. In the 16C, images of children began to acquire a distinct childish appearance. From the 17C onwards, children were shown with tulips, toys & pets. 

 1590s Adriaen van der Linde (Dutch artist, 1560-1609) Portrait of a Young Girl, Adriaen van der Linde wearing coral necklaces & holding a rattle & basket

Before the 18C, children in portraits were usually dressed in the highest adult fashion appearing stiff & uncomfortable.

;1603 Attributed to Adriaen van der Linde (Dutch artist, 1560-1609) Three-Year-Old Boy with Colf Stick

Many of these children seem to be posed on a flat dark stage made up of a patterned black & white floor, typical of domestic interiors in the Netherlands in this period.  During the 1600s, a shift in philosophical & social attitudes toward children & the notion of 'childhood' began in Europe.  Adults increasingly saw children as separate beings, innocent & in need of protection & training by the adults around them. Many of these portraits show the child in an interior, totally protected from the wild nature outside.

 1605 Artist van Zelven (Probably a German artist) Portrait of a Child with a Dog is the only recorded work by an artist who is identified on the floor tiles.

As the 17C progressed, artists increasingly portrayed children near windows showing nature and gardens beyond.  Some actually began to paint children in natural settings or surrounded by natural objects.  The children themselves draw the viewers' attention to nature, some point to a natural object, some carry baskets of fruit or flowers, others play with birds or pets.

 1609 Circle of Jan Claesz (Enkhuizen painter, b 1570- a 1618) An eight-year-old boy, possibly of the Blauhulck family, with his horse. 

 1611 Paulus van Somer (Flemish artist, c. 1577 -1621) Child with a Rattle, Fruit, & a Dog 

1609 Circle of Jan Claesz (Enkhuizen painte, b 1570- a 1618) An eight-year-old boy, possibly of the Blauhulck family, with his horse & dog

1620s Unknown artist Portrait of a Young Boy holding a Garland of flowers 

1625 Unknown Artist of the Dutch school, Girl with cherries & doll.  

 1627 Attributed to Robert Peake the Elder (active 1576–1626) A young Boy aged Four of the Howard Family in an interior. 

 1629 Attr to Dirck Dircksz van Santvoort (Dutch artist, 1610-1680) Portrait of a Child in an interior  aged Two Holding a tame Parrot

 1629 Unknown artist of the Dutch School Two Little Dutch Children in an interior with a view of Nature, Aprons, Holding Apples, Cherries, & a Straw Bag.  

 1630s Jan Cornelisz van Loenen (Dutch artist, 1590-1630) Portrait of a Little Girl

 1631 Unknown artist Sarra de Peyster in an interior. Inscription [at upper left] Sarra Depeyster AEtatis  30 Maenden 23 Mey 1631   The child here is holding a precious tulip. 

 1631 Wybrand de Geest (Dutch artist, 1592-1661-65) Portrait of a Boy with a 'Colf' Stick 

 1632 Artist said to be a David Finnon, Small Girl with Remembrance Coin & cherries. 

 1632 Jan Anthonisz van Ravesteyn (Dutch painter, 1572-1657) Portrait of Joannes de Ruyter, 1632 - Princess Salimah Aga Khan. 

 1634 Harmen Willems Wieringa (Dutch painter, c 1597-1645) Portrait of Ida Catharina van Paffenrode with a Dog and a Basket of fruit.  

 1635 Unknown artist of the Dutch (Friesland) School Portrait of a Girl, Aged One, with a Rattle and a Coral Necklace in an interior

 1636 Unknown artist Child in an interior with a coral necklace & rattle holding a pricey white tulip during a period where tulipmania was still strong & the tulip was precious.

 1644 Unknown artist of the Dutch School Portrait of a Boy, Aged Three, with a Large Hat & a Parrot

 1646 Portrait of a Child with a Toy Goat by an unknown Dutch artist

1650 Unknown artist of the Dutch School Young Boy with Flowers 

 1657 Jan Jansz. de Stomme (Dutch painter, 1615-c 1657)  Portrait of Evert en Reint Lewe with hats & coral necklaces.

 1664 Cesar Pietersz, or Cesar Boetius van Everdingen (1616-17-1678) Two-year-old Boy in a garden with an Apple and a Bird.

1680 Arent de Gelder (Dutch artist, 1645-1727) Portrait of a child, presumed Mattys Decker (b.1679)

If you are interested in the role of children in 17C Europe & its evolution, you might wish to read one of these books.

Ariès, Philippe. 1962. Centuries of Childhood: A Social History of Family Life. Trans. Robert Baldick. New York: Knopf.

Badinter, Elisabeth. 1981. The Myth of Motherhood: An Historical View of the Maternal Instinct. London: Souvenir.

Boswell, John. 1988. The Kindness of Strangers: The Abandonment of Children in Western Europe from Late Antiquity to the Renaissance. New York: Pantheon.

Cunningham, Hugh. 1995. Children and Childhood in Western Society since 1500. London: Longman.

Dekker, Jeroen, Leendert Groenendijk, and Johan Verberckmoes. 2000. "Proudly Raising Vulnerable Youngsters: The Scope for Education in the Netherlands." in Pride and Joy: Children's Portraits in the Netherlands 1500−1700, ed. Jan Baptist Bedaux and Rudi Ekkart. Ghent, Belgium: Ludion.

Griffiths, Paul. 1996. Youth and Authority: Formative Experiences in England 1560−1640. Oxford, UK: Clarendon.

Haas, Louis. 1998. The Renaissance Man and His Children: Childbirth and Early Childhood in Florence, 1300−1600. New York: St. Martin's.

Heywood, Colin. 2001. A History of Childhood: Children and Childhood in the West from Medieval to Modern Times. Cambridge, UK: Polity.

Krausman Ben-Amos, Ilana. 1994. Adolescence and Youth in Early Modern England. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Macfarlane, Alan. 1986. Marriage and Love in England. Modes of Reproduction 1300−1840. London: B. Blackwell.

Mause, Lloyd de. 1974. The History of Childhood. New York: Psycho-history Press.

Pollock, Linda. 1983. Forgotten Children: Parent-Child Relations from 1500 to 1900. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Pollock, Linda. 1987. A Lasting Relationship: Parents and their Children over Three Centuries. London: Fourth Estate.
> Roberts, Benjamin B. 1996. "Fatherhood in Eighteenth-Century Holland: The Van der Muelen Brothers." in Journal of Family History 21: 218–228.

Roberts, Benjamin B. 1998. Through the Keyhole. Dutch Child-rearing Practices in the 17th and 18th Century: Three Urban Elite Families. Hilversum, Netherlands: Verloren.

Schama, Simon. 1987. The Embarrassment of Riches: An Interpretation of Dutch Culture in the Golden Age. New York: Knopf.

Shahar, Shulamith. 1990. Childhood in the Middle Ages. Trans. Chaya Galai. London: Routledge.

Shorter, Edward. 1975. The Making of the Modern Family. New York: Basic Books.

Stone, Lawrence. 1977. The Family, Sex, and Marriage in England 1500−1800. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson.ed. Jan Baptist Bedaux and Rudi Ekkart. Ghent, Belgium: Ludion.

Wednesday, March 15, 2017

Economics in the Garden - Dutch Gardens & Flowers by Johann Jakob Walther ( 1650-1704)

  Johann Jakob Walther ( 1650-1704) A Dutch Garden, 1660

Johann Jakob Walther ( 1650-1704) Dutch Garden, 1650

Johann Jakob Walther ( 1650-1704) Tulips from Horti Itzsteinensis

 Johann Jakob Walther ( 1650-1704)  Carnations Growing in a Potplate 25  from the Nassau Florilegium

 Johann Jakob Walther ( 1650-1704)  Poppies

Johann Jakob Walther ( 1650-1704) Cowslip, Primrose & other flowers, from Horti Itzsteinensis

Johann Jakob Walther ( 1650-1704) Crown Imperial, from Horti Itzsteinensis

 Johann Jakob Walther ( 1650-1704) Paeonies (Paeonia officinalis), plate from the Nassau Florilegium

 Johann Jakob Walther ( 1650-1704) Peonies

Johann Jakob Walther ( 1650-1704) Primula Trifolia & An Iris, from Horti Itzeinensis
 Johann Jakob Walther ( 1650-1704) Rose

Johann Jakob Walther ( 1650-1704) Roses, Plate 4 from the Nassau Florilegium

Tuesday, March 14, 2017

Economics in the Garden - Watercolors of Costly Tulips by Alexander Marshall (1639-1682)

 Alexander Marshall (1639-1682) 

Alexander Marshal was by profession a British merchant, who had lived for some time in France, but he was also a respected botanist & entomologist, described by Samuel Hartlib as "one of the greatest Florists and dealers for all manner of Roots Plants and seeds from the Indies and else where" (Leith-Ross, p. 7).

 Alexander Marshall (1639-1682) 

He created at least 4 albums of drawings of flowers & insects: the one from which the present works are taken, possibly his earliest; A Book of Mr Tradescant's choicest Flowers and Plants, exquisitely limned in vellum from the 1640s (recorded in the catalog of the Musaeum Tradescantianum in 1656, but now lost); the Windsor Florilegium (cats. 45, 47, 48); & a volume of 63 folios of insect studies (now Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences). He collected & made observations on insects & the art of drawing them & in the Bishop of London's garden at Fulham, where he resided for a time, he planted cedars of Lebanon &  raised exotic plants including a Guernsey Lily sent to him in 1659 by his friend General Lambert. The Bishop was Henry Compton (1632-1713), one of the most active horticulturalists of his day & for a time religious instructor to Princesses Mary & Anne.

 Alexander Marshall (1639-1682) 

'A new Man of Experiments and Art' (Hartlib, in Leith-Ross, p. 7), Marshal experimented with colors from plants throughout his life, & the Royal Society approached him for his recipes soon after their foundation. In his reply in 1667, he gave one or two examples but apologized for not giving more, because not only were the recipes constantly changing, but, echoing the reasoning of John Evelyn & others, he wrote: "The truth is, they are pretty secrets, but known, they are nothing. Several have been at me to know, how; as if they were but trifles, and not worth secrecy. To part with them as yet I desire to be excused."(Leith-Ross, p. 12-13) 

The drawings at Windsor contain unusual colors &, kept in an album, they are still fresh. Unfortunately the group of 33 on vellum in the British Museum must have been exhibited, once they were removed from the album in which they came to the Museum in 1878...

 Alexander Marshall (1639-1682) 

A number of the flowers depicted were relatively new to northern Europe in the 17th century...A large number of the flowers Marshall depicted were tulips, including 'Parrot' tulips, broken tulips with irregular edges, which came into cultivation shortly after the Restoration. 

Alexander Marshall (1639-1682) 

The bouquet motif, usually a random mixture of flowers intertwined or loosely tied with a ribbon, frequently appeared in floral pattern books whose primary purpose was for designers or decorators of textiles & china. It also appeared in botanical books with primarily decorative intent & was therefore an apt one for use in florilegia. It was used by Nicolas Robert (1614-85) & other artists in their botanical portraits on vellum painted for the King of France. 

Marshal was resident for some time in France, where he may have seen their work. In the 18th century, Ehret employed the motif frequently throughout his career, having seen the French works on a visit to Paris in 1734-5. Marshal did not use it in his most famous work, the Windsor Florilegium, where nearly all the watercolors are on paper, but he did use it for the above series from the 33 at the British Museum, all watercolor on vellum.

From the British Museum
John Fisher and Jane Roberts, 'Mr Marshal's Flower Album from the Royal Library at Windsor Castle', London 1985, passim; 
P. Leith-Ross and H. McBurney, 'The Florilegium of Alexander Marshall at Windsor Castle', 2000, pp. 7, 21, 24-8 and Appendix C

Monday, March 13, 2017

Economics in the Garden - 17C Tulips & Gardens in a Portrait of a Royal Child from Europe

1600s Unknown Spanish artist, A Royal Child Seated by a Vase of Flowers which includes tulips, a Monkey with a Garden beyond and the Figure of Pomona Walking in the Garden

Sunday, March 12, 2017

Economics in the Garden - A few 1600s portraits of women with status symbol tulips...

Gilbert Jackson [English Baroque Era Painter, active 1621-1642] A Lady of the Grenville Family with Tulips in her Hair and her Son

Tulip mania or tulipomania was a brief period, beginning about 1620 & climaxing 1636-1637, in the Dutch Golden Age during which contract prices for bulbs of recently introduced tulips reached extraordinarily high levels & then suddenly collapsed.

 Anthony van Dyck (1599-1641) Lady Jane Goodwin

Tulips became luxury goods for wealthy Dutch families. These bulbs, originally imported from Ottoman Turkey, became an important commodity. 

Gilbert Jackson [English Baroque Era Painter, active 1621-1642] Portrait of a Lady with a Lace Collar Holding a Tulip

The bulbs not only became a required addition to the elaborate Dutch formal gardens of the period, but also became the subject of intense botanical experiments attempting to create new varieties. The new & rare were prized. 

 Christine de Bade-Durlach (1645-1705), épouse en 1665 Albert II de Brandebourg-Ansbach

At the peak of tulip mania, in March 1637, some single tulip bulbs sold for more than 10x the annual income of a skilled craftsman. This economic phase & collapse is generally considered the one of 1st recorded speculative economic bubbles.

Friday, March 10, 2017

Economics in the Garden - 1632 Tulips & Women in a garden

Illustration of an unspecified edition of Jacob Cats' Spiegel vanden Ouden ende Nieuwe Tijd

Two women in a garden; a young & an elderly woman standing outside in a walled garden with blooming tulips growing from the ground in front of them. The young woman holds a blooming flower, the elderly woman holds a withered flower.  A garden fountain is in the right background. This etching is after Adriaen van de Venne from an unspecified edition of Jacob Cats' "Spiegel vanden Ouden ende Nieuwe Tijd" (1st edition published in The Hague: 1632)