Friday, March 31, 2017

Wednesday, March 29, 2017

19C Italian Flower Seller

E. Giachi (19C Italian artist) The Flower Seller

Flower sellers were common on the streets of London, Paris, & other European urban centers. We can glean some information about British flower sellers from Victorian London census records which reveal that most were married women & widows ranging from older teens to women in their 50s, single women, mostly enumerated as "daughter" are far fewer & make up a small percentage of the total. We can see the occasional "flower girl" who was put out onto the streets to sell flowers in order to help with the family income. Flower sellers didn’t just sell cut flowers, which had to be sourced at dawn, taken home, made up into bunches & then taken out onto the streets to sell from a basket, wheelbarrow, hand cart, or temporary stall in high traffic areas such as informal markets or lining the streets of busy thoroughfares. They also sold pot plants, "roots," seeds, there was a hierarchy within the occupation as described by Henry Mayhew (1812-1887) in London Labour & the London Poor. 1851. "The street-sellers of whom I have now to treat comprise those who deal in trees & shrubs, in flowers (whether in pots, or with soil attached to the roots, or cut from the plant as it grows in the garden), & in seeds & branches (as of holly, mistletoe, ivy, yew, laurel, palm, lilac, & may). The “root-sellers” (as the dealers in flowers in pots are mostly called) rank, when in a prosperous business, with the highest “aristocracy” of the street greengrocers. The condition of a portion of them, may be characterized by a term which is readily understood as “comfortable,” that is to say, comparatively comfortable, when the circumstances of other street-sellers are considered...Dealers in trees & shrubs are the same as the root-sellers.  The same may be said, but with some few exceptions, of the seed-sellers...The root-sellers do not reside in any particular localities, but there are more of them living in the outskirts than in the thickly populated streets. The street-sellers of cut flowers present characteristics peculiarly their own. This trade is mostly in the hands of girls, who are of 2 classes. This traffic ranks...among the lowest grades of the street-trade, being pursued only by the very poor, or the very young." Mayhew provided extensive descriptions of...potted plants & cut flowers. The seller ordinarily confined herself "to the cheaper sorts of plants, & rarely meddles with such things as acacias, mezereons, savines, syringas, lilacs, or even myrtles, & with none of these things unless cheap."  

Covent Garden’s flower girls attracted attention to their wares by shouting at passers by using marketplace jargon: “Two bundles a penny, primroses!” & “Sweet violets, penny a bunch!”  In 1851, Henry Mayhew described 2 types of flower girls. The 1st & most notable were the flower “waifs," typically younger girls who scraped by on their own, or sold flowers to supplement their parents’ income. They were generally “very persevering,” & persisted at the heels of anyone who passed by, hoping to sell their wares. The 2nd type of flower girl was less common, & they doubled as prostitutes, generally staying out later than their contemporaries. They came to form a seedier reputation for the flower-vending business, & at the time “flower-seller” was a popularly-known London moniker for “prostitute.” 

Street sellers, often called costermongers in Britain, were known to have been in London from the 14C, & possibly much earlier. Mayhew, writing in the 1840s, called costermongering an "ancient calling" & attributed the 1st written descriptions of the street sellers' distinctive cries & sales patter appearing in a ballad, entitled London Lyckpeny by John Lydgate probably written in the late 1300s & 1st performed around 1409. William Shakespeare (1564 -1616) & Christopher Marlowe (1564-1593) both mention costermongers in their writings. Initiatives to rid the city of street traders were common during the reigns of Elizabeth I (1558–1603) & Charles I (1625–1649). These attempts failed & the number of London-based street vendors, plus those in large European cities, surged in the 18C & 19C. 

Monday, March 27, 2017

17C Flower Seller

Bartolomé Estéban Murillo (1617-1682) The Flower Girl

One of Henry Mayhew’s (London Labour & the London Poor. 1851) investigations focused on flower girls – children aged under 20 who walked the streets selling flowers, mostly sent out by their parents, but in some cases through the necessity to make ends meet having been orphaned. Mayhew pointed out that young girls often started out by selling cut flowers & small bunches of herbs: "At about 7 years of age the girls first go into the streets to sell. A shallow-basket is given to them, with about two shillings for stock-money, & they hawk, according to the time of year, either oranges, apples, or violets; some begin their street education with the sale of water-cresses." “I sell flowers, sir; we live almost on flowers when they are to be got. I sell, & so does my sister, all kinds, but it’s very little use offering any that’s not sweet. I think it’s the sweetness as sells them. I sell primroses, when they’re in, & violets, & wall-flowers, & stocks, & roses of different sorts, & pinks, & carnations, & mixed flowers, & lilies of the valley, & green lavender, & mignonette (but that I do very seldom), & violets again at this time of the year, for we get them both in spring & winter.” [They are forced in hot-houses for winter sale, I may remark.] “The best sale of all is, I think, moss-roses, young moss-roses. We do best of all on them. Primroses are good, for people say: `Well, here’s spring again to a certainty.’ Gentlemen are our best customers. I’ve heard that they buy flowers to give to the ladies. 

Street sellers, often called costermongers in Britain, were known to have been in London from at least the 15C, & possibly much earlier. Mayhew, writing in the 1840s, called costermongering an "ancient calling" & attributed the 1st written descriptions of the street sellers' distinctive cries & sales patter appearing in a ballad, entitled London Lyckpeny by John Lydgate probably written in the late 1300s & 1st performed around 1409. Shakespeare & Marlowe mention costermongers in their writings. Initiatives to rid the city of street traders were common during the reigns of Elizabeth I (1558–1603) & Charles I (1625–1649). These attempts failed & the number of London-based street vendors surged in the 18C & 19C. On the otherhand, every employment, even down to the flower-sellers, was carefully regulated by statute in Paris, before the French Revolution, a period of far-reaching social & political upheaval in France from 1789 until 1799.

Street life & the "cries of London" was also a recurring theme in painting. In the mid 1700s, the English water-colorist, Paul Sandby created a series entitled London Cries depicting English shopkeepers, stall-holders & itinerant street vendors. The Dutch engraver, Marcellus Laroon began working in London in the mid-1700s where he produced his most famous work, the series, The Cryes of London. The Flemish engraver & printmaker, Anthony Cardon, spent time in England in the 1790s, where he produced a series of engravings of London's street sellers, known as the Cries of London. Francis Wheatley, the English painter, who had been born in Covent Garden and was well acquainted with London's street life, exhibited a series of artworks, also entitled Cries of London, between 1792 and 1795. Augustus Edwin Mulready, made his reputation by painting scenes of Victorian life which included street sellers, urchins, markets flower sellers. The French artist, Louise Moillon noted for her still-life paintings, also used market scenes, street vendors, and green-grocers as subject matter in early 17C France.

Saturday, March 25, 2017

19C French Flower Sellers

Louis Marie de Schryver (French artist, 1862-1942) After the Theater Laverse Place

Flower sellers were common on the streets of London, Paris, & other European urban centers. We can glean some information about British flower sellers from Victorian London census records which reveal that most were married women & widows ranging from older teens to women in their 50s, single women, mostly enumerated as "daughter" are far fewer & make up a small percentage of the total. We can see the occasional "flower girl" who was put out onto the streets to sell flowers in order to help with the family income. Flower sellers didn’t just sell cut flowers, which had to be sourced at dawn, taken home, made up into bunches & then taken out onto the streets to sell from a basket, wheelbarrow, hand cart, or temporary stall in high traffic areas such as informal markets or lining the streets of busy thoroughfares. They also sold pot plants, "roots," seeds, there was a hierarchy within the occupation as described by Henry Mayhew (1812-1887) in London Labour & the London Poor. 1851. "The street-sellers of whom I have now to treat comprise those who deal in trees & shrubs, in flowers (whether in pots, or with soil attached to the roots, or cut from the plant as it grows in the garden), & in seeds & branches (as of holly, mistletoe, ivy, yew, laurel, palm, lilac, & may). The “root-sellers” (as the dealers in flowers in pots are mostly called) rank, when in a prosperous business, with the highest “aristocracy” of the street greengrocers. The condition of a portion of them, may be characterized by a term which is readily understood as “comfortable,” that is to say, comparatively comfortable, when the circumstances of other street-sellers are considered...Dealers in trees & shrubs are the same as the root-sellers.  The same may be said, but with some few exceptions, of the seed-sellers...The root-sellers do not reside in any particular localities, but there are more of them living in the outskirts than in the thickly populated streets. The street-sellers of cut flowers present characteristics peculiarly their own. This trade is mostly in the hands of girls, who are of 2 classes. This traffic ranks...among the lowest grades of the street-trade, being pursued only by the very poor, or the very young." Mayhew provided extensive descriptions of...potted plants & cut flowers. The seller ordinarily confined herself "to the cheaper sorts of plants, & rarely meddles with such things as acacias, mezereons, savines, syringas, lilacs, or even myrtles, & with none of these things unless cheap."  

Covent Garden’s flower girls attracted attention to their wares by shouting at passers by using marketplace jargon: “Two bundles a penny, primroses!” & “Sweet violets, penny a bunch!”  In 1851, Henry Mayhew described 2 types of flower girls. The 1st & most notable were the flower “waifs," typically younger girls who scraped by on their own, or sold flowers to supplement their parents’ income. They were generally “very persevering,” & persisted at the heels of anyone who passed by, hoping to sell their wares. The 2nd type of flower girl was less common, & they doubled as prostitutes, generally staying out later than their contemporaries. They came to form a seedier reputation for the flower-vending business, & at the time “flower-seller” was a popularly-known London moniker for “prostitute.” 

Street sellers, often called costermongers in Britain, were known to have been in London from the 14C, & possibly much earlier. Mayhew, writing in the 1840s, called costermongering an "ancient calling" & attributed the 1st written descriptions of the street sellers' distinctive cries & sales patter appearing in a ballad, entitled London Lyckpeny by John Lydgate probably written in the late 1300s & 1st performed around 1409. William Shakespeare (1564 -1616) & Christopher Marlowe (1564-1593) both mention costermongers in their writings. Initiatives to rid the city of street traders were common during the reigns of Elizabeth I (1558–1603) & Charles I (1625–1649). These attempts failed & the number of London-based street vendors, plus those in large European cities, surged in the 18C & 19C. 

Thursday, March 23, 2017

19C French Flower Sellerr

Louis Marie de Schryver (French artist, 1862-1942) Rue Royale, Paris

Flower sellers were common on the streets of London, Paris, & other European urban centers. We can glean some information about British flower sellers from Victorian London census records which reveal that most were married women & widows ranging from older teens to women in their 50s, single women, mostly enumerated as "daughter" are far fewer & make up a small percentage of the total. We can see the occasional "flower girl" who was put out onto the streets to sell flowers in order to help with the family income. Flower sellers didn’t just sell cut flowers, which had to be sourced at dawn, taken home, made up into bunches & then taken out onto the streets to sell from a basket, wheelbarrow, hand cart, or temporary stall in high traffic areas such as informal markets or lining the streets of busy thoroughfares. They also sold pot plants, "roots," seeds, there was a hierarchy within the occupation as described by Henry Mayhew (1812-1887) in London Labour & the London Poor. 1851. "The street-sellers of whom I have now to treat comprise those who deal in trees & shrubs, in flowers (whether in pots, or with soil attached to the roots, or cut from the plant as it grows in the garden), & in seeds & branches (as of holly, mistletoe, ivy, yew, laurel, palm, lilac, & may). The “root-sellers” (as the dealers in flowers in pots are mostly called) rank, when in a prosperous business, with the highest “aristocracy” of the street greengrocers. The condition of a portion of them, may be characterized by a term which is readily understood as “comfortable,” that is to say, comparatively comfortable, when the circumstances of other street-sellers are considered...Dealers in trees & shrubs are the same as the root-sellers.  The same may be said, but with some few exceptions, of the seed-sellers...The root-sellers do not reside in any particular localities, but there are more of them living in the outskirts than in the thickly populated streets. The street-sellers of cut flowers present characteristics peculiarly their own. This trade is mostly in the hands of girls, who are of 2 classes. This traffic ranks...among the lowest grades of the street-trade, being pursued only by the very poor, or the very young." Mayhew provided extensive descriptions of...potted plants & cut flowers. The seller ordinarily confined herself "to the cheaper sorts of plants, & rarely meddles with such things as acacias, mezereons, savines, syringas, lilacs, or even myrtles, & with none of these things unless cheap."  

Covent Garden’s flower girls attracted attention to their wares by shouting at passers by using marketplace jargon: “Two bundles a penny, primroses!” & “Sweet violets, penny a bunch!”  In 1851, Henry Mayhew described 2 types of flower girls. The 1st & most notable were the flower “waifs," typically younger girls who scraped by on their own, or sold flowers to supplement their parents’ income. They were generally “very persevering,” & persisted at the heels of anyone who passed by, hoping to sell their wares. The 2nd type of flower girl was less common, & they doubled as prostitutes, generally staying out later than their contemporaries. They came to form a seedier reputation for the flower-vending business, & at the time “flower-seller” was a popularly-known London moniker for “prostitute.” 

Street sellers, often called costermongers in Britain, were known to have been in London from the 14C, & possibly much earlier. Mayhew, writing in the 1840s, called costermongering an "ancient calling" & attributed the 1st written descriptions of the street sellers' distinctive cries & sales patter appearing in a ballad, entitled London Lyckpeny by John Lydgate probably written in the late 1300s & 1st performed around 1409. William Shakespeare (1564 -1616) & Christopher Marlowe (1564-1593) both mention costermongers in their writings. Initiatives to rid the city of street traders were common during the reigns of Elizabeth I (1558–1603) & Charles I (1625–1649). These attempts failed & the number of London-based street vendors, plus those in large European cities, surged in the 18C & 19C. 

Tuesday, March 7, 2017

Sheep & Lambs in paintings of a few European & British Women & Children

Sheep began appearing in Western religious paintings early.  By the 17th century, lambs were showing up in non-religious portraits as well. These are a few of my favorites.

Anthonie Palamedesz. (Stevaerts, Stevens) (1601-1673) Child and Sheep, 1655


Sir Peter Lely (1618-1680) Lady Belasyse


William Henesy (English artist 18th Century)  Baptist Noel 4th Earl of Gainsborough and His Wife Elizabeth with their Children

Aelbert Cuyp (1620-1691) Girl with a Lamb


Elisabeth Sophie Cheron (1648-1711) Self Portrait

Sir Godfrey Kneller (1646-1743) Portrait of a Woman as St Agnes (Perhaps Catherine Voss)

James Francis Maubert (1666-1746) Portrait of Henrietta Duchess 
of Bolton

Joseph Wright Of Derby (1734-1797) Miss Frances Warren

Sir George Chalmers (1720-1791) Elizabeth and Mary Chichester

Joseph Wright Of Derby (1734-1797) Miss Frances Warren

Sunday, March 5, 2017

Squirrels in in a few European & British Paintings

1519 Giovanni Cariani (1485–1547) 4 Courtesans, 3 Gentlemen, and 1 Squirrel



1519 Giovanni Cariani (1485–1547) 4 Courtesans, 3 Gentlemen, and 1 Squirrel Detail


 1526 Hans Holbein the Younger (1498–1543) Lady with a Squirrel on a chain


1526 Hans Holbein the Younger (1498–1543) Lady with a Squirrel Detail


 1565 Francesco Montemezzano (Italian, Venetian, ca. 1540–after 1602). Portrait of a Lady with a Squirrel on a chain with a bell collar.


1580s Portrait of a Lady, possibly the Poet Maddalena Salvetti (1557-1610), in a Green Dress and a pet Black Squirrel with a bell collar.


1650s Frans Luycx (1604–1668) Charles Joseph (1649-1664) Archduke of Austria with Squirrel



 1600s Frederic Kerseboom (1632-1690) Lady with a Red Squirrel on a chain and a Spaniel



 1700s Joseph Highmore (English artist, 1692-1780) A Portrait of a Boy with a Pet Squirrel.


 1730 Unknown French artist, Portrait of an Unknown French Lady Holding Flowers and a Red Squirrel with a bell collar.


 1736 Joseph Highmore (English artist, 1692-1780) The Family of Sir Eldred Lancelot Lee

Friday, March 3, 2017

In the Countryside - 1700s Women dressed for hunting, fowling, & shooting



1703 Duchess Franziska Sibylla Augusta of Saxony-Lauenburg and her son  Georg Ludwig by Ivenet



 1710 Electoral Princess Amalia Maria Josepha of Bavaria by Franz Joseph Winter 



 1720s Maria Zofia Czartoryska



 1725 Marie Leczinska, Queen of France by Jean Baptiste Martin, l'Ancien



 1727 Eleonore of Schwarzenberg with her son Joseph by Maximilian Hannel



 1745 Grooth - Catherine the Great of Russia



1746 Sophie-Marie, Countess Voss by Pesne


1748 John Wooton (British artist, 1686-1765) Lady Mary Churchill at the Death of the Hare



 1750 Lady in Hunting Costume, German Miniature



 1750 Maria Anna of Saxony, Electress of Bavaria - J A T Jahreszeiten 



1758 Maria Antonia of Fürstenberg by Franz Josef Weiss



 1700s Portrait of a lady from the Schaezlerpalais in Augsburg



1700s Portrait of an unknown lady


1770s The Ladies Shooting Poney published by Carington Bowles


1778 Miss Wicket and Miss Trigger published by Carington Bowles


1776 The Sporting Lady published by Sayer & Bennett



 1780 Female Fox Hunter by Collett



1781 Marie Antoinette in hunting attire by Louis Auguste Brun de Versoix


1787 The Countess of Effingham by George Haugh (British artist, 1755-1827)