Thursday, August 30, 2018

Longing for a Soft, Docile 17C-18C Gentlewoman Tending Sheep - Pastoral Allegories

;1670 Karel Škréta (Czech painter, 1610–1674) Portrait of a girl as a Shepherdess

During the 17C & 18C artists painted their contemporaries as personifications & allegories, & often painters would put the faces of their patrons on the bodies of the saints. These came to be called donor portraits. These paintings remained popular, as they expanded to show the wealthy sitter as a Greek goddess, or muse, or nymph in in a rustic setting. They grew to include portraits of a shepherdess in pastoral scenes wearing idealized attire, nothing like the clothing worn by real women tending sheep.

Early portraits of women portrayed as shepherdesses were more seductive than those painted later. The subject might be depicted with bare breasts showing, while wealthy, identified sitters would be painted in more traditional, conservative costumes. The theme of the shepherdess was popular in 17C Dutch art, & it was not unusual for fashionable young women to have their likenesses rendered as such. The shepherdess theme remained popular & expanded throughout the 18C on both sides of the Atlantic.

Tuesday, August 28, 2018

Longing for a Soft, Docile 17C-18C Gentlewoman Tending Sheep - Pastoral Allegories

1630s Paulus Moreelse (Dutch artist, 1571-1638) Lady as Shepherdess

During the 17C & 18C artists painted their contemporaries as personifications & allegories, & often painters would put the faces of their patrons on the bodies of the saints.  These came to be called donor portraits. These paintings remained popular, as they expanded to show the wealthy sitter as a Greek goddess, or muse, or nymph in in a rustic setting. They grew to include portraits of a shepherdess in pastoral scenes wearing idealized attire, nothing like the clothing worn by real women tending sheep.

Early portraits of women portrayed as shepherdesses were more seductive than those painted later.  The subject might be depicted with bare breasts showing, while wealthy, identified sitters would be painted in more traditional, conservative costumes.  The theme of the shepherdess was popular in 17C Dutch art, & it was not unusual for fashionable young women to have their likenesses rendered as such.  The shepherdess theme remained popular & expanded throughout the 18C on both sides of the Atlantic.

Sunday, August 26, 2018

Longing for a Soft, Docile 17C-18C Gentlewoman Tending Sheep - Pastoral Allegories

1630-50s Anonymous Dutch artist, after Paulus Moreelse (Dutch artist, 1571-1638) Shepherdess

During the 17C & 18C artists painted their contemporaries as personifications & allegories, & often painters would put the faces of their patrons on the bodies of the saints.  These came to be called donor portraits. These paintings remained popular, as they expanded to show the wealthy sitter as a Greek goddess, or muse, or nymph in in a rustic setting. They grew to include portraits of a shepherdess in pastoral scenes wearing idealized attire, nothing like the clothing worn by real women tending sheep.

Early portraits of women portrayed as shepherdesses were more seductive than those painted later.  The subject might be depicted with bare breasts showing, while wealthy, identified sitters would be painted in more traditional, conservative costumes.  The theme of the shepherdess was popular in 17C Dutch art, & it was not unusual for fashionable young women to have their likenesses rendered as such.  The shepherdess theme remained popular & expanded throughout the 18C on both sides of the Atlantic.

Friday, August 24, 2018

Longing for a Soft, Docile 17C-18C Gentlewoman Tending Sheep - Pastoral Allegories

 1630 Claude Deruet (French artist, 1588–1660) Portrait of a Lady as a Shepherdess

During the 17C & 18C artists painted their contemporaries as personifications & allegories, & often painters would put the faces of their patrons on the bodies of the saints.  These came to be called donor portraits. These paintings remained popular, as they expanded to show the wealthy sitter as a Greek goddess, or muse, or nymph in in a rustic setting. They grew to include portraits of a shepherdess in pastoral scenes wearing idealized attire, nothing like the clothing worn by real women tending sheep.

Early portraits of women portrayed as shepherdesses were more seductive than those painted later.  The subject might be depicted with bare breasts showing, while wealthy, identified sitters would be painted in more traditional, conservative costumes.  The theme of the shepherdess was popular in 17C Dutch art, & it was not unusual for fashionable young women to have their likenesses rendered as such.  The shepherdess theme remained popular & expanded throughout the 18C on both sides of the Atlantic.

Wednesday, August 22, 2018

Longing for a Soft, Docile 17C-18C Gentlewoman Tending Sheep - Pastoral Allegories

1630 Claude Deruet (French artist, 1588–1660) Duchesse de Monatusier as a Shepherdess

During the 17C & 18C artists painted their contemporaries as personifications & allegories, & often painters would put the faces of their patrons on the bodies of the saints.  These came to be called donor portraits. These paintings remained popular, as they expanded to show the wealthy sitter as a Greek goddess, or muse, or nymph in in a rustic setting. They grew to include portraits of a shepherdess in pastoral scenes wearing idealized attire, nothing like the clothing worn by real women tending sheep.

Early portraits of women portrayed as shepherdesses were more seductive than those painted later.  The subject might be depicted with bare breasts showing, while wealthy, identified sitters would be painted in more traditional, conservative costumes.  The theme of the shepherdess was popular in 17C Dutch art, & it was not unusual for fashionable young women to have their likenesses rendered as such.  The shepherdess theme remained popular & expanded throughout the 18C.

Monday, August 20, 2018

Longing for a Soft, Docile 17C-18C Gentlewoman Tending Sheep - Pastoral Allegories

1628 Unknown artist from the workshop of Gerrit van Honthorst (Dutch artist, 1592–1656) Portrait of a Lady of the Court as a Shepherdess

During the 17C & 18C artists painted their contemporaries as personifications & allegories, & often painters would put the faces of their patrons on the bodies of the saints.  These came to be called donor portraits. These paintings remained popular, as they expanded to show the wealthy sitter as a Greek goddess, or muse, or nymph in in a rustic setting. They grew to include portraits of a shepherdess in pastoral scenes wearing idealized attire, nothing like the clothing worn by real women tending sheep.

Early portraits of women portrayed as shepherdesses were more seductive than those painted later.  The subject might be depicted with bare breasts showing, while wealthy, identified sitters would be painted in more traditional, conservative costumes.  The theme of the shepherdess was popular in 17C Dutch art, & it was not unusual for fashionable young women to have their likenesses rendered as such.  The shepherdess theme remained popular & expanded throughout the 18C.

Saturday, August 18, 2018

Longing for a Soft, Docile 17C-18C Gentlewoman Tending Sheep - Pastoral Allegories

 1625 Salomon de Bray (Dutch artist, 1597-1664)  A Shepherdess

During the 17C & 18C artists painted their contemporaries as personifications & allegories, & often painters would put the faces of their patrons on the bodies of the saints.  These came to be called donor portraits. These paintings remained popular, as they expanded to show the wealthy sitter as a Greek goddess, or muse, or nymph in in a rustic setting. They grew to include portraits of a shepherdess in pastoral scenes wearing idealized attire, nothing like the clothing worn by real women tending sheep.

Early portraits of women portrayed as shepherdesses were more seductive than those painted later.  The subject might be depicted with bare breasts showing, while wealthy, identified sitters would be painted in more traditional, conservative costumes.  The theme of the shepherdess was popular in 17C Dutch art, & it was not unusual for fashionable young women to have their likenesses rendered as such.  The shepherdess theme remained popular & expanded throughout the 18C on both sides of the Atlantic.

Thursday, August 16, 2018

Longing for a Soft, Docile 17C-18C Gentlewoman Tending Sheep - Pastoral Allegories

1624 Paulus Moreelse (Dutch artist, 1571-1638) A Woman as Shepherdess

During the 17C & 18C artists painted their contemporaries as personifications & allegories, & often painters would put the faces of their patrons on the bodies of the saints.  These came to be called donor portraits. These paintings remained popular, as they expanded to show the wealthy sitter as a Greek goddess, or muse, or nymph in in a rustic setting. They grew to include portraits of a shepherdess in pastoral scenes wearing idealized attire, nothing like the clothing worn by real women tending sheep.

Early portraits of women portrayed as shepherdesses were more seductive than those painted later.  The subject might be depicted with bare breasts showing, while wealthy, identified sitters would be painted in more traditional, conservative costumes.  The theme of the shepherdess was popular in 17C Dutch art, & it was not unusual for fashionable young women to have their likenesses rendered as such.  The shepherdess theme remained popular & expanded throughout the 18C.

19C French Flower Seller

Victor-Gabriel Gilbert (French Academic Painter, 1847-1933) Flower Sellers on Market Day (detail)

Flower sellers were common on the streets of London, Paris, & other European urban centers. We can glean some information about British flower sellers from Victorian London census records which reveal that most were married women & widows ranging from older teens to women in their 50s, single women, mostly enumerated as "daughter" are far fewer & make up a small percentage of the total. We can see the occasional "flower girl" who was put out onto the streets to sell flowers in order to help with the family income. Flower sellers didn’t just sell cut flowers, which had to be sourced at dawn, taken home, made up into bunches & then taken out onto the streets to sell from a basket, wheelbarrow, hand cart, or temporary stall in high traffic areas such as informal markets or lining the streets of busy thoroughfares. They also sold pot plants, "roots," seeds, there was a hierarchy within the occupation as described by Henry Mayhew (1812-1887) in London Labour & the London Poor. 1851. "The street-sellers of whom I have now to treat comprise those who deal in trees & shrubs, in flowers (whether in pots, or with soil attached to the roots, or cut from the plant as it grows in the garden), & in seeds & branches (as of holly, mistletoe, ivy, yew, laurel, palm, lilac, & may). The “root-sellers” (as the dealers in flowers in pots are mostly called) rank, when in a prosperous business, with the highest “aristocracy” of the street greengrocers. The condition of a portion of them, may be characterized by a term which is readily understood as “comfortable,” that is to say, comparatively comfortable, when the circumstances of other street-sellers are considered...Dealers in trees & shrubs are the same as the root-sellers.  The same may be said, but with some few exceptions, of the seed-sellers...The root-sellers do not reside in any particular localities, but there are more of them living in the outskirts than in the thickly populated streets. The street-sellers of cut flowers present characteristics peculiarly their own. This trade is mostly in the hands of girls, who are of 2 classes. This traffic ranks...among the lowest grades of the street-trade, being pursued only by the very poor, or the very young." Mayhew provided extensive descriptions of...potted plants & cut flowers. The seller ordinarily confined herself "to the cheaper sorts of plants, & rarely meddles with such things as acacias, mezereons, savines, syringas, lilacs, or even myrtles, & with none of these things unless cheap."  

Covent Garden’s flower girls attracted attention to their wares by shouting at passers by using marketplace jargon: “Two bundles a penny, primroses!” & “Sweet violets, penny a bunch!”  In 1851, Henry Mayhew described 2 types of flower girls. The 1st & most notable were the flower “waifs," typically younger girls who scraped by on their own, or sold flowers to supplement their parents’ income. They were generally “very persevering,” & persisted at the heels of anyone who passed by, hoping to sell their wares. The 2nd type of flower girl was less common, & they doubled as prostitutes, generally staying out later than their contemporaries. They came to form a seedier reputation for the flower-vending business, & at the time “flower-seller” was a popularly-known London moniker for “prostitute.” 

Street sellers, often called costermongers in Britain, were known to have been in London from the 14C, & possibly much earlier. Mayhew, writing in the 1840s, called costermongering an "ancient calling" & attributed the 1st written descriptions of the street sellers' distinctive cries & sales patter appearing in a ballad, entitled London Lyckpeny by John Lydgate probably written in the late 1300s & 1st performed around 1409. William Shakespeare (1564 -1616) & Christopher Marlowe (1564-1593) both mention costermongers in their writings. Initiatives to rid the city of street traders were common during the reigns of Elizabeth I (1558–1603) & Charles I (1625–1649). These attempts failed & the number of London-based street vendors, plus those in large European cities, surged in the 18C & 19C. 

Tuesday, August 14, 2018

Longing for a Soft, Docile 17C-18C Gentlewoman Tending Sheep - Pastoral Allegories

1790s Thomas Barker of Bath (British artist, 1769-1847) (style of) A Shepherdess and Sheep

During the 17C & 18C artists painted their contemporaries as personifications & allegories, & often painters would put the faces of their patrons on the bodies of the saints.  These came to be called donor portraits. These paintings remained popular, as they expanded to show the wealthy sitter as a Greek goddess, or muse, or nymph in in a rustic setting. They grew to include portraits of a shepherdess in pastoral scenes wearing idealized attire, nothing like the clothing worn by real women tending sheep.

Early portraits of women portrayed as shepherdesses were more seductive than those painted later.  The subject might be depicted with bare breasts showing, while wealthy, identified sitters would be painted in more traditional, conservative costumes.  The theme of the shepherdess was popular in 17C Dutch art, & it was not unusual for fashionable young women to have their likenesses rendered as such.  The shepherdess theme remained popular & expanded throughout the 18C on both sides of the Atlantic.

Sunday, August 12, 2018

Longing for a Soft, Docile 17C-18C Gentlewoman Tending Sheep - Pastoral Allegories

1600s Unknown artist from the workshop of Gerrit van Honthorst (Dutch artist, 1592–1656) Portrait of a Lady of the Court as a Shepherdess

During the 17C & 18C artists painted their contemporaries as personifications & allegories, & often painters would put the faces of their patrons on the bodies of the saints.  These came to be called donor portraits. These paintings remained popular, as they expanded to show the wealthy sitter as a Greek goddess, or muse, or nymph in in a rustic setting. They grew to include portraits of a shepherdess in pastoral scenes wearing idealized attire, nothing like the clothing worn by real women tending sheep.

Early portraits of women portrayed as shepherdesses were more seductive than those painted later.  The subject might be depicted with bare breasts showing, while wealthy, identified sitters would be painted in more traditional, conservative costumes.  The theme of the shepherdess was popular in 17C Dutch art, & it was not unusual for fashionable young women to have their likenesses rendered as such.  The shepherdess theme remained popular & expanded throughout the 18C on both sides of the Atlantic.

Friday, August 10, 2018

Longing for a Soft, Docile 17C-18C Gentlewoman Tending Sheep - Pastoral Allegories

 Style of Peter Lely (English artist, 1618-1680) Portrait of a Courtesan

During the 17C & 18C artists painted their contemporaries as personifications & allegories, & often painters would put the faces of their patrons on the bodies of the saints.  These came to be called donor portraits. These paintings remained popular, as they expanded to show the wealthy sitter as a Greek goddess, or muse, or nymph in in a rustic setting. They grew to include portraits of a shepherdess in pastoral scenes wearing idealized attire, nothing like the clothing worn by real women tending sheep.



Early portraits of women portrayed as shepherdesses were more seductive than those painted later.  The subject might be depicted with bare breasts showing, while wealthy, identified sitters would be painted in more traditional, conservative costumes.  The theme of the shepherdess was popular in 17C Dutch art, & it was not unusual for fashionable young women to have their likenesses rendered as such.  The shepherdess theme remained popular & expanded throughout the 18C on both sides of the Atlantic.

Saturday, August 4, 2018

17C Portraits - Families Head Outside as Mankind Becomes "the Interpreter of Nature"

The Renaissance, from the 14-17C, marked a turning point in portraiture. Renaissance artists began to paint secular scenes, breaking away from the dominant religious art of medieval painters. Partly out of interest in the natural world & partly out of nostalgia for classical Greece & Rome, portraits became valued as symbolic & allegorical objects & as depictions of earthly success & status. The period in Europe was the cultural bridge between the Middle Ages & modern history. The relationship between man & nature was evolving as Francis Bacon (1561-1626) promoted man as "the minister & interpreter of nature." Portraits began to depict the wealthy & the middle class in natural landscapes & in more formal garden settings, where man was obviously controlling the nature around him.   As time passed, the Renaissance garden & grounds became as much as symbol of the owner's wealth & culture as his house, his clothes, or his art collection.

With the arrival of Anthony Van Dyck (1599–1641) at the court of Charles I in 1632, British portraiture took a turn toward the baroque that changed the course of British & colonial American painting in the 17-18C. The Elizabethan style had almost been completely replaced in England by the 1670s quickly giving way to a more volumetric style. In the British American colonies, this transition was copied through imported engravings after Peter Lely (1617–1680) & Godfrey Kneller (1648–1723).
Sir Godfrey Kneller (1646–1723) The Harvey Family

Thursday, August 2, 2018

17C Portraits - Families Head Outside as Mankind Becomes "the Interpreter of Nature"

The Renaissance, from the 14-17C, marked a turning point in portraiture. Renaissance artists began to paint secular scenes, breaking away from the dominant religious art of medieval painters. Partly out of interest in the natural world & partly out of nostalgia for classical Greece & Rome, portraits became valued as symbolic & allegorical objects & as depictions of earthly success & status. The period in Europe was the cultural bridge between the Middle Ages & modern history. The relationship between man & nature was evolving as Francis Bacon (1561-1626) promoted man as "the minister & interpreter of nature." Portraits began to depict the wealthy & the middle class in natural landscapes & in more formal garden settings, where man was obviously controlling the nature around him.   As time passed, the Renaissance garden & grounds became as much as symbol of the owner's wealth & culture as his house, his clothes, or his art collection.

With the arrival of Anthony Van Dyck (1599–1641) at the court of Charles I in 1632, British portraiture took a turn toward the baroque that changed the course of British & colonial American painting in the 17-18C. The Elizabethan style had almost been completely replaced in England by the 1670s quickly giving way to a more volumetric style. In the British American colonies, this transition was copied through imported engravings after Peter Lely (1617–1680) & Godfrey Kneller (1648–1723).
1695 Self-portrait with family, Michiel van Musscher (1645-1705)  Late 1690s This artist's family portrait, attributed to Michiel van Musscher (1645-1705), is placed in an explosion of garden components - fountains, urns, statuary, a long, formal walk, clipped hedges, & more.  Seems more French than Dutch, & the art is dissimilar to Musscher's other works from the period.