Tuesday, March 31, 2020

Lent - Temptations in the Wilderness - Christ & Satan 16C

From a Breviary French (Southern), c. 1506-1516 New York, Pierpont Morgan MS m8.069va  Christ was very hungry, but turning stones into bread wasn't that appealing.

“The Spirit drove Jesus out into the desert,
& he remained in the desert for forty days,
tempted by Satan.
He was among wild beasts,
& the angels ministered to him.”
Mark 1:12-13

All 3 Gospels relate that Jesus spent a period of 40 days & nights in the desert immediately following His Baptism in the Jordan by John the Baptist & the dramatic recognition given by Heaven to this event. The number 40 obviously has resonance with such Old Testament events as the 40 days & nights of the Great Flood (Genesis 7:9), the 40 days & nights that Moses was on Mount Sinai receiving the Ten Commandments from God (Exodus 24:18) & the 40 years in which the Hebrews wandered in the wilderness (Numbers 14:32-34).  Mark’s reference to the Temptation of Jesus is the shortest of the three. Matthew (Matthew 4:1-11) & Luke (Luke 4:1-13) both describe in detail the temptations tried by Satan, temptations to power & pride, which Jesus resisted. All three agree that at the end of these 40 days & nights, Jesus was tired & hungry.

"Filled with the Holy Spirit, Jesus returned from the Jordan
and was led by the Spirit into the desert for forty days,
to be tempted by the devil.
He ate nothing during those days,
and when they were over he was hungry.
The devil said to him,
"If you are the Son of God,
command this stone to become bread."
Jesus answered him,
"It is written, One does not live on bread alone."
Then he took him up and showed him
all the kingdoms of the world in a single instant.
The devil said to him,
"I shall give to you all this power and glory;
for it has been handed over to me,
and I may give it to whomever I wish.
All this will be yours, if you worship me."
Jesus said to him in reply,
"It is written:
You shall worship the Lord, your God,
and him alone shall you serve."
Then he led him to Jerusalem,
made him stand on the parapet of the temple, and said to him,
"If you are the Son of God,
throw yourself down from here, for it is written:
He will command his angels concerning you, to guard you,
and:
With their hands they will support you,
lest you dash your foot against a stone."
Jesus said to him in reply,
"It also says,
You shall not put the Lord, your God, to the test."
When the devil had finished every temptation,
he departed from him for a time.”
Luke 4:1-13

Monday, March 30, 2020

Lent - Temptations in the Wilderness - Christ & Satan 16C

Simon Bening Prayer Book of Card Albrecht of Brandenburg Flemish (Bruges), c.1525-1530 Getty Ludwig IX 19, fol. 62v.  This Satan has rather unusual feet.

“The Spirit drove Jesus out into the desert,
& he remained in the desert for forty days,
tempted by Satan.
He was among wild beasts,
& the angels ministered to him.”
Mark 1:12-13

All 3 Gospels relate that Jesus spent a period of 40 days & nights in the desert immediately following His Baptism in the Jordan by John the Baptist & the dramatic recognition given by Heaven to this event. The number 40 obviously has resonance with such Old Testament events as the 40 days & nights of the Great Flood (Genesis 7:9), the 40 days & nights that Moses was on Mount Sinai receiving the Ten Commandments from God (Exodus 24:18) & the 40 years in which the Hebrews wandered in the wilderness (Numbers 14:32-34).  Mark’s reference to the Temptation of Jesus is the shortest of the three. Matthew (Matthew 4:1-11) & Luke (Luke 4:1-13) both describe in detail the temptations tried by Satan, temptations to power & pride, which Jesus resisted. All three agree that at the end of these 40 days & nights, Jesus was tired & hungry.

"Filled with the Holy Spirit, Jesus returned from the Jordan
and was led by the Spirit into the desert for forty days,
to be tempted by the devil.
He ate nothing during those days,
and when they were over he was hungry.
The devil said to him,
"If you are the Son of God,
command this stone to become bread."
Jesus answered him,
"It is written, One does not live on bread alone."
Then he took him up and showed him
all the kingdoms of the world in a single instant.
The devil said to him,
"I shall give to you all this power and glory;
for it has been handed over to me,
and I may give it to whomever I wish.
All this will be yours, if you worship me."
Jesus said to him in reply,
"It is written:
You shall worship the Lord, your God,
and him alone shall you serve."
Then he led him to Jerusalem,
made him stand on the parapet of the temple, and said to him,
"If you are the Son of God,
throw yourself down from here, for it is written:
He will command his angels concerning you, to guard you,
and:
With their hands they will support you,
lest you dash your foot against a stone."
Jesus said to him in reply,
"It also says,
You shall not put the Lord, your God, to the test."
When the devil had finished every temptation,
he departed from him for a time.”
Luke 4:1-13

Saturday, March 28, 2020

Lent - Temptations in the Wilderness - Christ & Satan 15C

1430 Claes Brouwer History Bible Dutch (Utrecht), c.1430 Hague KB 78d38II Illustrates 3 Temptations.

“The Spirit drove Jesus out into the desert,
& he remained in the desert for forty days,
tempted by Satan.
He was among wild beasts,
& the angels ministered to him.”
Mark 1:12-13

All 3 Gospels relate that Jesus spent a period of 40 days & nights in the desert immediately following His Baptism in the Jordan by John the Baptist & the dramatic recognition given by Heaven to this event. The number 40 obviously has resonance with such Old Testament events as the 40 days & nights of the Great Flood (Genesis 7:9), the 40 days & nights that Moses was on Mount Sinai receiving the Ten Commandments from God (Exodus 24:18) & the 40 years in which the Hebrews wandered in the wilderness (Numbers 14:32-34).  Mark’s reference to the Temptation of Jesus is the shortest of the three. Matthew (Matthew 4:1-11) & Luke (Luke 4:1-13) both describe in detail the temptations tried by Satan, temptations to power & pride, which Jesus resisted. All three agree that at the end of these 40 days & nights, Jesus was tired & hungry.

"Filled with the Holy Spirit, Jesus returned from the Jordan
and was led by the Spirit into the desert for forty days,
to be tempted by the devil.
He ate nothing during those days,
and when they were over he was hungry.
The devil said to him,
"If you are the Son of God,
command this stone to become bread."
Jesus answered him,
"It is written, One does not live on bread alone."
Then he took him up and showed him
all the kingdoms of the world in a single instant.
The devil said to him,
"I shall give to you all this power and glory;
for it has been handed over to me,
and I may give it to whomever I wish.
All this will be yours, if you worship me."
Jesus said to him in reply,
"It is written:
You shall worship the Lord, your God,
and him alone shall you serve."
Then he led him to Jerusalem,
made him stand on the parapet of the temple, and said to him,
"If you are the Son of God,
throw yourself down from here, for it is written:
He will command his angels concerning you, to guard you,
and:
With their hands they will support you,
lest you dash your foot against a stone."
Jesus said to him in reply,
"It also says,
You shall not put the Lord, your God, to the test."
When the devil had finished every temptation,
he departed from him for a time.”
Luke 4:1-13

Friday, March 27, 2020

Lent - Temptations in the Wilderness - Christ & Satan 15C

1430 Bedford Master and his Workshop Bk Hrs French (Paris), 1430-1435 Morgan m359.050va

“The Spirit drove Jesus out into the desert,
& he remained in the desert for forty days,
tempted by Satan.
He was among wild beasts,
& the angels ministered to him.”
Mark 1:12-13

All 3 Gospels relate that Jesus spent a period of 40 days & nights in the desert immediately following His Baptism in the Jordan by John the Baptist & the dramatic recognition given by Heaven to this event. The number 40 obviously has resonance with such Old Testament events as the 40 days & nights of the Great Flood (Genesis 7:9), the 40 days & nights that Moses was on Mount Sinai receiving the Ten Commandments from God (Exodus 24:18) & the 40 years in which the Hebrews wandered in the wilderness (Numbers 14:32-34).  Mark’s reference to the Temptation of Jesus is the shortest of the three. Matthew (Matthew 4:1-11) & Luke (Luke 4:1-13) both describe in detail the temptations tried by Satan, temptations to power & pride, which Jesus resisted. All three agree that at the end of these 40 days & nights, Jesus was tired & hungry.

"Filled with the Holy Spirit, Jesus returned from the Jordan
and was led by the Spirit into the desert for forty days,
to be tempted by the devil.
He ate nothing during those days,
and when they were over he was hungry.
The devil said to him,
"If you are the Son of God,
command this stone to become bread."
Jesus answered him,
"It is written, One does not live on bread alone."
Then he took him up and showed him
all the kingdoms of the world in a single instant.
The devil said to him,
"I shall give to you all this power and glory;
for it has been handed over to me,
and I may give it to whomever I wish.
All this will be yours, if you worship me."
Jesus said to him in reply,
"It is written:
You shall worship the Lord, your God,
and him alone shall you serve."
Then he led him to Jerusalem,
made him stand on the parapet of the temple, and said to him,
"If you are the Son of God,
throw yourself down from here, for it is written:
He will command his angels concerning you, to guard you,
and:
With their hands they will support you,
lest you dash your foot against a stone."
Jesus said to him in reply,
"It also says,
You shall not put the Lord, your God, to the test."
When the devil had finished every temptation,
he departed from him for a time.”
Luke 4:1-13

Thursday, March 26, 2020

Lent - Temptations in the Wilderness - Christ & Satan 14C

1385 Giovanni di Benedetto and collaborators  Missal  Italian (Milan), 1385-1390 BNF+Latin 747, fol. 305v

“The Spirit drove Jesus out into the desert,
& he remained in the desert for forty days,
tempted by Satan.
He was among wild beasts,
& the angels ministered to him.”
Mark 1:12-13

All 3 Gospels relate that Jesus spent a period of 40 days & nights in the desert immediately following His Baptism in the Jordan by John the Baptist & the dramatic recognition given by Heaven to this event. The number 40 obviously has resonance with such Old Testament events as the 40 days & nights of the Great Flood (Genesis 7:9), the 40 days & nights that Moses was on Mount Sinai receiving the Ten Commandments from God (Exodus 24:18) & the 40 years in which the Hebrews wandered in the wilderness (Numbers 14:32-34).  Mark’s reference to the Temptation of Jesus is the shortest of the three. Matthew (Matthew 4:1-11) & Luke (Luke 4:1-13) both describe in detail the temptations tried by Satan, temptations to power & pride, which Jesus resisted. All three agree that at the end of these 40 days & nights, Jesus was tired & hungry.

"Filled with the Holy Spirit, Jesus returned from the Jordan
and was led by the Spirit into the desert for forty days,
to be tempted by the devil.
He ate nothing during those days,
and when they were over he was hungry.
The devil said to him,
"If you are the Son of God,
command this stone to become bread."
Jesus answered him,
"It is written, One does not live on bread alone."
Then he took him up and showed him
all the kingdoms of the world in a single instant.
The devil said to him,
"I shall give to you all this power and glory;
for it has been handed over to me,
and I may give it to whomever I wish.
All this will be yours, if you worship me."
Jesus said to him in reply,
"It is written:
You shall worship the Lord, your God,
and him alone shall you serve."
Then he led him to Jerusalem,
made him stand on the parapet of the temple, and said to him,
"If you are the Son of God,
throw yourself down from here, for it is written:
He will command his angels concerning you, to guard you,
and:
With their hands they will support you,
lest you dash your foot against a stone."
Jesus said to him in reply,
"It also says,
You shall not put the Lord, your God, to the test."
When the devil had finished every temptation,
he departed from him for a time.”
Luke 4:1-13

Wednesday, March 25, 2020

Lent - Temptations in the Wilderness - Christ & Satan 13C

1280 Psalter - Hours of Yolande of Soissons  French, 1280-1299 Morgan m729.039v

“The Spirit drove Jesus out into the desert,
& he remained in the desert for forty days,
tempted by Satan.
He was among wild beasts,
& the angels ministered to him.”
Mark 1:12-13

All 3 Gospels relate that Jesus spent a period of 40 days & nights in the desert immediately following His Baptism in the Jordan by John the Baptist & the dramatic recognition given by Heaven to this event. The number 40 obviously has resonance with such Old Testament events as the 40 days & nights of the Great Flood (Genesis 7:9), the 40 days & nights that Moses was on Mount Sinai receiving the Ten Commandments from God (Exodus 24:18) & the 40 years in which the Hebrews wandered in the wilderness (Numbers 14:32-34).  Mark’s reference to the Temptation of Jesus is the shortest of the three. Matthew (Matthew 4:1-11) & Luke (Luke 4:1-13) both describe in detail the temptations tried by Satan, temptations to power & pride, which Jesus resisted. All three agree that at the end of these 40 days & nights, Jesus was tired & hungry.

"Filled with the Holy Spirit, Jesus returned from the Jordan
and was led by the Spirit into the desert for forty days,
to be tempted by the devil.
He ate nothing during those days,
and when they were over he was hungry.
The devil said to him,
"If you are the Son of God,
command this stone to become bread."
Jesus answered him,
"It is written, One does not live on bread alone."
Then he took him up and showed him
all the kingdoms of the world in a single instant.
The devil said to him,
"I shall give to you all this power and glory;
for it has been handed over to me,
and I may give it to whomever I wish.
All this will be yours, if you worship me."
Jesus said to him in reply,
"It is written:
You shall worship the Lord, your God,
and him alone shall you serve."
Then he led him to Jerusalem,
made him stand on the parapet of the temple, and said to him,
"If you are the Son of God,
throw yourself down from here, for it is written:
He will command his angels concerning you, to guard you,
and:
With their hands they will support you,
lest you dash your foot against a stone."
Jesus said to him in reply,
"It also says,
You shall not put the Lord, your God, to the test."
When the devil had finished every temptation,
he departed from him for a time.”
Luke 4:1-13

Tuesday, March 24, 2020

Lent - Temptations in the Wilderness - Christ & a very charming Satan 13C

1228 From a Psalter-Hours French (Paris). c. 1228-1234 New York,  Pierpont Morgan  MS m153.019r  Detail

“The Spirit drove Jesus out into the desert,
& he remained in the desert for forty days,
tempted by Satan.
He was among wild beasts,
& the angels ministered to him.”
Mark 1:12-13

All 3 Gospels relate that Jesus spent a period of 40 days & nights in the desert immediately following His Baptism in the Jordan by John the Baptist & the dramatic recognition given by Heaven to this event. The number 40 obviously has resonance with such Old Testament events as the 40 days & nights of the Great Flood (Genesis 7:9), the 40 days & nights that Moses was on Mount Sinai receiving the Ten Commandments from God (Exodus 24:18) & the 40 years in which the Hebrews wandered in the wilderness (Numbers 14:32-34).  Mark’s reference to the Temptation of Jesus is the shortest of the three. Matthew (Matthew 4:1-11) & Luke (Luke 4:1-13) both describe in detail the temptations tried by Satan, temptations to power & pride, which Jesus resisted. All three agree that at the end of these 40 days & nights, Jesus was tired & hungry.

"Filled with the Holy Spirit, Jesus returned from the Jordan
and was led by the Spirit into the desert for forty days,
to be tempted by the devil.
He ate nothing during those days,
and when they were over he was hungry.
The devil said to him,
"If you are the Son of God,
command this stone to become bread."
Jesus answered him,
"It is written, One does not live on bread alone."
Then he took him up and showed him
all the kingdoms of the world in a single instant.
The devil said to him,
"I shall give to you all this power and glory;
for it has been handed over to me,
and I may give it to whomever I wish.
All this will be yours, if you worship me."
Jesus said to him in reply,
"It is written:
You shall worship the Lord, your God,
and him alone shall you serve."
Then he led him to Jerusalem,
made him stand on the parapet of the temple, and said to him,
"If you are the Son of God,
throw yourself down from here, for it is written:
He will command his angels concerning you, to guard you,
and:
With their hands they will support you,
lest you dash your foot against a stone."
Jesus said to him in reply,
"It also says,
You shall not put the Lord, your God, to the test."
When the devil had finished every temptation,
he departed from him for a time.”
Luke 4:1-13

Monday, March 23, 2020

Lent - Temptations in the Wilderness - Christ, Satan, & hovering Angel 12C

1170 Miniatures of the Life of Christ French (Corbie), 1170-1180 Morgan m44.005v

“The Spirit drove Jesus out into the desert,
& he remained in the desert for forty days,
tempted by Satan.
He was among wild beasts,
& the angels ministered to him.”
Mark 1:12-13

All 3 Gospels relate that Jesus spent a period of 40 days & nights in the desert immediately following His Baptism in the Jordan by John the Baptist & the dramatic recognition given by Heaven to this event. The number 40 obviously has resonance with such Old Testament events as the 40 days & nights of the Great Flood (Genesis 7:9), the 40 days & nights that Moses was on Mount Sinai receiving the Ten Commandments from God (Exodus 24:18) & the 40 years in which the Hebrews wandered in the wilderness (Numbers 14:32-34).  Mark’s reference to the Temptation of Jesus is the shortest of the three. Matthew (Matthew 4:1-11) & Luke (Luke 4:1-13) both describe in detail the temptations tried by Satan, temptations to power & pride, which Jesus resisted. All three agree that at the end of these 40 days & nights, Jesus was tired & hungry.

"Filled with the Holy Spirit, Jesus returned from the Jordan
and was led by the Spirit into the desert for forty days,
to be tempted by the devil.
He ate nothing during those days,
and when they were over he was hungry.
The devil said to him,
"If you are the Son of God,
command this stone to become bread."
Jesus answered him,
"It is written, One does not live on bread alone."
Then he took him up and showed him
all the kingdoms of the world in a single instant.
The devil said to him,
"I shall give to you all this power and glory;
for it has been handed over to me,
and I may give it to whomever I wish.
All this will be yours, if you worship me."
Jesus said to him in reply,
"It is written:
You shall worship the Lord, your God,
and him alone shall you serve."
Then he led him to Jerusalem,
made him stand on the parapet of the temple, and said to him,
"If you are the Son of God,
throw yourself down from here, for it is written:
He will command his angels concerning you, to guard you,
and:
With their hands they will support you,
lest you dash your foot against a stone."
Jesus said to him in reply,
"It also says,
You shall not put the Lord, your God, to the test."
When the devil had finished every temptation,
he departed from him for a time.”
Luke 4:1-13

Saturday, March 21, 2020

Lent - Temptations in the Wilderness - Exhausted, hungry Christ & Satan 12C

1124+ Psalter of Christina of Markyate  English, St. Alban's, 1124-1145  Hildesheim, Dombibliothek, p. 33 (3)

“The Spirit drove Jesus out into the desert,
& he remained in the desert for forty days,
tempted by Satan.
He was among wild beasts,
& the angels ministered to him.”
Mark 1:12-13

All 3 Gospels relate that Jesus spent a period of 40 days & nights in the desert immediately following His Baptism in the Jordan by John the Baptist & the dramatic recognition given by Heaven to this event. The number 40 obviously has resonance with such Old Testament events as the 40 days & nights of the Great Flood (Genesis 7:9), the 40 days & nights that Moses was on Mount Sinai receiving the Ten Commandments from God (Exodus 24:18) & the 40 years in which the Hebrews wandered in the wilderness (Numbers 14:32-34).  Mark’s reference to the Temptation of Jesus is the shortest of the three. Matthew (Matthew 4:1-11) & Luke (Luke 4:1-13) both describe in detail the temptations tried by Satan, temptations to power & pride, which Jesus resisted. All three agree that at the end of these 40 days & nights, Jesus was tired & hungry.

"Filled with the Holy Spirit, Jesus returned from the Jordan
and was led by the Spirit into the desert for forty days,
to be tempted by the devil.
He ate nothing during those days,
and when they were over he was hungry.
The devil said to him,
"If you are the Son of God,
command this stone to become bread."
Jesus answered him,
"It is written, One does not live on bread alone."
Then he took him up and showed him
all the kingdoms of the world in a single instant.
The devil said to him,
"I shall give to you all this power and glory;
for it has been handed over to me,
and I may give it to whomever I wish.
All this will be yours, if you worship me."
Jesus said to him in reply,
"It is written:
You shall worship the Lord, your God,
and him alone shall you serve."
Then he led him to Jerusalem,
made him stand on the parapet of the temple, and said to him,
"If you are the Son of God,
throw yourself down from here, for it is written:
He will command his angels concerning you, to guard you,
and:
With their hands they will support you,
lest you dash your foot against a stone."
Jesus said to him in reply,
"It also says,
You shall not put the Lord, your God, to the test."
When the devil had finished every temptation,
he departed from him for a time.”
Luke 4:1-13

Friday, March 20, 2020

1650 Lenten Penitence Perhaps? - 7 Deadly Sins after Abraham Bosse -1639-1650

 After Abraham Bosse -1639-1650 Pride

 After Abraham Bosse -1639-1650 Avarice
 After Abraham Bosse -1639-1650 Envy
 After Abraham Bosse -1639-1650 Gluttony
 After Abraham Bosse -1639-1650 Luxuria
 After Abraham Bosse -1639-1650 Sloth
After Abraham Bosse -1639-1650 Wrath

Thursday, March 19, 2020

1630 Lenten Penitence Perhaps? - 7 Deadly Sins by George Glover (1625-1635)

 George Glover (1625-1635) c.1630  Envy
 George Glover (1625-1635) c.1630  Gluttony
 George Glover (1625-1635) c.1630  Luxuria
 George Glover (1625-1635) c.1630  Sloth
 George Glover (1625-1635) c.1630 Covetness
 George Glover (1625-1635) c.1630 Pride
George Glover (1625-1635) c.1630 Wrath

Wednesday, March 18, 2020

1612-20 Lenten Penitence Perhaps? - 7 Deadly Sins by Jan Collaert II 1571-1633

1612-1620 Septem Peccata Mortalia Print made by: Jan Collaert II (printmaker; Flemish; Male; c.1561-c.1620) Published by: Theodoor Galle (publisher/printer; printmaker; dealer/auction house; Flemish; Male; 1571-1633)

The Seven Deadly Sins; Adam and Eve in central image; surrounded by seven roundels with biblical scenes showing the seven deadly sins ('Pride' as the fallen angels [Isaiah 14]; 'Avarice' as Ananias and Sapphira dropping dead in front of St Peter after withholding part of profits [Acts 5]; 'Gluttony' as a corpulent man surrounded by other men [1 Kings 25]; 'Lust' as Phinehas killing Zimri and Cosbi [Numbers 25]; 'Sloth' as king Solomon and the idler [Proverbs 6]; 'Envy' as Joseph and his brothers [Genesis 37]; 'Wrath' as Cain and Abel [Genesis 4]); undescribed state with address of Theodor Galle

Monday, March 16, 2020

1541 Lenten Penitence Perhaps? - 7 Deadly Sins by Georg Pencz (c. 1500-1550)

 Georg Pencz (c. 1500-1550) 1541 Avarice
 Georg Pencz (c. 1500-1550) 1541 Superbia
 Georg Pencz (c. 1500-1550) 1541 Gula
 Georg Pencz (c. 1500-1550) 1541 Invidia
 Georg Pencz (c. 1500-1550) 1541 Ira
 Georg Pencz (c. 1500-1550) 1541 Luxuria
Georg Pencz (c. 1500-1550) 1541 Pigrita

Sunday, March 15, 2020

Lenten Penitence Perhaps? - On Pride - Artist Stanley Spencer & Henry Ward Beecher

Stanley Spencer, (English painter, 1891–1959) Angels of the Apocalypse

"A proud man is seldom a grateful man, for he never thinks he gets as much as he deserves." Henry Ward Beecher (US clergyman, 1813–1887)

Saturday, March 14, 2020

Lenten Penitence Perhaps? - Evolution of the 7 Deadly Sins

In the Bible, the Book of Proverbs 6:16-19, among the verses traditionally associated with King Solomon, it states that the Lord specifically regards "six things the Lord hateth, and 7 that are an abomination unto Him:"
A proud look
A lying tongue
Hands that shed innocent blood
A heart that devises wicked plots
Feet that are swift to run into mischief
A deceitful witness that uttereth lies
Him that soweth discord among brethren
Tableau de mission François Marie Balanant.  An allegorical image depicting the human heart subject to the seven deadly sins, each represented by an animal (clockwise: toad = avarice; snake = envy; lion = wrath; snail = sloth; pig = gluttony; goat = lust; peacock = pride).

The modern concept of the 7 deadly sins is linked to the works of the 4C monk Evagrius Ponticus, who listed 8 evil thoughts in Greek as follows:
Γαστριμαργία (gastrimargia) gluttony
Πορνεία (porneia) prostitution, fornication
Φιλαργυρία (philargyria) avarice
Ὑπερηφανία (hyperēphania) hubris – in the Philokalia, this term is rendered as self-esteem
Λύπη (lypē) sadness – in the Philokalia, this term is rendered as envy, sadness at another's good fortune
Ὀργή (orgē) wrath
Κενοδοξία (kenodoxia) boasting
Ἀκηδία (akēdia) acedia – in the Philokalia, this term is rendered as dejection

In AD 590, a little over 2 centuries after Evagrius wrote his list, Pope Gregory I revised this list to form the more common Seven Deadly Sins.
luxuria (lechery/lust)
gula (gluttony)
avaritia (avarice/greed)
acedia (sloth/discouragement)
ira (wrath)
invidia (envy)
superbia (pride)

Beginning in the early 14C, the popularity of the Seven Deadly Sins brought them to become a theme among European artists.

Thursday, March 12, 2020

Lent - Temptations in the Wilderness - More Temptations & More Angels

Maitre Francois, Temptation of Christ  From City of God by Saint Augustine of Hippo  French, c. 1475-1478  The Hague, Meermano Museum  MS RMMW 10 A 11, fol. 423r (detail)

“The Spirit drove Jesus out into the desert,
& he remained in the desert for forty days,
tempted by Satan.
He was among wild beasts,
& the angels ministered to him.”
Mark 1:12-13

All three Synoptic Gospels relate that Jesus spent a period of 40 days & nights in the desert immediately following His Baptism in the Jordan by John the Baptist & the dramatic recognition given by Heaven to this event. The number 40 obviously has resonance with such Old Testament events as the 40 days & nights of the Great Flood (Genesis 7:9), the 40 days & nights that Moses was on Mount Sinai receiving the Ten Commandments from God (Exodus 24:18) & the 40 years in which the Hebrews wandered in the wilderness (Numbers 14:32-34).  Mark’s reference to the Temptation of Jesus is the shortest of the three. Matthew (Matthew 4:1-11) & Luke (Luke 4:1-13) both describe in detail the temptations tried by Satan, temptations to power & pride, which Jesus resisted. All three agree that at the end of these 40 days & nights, Jesus was tired & hungry.  In this image, the scene of the angels ministering (& snacking!) at a table in the far background, behind the 2 scenes depicting the temptations.

Wednesday, March 11, 2020

Lent - Temptations in the Wilderness - Angels Comfort Jesus

Christ Ministered to by Angels  From a Pictorial Bible, French (St. Omer), c. 1190-1200  The Hague, Koninlijk Bibliotheek  MS KB 76 F 5, fol. 12v (detail)

“The Spirit drove Jesus out into the desert,
& he remained in the desert for forty days,
tempted by Satan.
He was among wild beasts,
& the angels ministered to him.”
Mark 1:12-13

All three Synoptic Gospels relate that Jesus spent a period of 40 days & nights in the desert immediately following His Baptism in the Jordan by John the Baptist & the dramatic recognition given by Heaven to this event. The number 40 obviously has resonance with such Old Testament events as the 40 days & nights of the Great Flood (Genesis 7:9), the 40 days & nights that Moses was on Mount Sinai receiving the Ten Commandments from God (Exodus 24:18) & the 40 years in which the Hebrews wandered in the wilderness (Numbers 14:32-34).  Mark’s reference to the Temptation of Jesus is the shortest of the three. Matthew (Matthew 4:1-11) & Luke (Luke 4:1-13) both describe in detail the temptations tried by Satan, temptations to power & pride, which Jesus resisted. All three agree that at the end of these 40 days & nights, Jesus was tired & hungry.

Here the angels look like they are tidying Jesus following His confrontation with Satan.  Both Mark & Matthew conclude their descriptions with a reference to ministering angels who attend Him at the end of the time. Unlike the temptations themselves, which are frequently depicted in art over the ages, the ministering angels are not seen that often. They appear in a few medieval manuscripts like this one, but usually in the background of a scene of the temptations.

Tuesday, March 10, 2020

Lent - Temptations in the Wilderness - Angels will break your fall 16C

The Temptation of Christ by John de Flandes, circa 1500. wilderness is depicted as European rather than Judean.

“The Spirit drove Jesus out into the desert,
& he remained in the desert for forty days,
tempted by Satan.
He was among wild beasts,
& the angels ministered to him.”
Mark 1:12-13

All three Gospels relate that Jesus spent a period of 40 days & nights in the desert immediately following His Baptism in the Jordan by John the Baptist & the dramatic recognition given by Heaven to this event. The number 40 obviously has resonance with such Old Testament events as the 40 days & nights of the Great Flood (Genesis 7:9), the 40 days & nights that Moses was on Mount Sinai receiving the Ten Commandments from God (Exodus 24:18) & the 40 years in which the Hebrews wandered in the wilderness (Numbers 14:32-34).  Mark’s reference to the Temptation of Jesus is the shortest of the three. Matthew (Matthew 4:1-11) & Luke (Luke 4:1-13) both describe in detail the temptations tried by Satan, temptations to power & pride, which Jesus resisted. All three agree that at the end of these 40 days & nights, Jesus was tired & hungry.

During His 40 days of fasting & praying in the Wilderness, Satan tempted Jesus: to make bread out of stones to relieve his own hunger; to jump from a pinnacle & rely on angels to break his fall (both Luke & Matthew have Satan quote Psalm 91:11–12 to indicate that God had promised this assistance); & to worship Satan in return for all the kingdoms of the world.

Monday, March 9, 2020

Lent - Temptations in the Wilderness - Just Worship Satan

Christ in the Wilderness by Moretto da Brescia (Alessandro Bonvicino) (Italian, Brescia ca. 1498–1554)

“The Spirit drove Jesus out into the desert,
& he remained in the desert for forty days,
tempted by Satan.
He was among wild beasts,
& the angels ministered to him.”
Mark 1:12-13

All three Gospels relate that Jesus spent a period of 40 days & nights in the desert immediately following His Baptism in the Jordan by John the Baptist & the dramatic recognition given by Heaven to this event. The number 40 obviously has resonance with such Old Testament events as the 40 days & nights of the Great Flood (Genesis 7:9), the 40 days & nights that Moses was on Mount Sinai receiving the Ten Commandments from God (Exodus 24:18) & the 40 years in which the Hebrews wandered in the wilderness (Numbers 14:32-34).  Mark’s reference to the Temptation of Jesus is the shortest of the three. Matthew (Matthew 4:1-11) & Luke (Luke 4:1-13) both describe in detail the temptations tried by Satan, temptations to power & pride, which Jesus resisted. All three agree that at the end of these 40 days & nights, Jesus was tired & hungry.

During His 40 days of fasting & praying in the Wilderness, Satan tempted Jesus: to make bread out of stones to relieve his own hunger; to jump from a pinnacle & rely on angels to break his fall (both Luke & Matthew have Satan quote Psalm 91:11–12 to indicate that God had promised this assistance); & to worship Satan in return for all the kingdoms of the world.

Saturday, March 7, 2020

Lent - Temptations in the Wilderness - Temple Temptation 15C

Sandro Botticelli (Italian, c. 1481-1482), Three Temptations of Christ - Detail c. 1481. Vatican City, Sistine Chapel.  Here Satan stands with Jesus on top of the Temple in Jerusalem.  Sandro Botticelli, Italian, c. 1481-1482 Vatican City, Sistine Chapel.  This painting is one of the series of scenes from the lives of Christ and of Moses which decorate the lower walls of the Sistine Chapel.  They were commissioned by Pope Sixtus IV, the builder of the chapel for whom it is named.  They were painted in the 1480s by several artists, who were working at the same time, so as to speed the extensive work.

“The Spirit drove Jesus out into the desert,
& he remained in the desert for forty days,
tempted by Satan.
He was among wild beasts,
& the angels ministered to him.”
Mark 1:12-13

All three Gospels relate that Jesus spent a period of 40 days & nights in the desert immediately following His Baptism in the Jordan by John the Baptist & the dramatic recognition given by Heaven to this event. The number 40 obviously has resonance with such Old Testament events as the 40 days & nights of the Great Flood (Genesis 7:9), the 40 days & nights that Moses was on Mount Sinai receiving the Ten Commandments from God (Exodus 24:18) & the 40 years in which the Hebrews wandered in the wilderness (Numbers 14:32-34).  Mark’s reference to the Temptation of Jesus is the shortest of the three. Matthew (Matthew 4:1-11) & Luke (Luke 4:1-13) both describe in detail the temptations tried by Satan, temptations to power & pride, which Jesus resisted. All three agree that at the end of these 40 days & nights, Jesus was tired & hungry.

Sandro Botticelli (Italian, c. 1481-1482), Three Temptations of Christ - Detail c. 1481. Vatican City, Sistine Chapel.  During His 40 days of fasting & praying in the Wilderness, Satan tempted Jesus: to make bread out of stones to relieve his own hunger; to jump from a pinnacle & rely on angels to break his fall (both Luke & Matthew have Satan quote Psalm 91:11–12 to indicate that God had promised this assistance); & to worship Satan in return for all the kingdoms of the world.

When Satan tempted Jesus to jump from the pinnacle of the temple, Satan said,
"If thou be the Son of God, cast thyself down from hence: For it is written, He shall give his angels charge over thee, to keep thee: And in their hands they shall bear thee up, lest at any time thou dash thy foot against a stone." (Luke 4:9–13) citing Psalms 91:12.  Once more, Jesus maintained his integrity & responded by quoting scripture, saying, "Again it is written, 'You shall not put the Lord, your God, to the test.'" (Matthew 4:7) quoting Deuteronomy 6:16.
Sandro Botticelli (Italian, c. 1481-1482), Three Temptations of Christ - Detail c. 1481. Vatican City, Sistine Chapel. Satan stands with Jesus on top of the Temple in Jerusalem.  Sandro Botticelli, Italian, c. 1481-1482 Vatican City, Sistine Chapel

Friday, March 6, 2020

Lent - Temptations in the Wilderness - Rule over the World 15C

The devil carries Jesus up to a mountain to tempt Him with an earthly kingdom (Luke 4-5–8 Matthew 4-8–10) Missal, France c.1470-75 Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, MS 425, fol. 48r.  Satan is quite stylish with those feet, tail, & buttons.

“The Spirit drove Jesus out into the desert,
& he remained in the desert for forty days,
tempted by Satan.
He was among wild beasts,
& the angels ministered to him.”
Mark 1:12-13

All three Gospels relate that Jesus spent a period of 40 days & nights in the desert immediately following His Baptism in the Jordan by John the Baptist & the dramatic recognition given by Heaven to this event. The number 40 obviously has resonance with such Old Testament events as the 40 days & nights of the Great Flood (Genesis 7:9), the 40 days & nights that Moses was on Mount Sinai receiving the Ten Commandments from God (Exodus 24:18) & the 40 years in which the Hebrews wandered in the wilderness (Numbers 14:32-34).  Mark’s reference to the Temptation of Jesus is the shortest of the three. Matthew (Matthew 4:1-11) & Luke (Luke 4:1-13) both describe in detail the temptations tried by Satan, temptations to power & pride, which Jesus resisted. All three agree that at the end of these 40 days & nights, Jesus was tired & hungry.

During His 40 days of fasting & praying in the Wilderness, Satan tempted Jesus: to make bread out of stones to relieve his own hunger; to jump from a pinnacle & rely on angels to break his fall (both Luke & Matthew have Satan quote Psalm 91:11–12 to indicate that God had promised this assistance); & to worship Satan in return for all the kingdoms of the world.

Thursday, March 5, 2020

Lent - Temptations in the Wilderness - Stones into Bread

Satan Tempting Christ To Change Stones Into Bread, (Matthew 4-3-4) breviary, Rouen before 1498 Besançon, bibliothèque municipale, ms. 69, p. 269.  Fairly strange looking Satan.

“The Spirit drove Jesus out into the desert,
& he remained in the desert for forty days,
tempted by Satan.
He was among wild beasts,
& the angels ministered to him.”
Mark 1:12-13

All three Gospels relate that Jesus spent a period of 40 days & nights in the desert immediately following His Baptism in the Jordan by John the Baptist & the dramatic recognition given by Heaven to this event. The number 40 obviously has resonance with such Old Testament events as the 40 days & nights of the Great Flood (Genesis 7:9), the 40 days & nights that Moses was on Mount Sinai receiving the Ten Commandments from God (Exodus 24:18) & the 40 years in which the Hebrews wandered in the wilderness (Numbers 14:32-34).  Mark’s reference to the Temptation of Jesus is the shortest of the three. Matthew (Matthew 4:1-11) & Luke (Luke 4:1-13) both describe in detail the temptations tried by Satan, temptations to power & pride, which Jesus resisted. All three agree that at the end of these 40 days & nights, Jesus was tired & hungry.

During His 40 days of fasting & praying in the Wilderness, Satan tempted Jesus: to make bread out of stones to relieve his own hunger; to jump from a pinnacle & rely on angels to break his fall (both Luke & Matthew have Satan quote Psalm 91:11–12 to indicate that God had promised this assistance); & to worship Satan in return for all the kingdoms of the world.

The temptation of making bread out of stones occurs in the desert setting where Jesus had been fasting. This temptation may have been Jesus' last, aiming towards his hunger.  In response to Satan's suggestion, Jesus replies, "It is written: 'One does not live by bread alone, but by every word that proceeds from the mouth of God." (a reference to Deuteronomy 8:3)

Wednesday, March 4, 2020

Lent in the Wilderness - Stanley Spencer 1891-1959 Christ Considers the Lilies 1939

Stanley Spencer, (English painter, 1891-1959) Christ in the Wilderness Consider the Lilies

The origin of the season of Lent lies not in a conscious re-enactment of the Lord's time in the wilderness, which is a secondary theme of the season, but in the rigorous preparation of Christians for the celebration of the resurrection of Christ in Holy Week & at Easter.  In many Christian churches, Lent starts on Ash Wednesday lasting for 40 days (not Including Sundays) reflecting the 40 days Jesus spent fasting in the wilderness. The observance of Lent was at first undertaken by baptismal candidates, for whom it was the final part of their preparation before initiation into the Church.  It was not long before the Church realized the benefit to all Christians of joining in a season of Easter preparation expressed in prayer & fasting. This "giving up" may include the omission the absence of flowers from the church. On a personal level, the idea of "giving things up" in Lent often reflects a penitence. It also provides a striking contrast with the joyful celebration of Easter.

‘And why take ye thought of raiment?
Consider the lilies of the field, how
they grow; they toil not neither do
they spin; And yet I say unto you ,
that even Solomon in all his glory
was not arrayed like one of these.’
Matthew 6:28-29   King James Bible

British artist Stanley Spencer (1891-1959) sought to give some form to the Lent's 40 days. In the 1930s-40s Spencer set himself a goal of creating 40 paintings, one for each day Christ was in the wilderness. The series, called "Christ in the Wilderness," never came to full completion. Eighteen drawings were made & 8 paintings completed. Each of the designs explores the solitary figure of Christ interacting with various elements of the wilderness - a hen, a scorpion, lilies, eagles. The paintings titled "Driven by the spirit into the wilderness" was inspired by Mark 1:12.  Nothing overt in the paintings speaks of the details Christ's 40 days in the wilderness, echoing Mark's lack of narrative specifics. The figure of Jesus is not the slim body commonly seen in paintings. A bulky figure & billowing garment are common to all the finished paintings in the series. Spencer envisioned the pictures hanging as a group on the ceiling of a church. In such a position Jesus' garments would be perceived as billowing, ethereal clouds.

“The Spirit drove Jesus out into the desert, and he remained in the desert for forty days, tempted by Satan.  He was among wild beasts, and the angels ministered to him.”  Mark 1:12-15

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

Lent in the Wilderness - Stanley Spencer 1891-1959 Christ & The Eagles

Stanley Spencer, (English painter, 1891 – 1959) Christ in the Wilderness The Eagles

The origin of the season of Lent lies not in a conscious re-enactment of the Lord's time in the wilderness, which is a secondary theme of the season, but in the rigorous preparation of Christians for the celebration of the resurrection of Christ in Holy Week & at Easter.  In many Christian churches, Lent starts on Ash Wednesday lasting for 40 days (not Including Sundays) reflecting the 40 days Jesus spent fasting in the wilderness. The observance of Lent was at first undertaken by baptismal candidates, for whom it was the final part of their preparation before initiation into the Church.  It was not long before the Church realized the benefit to all Christians of joining in a season of Easter preparation expressed in prayer & fasting. This "giving up" may include the omission the absence of flowers from the church. On a personal level, the idea of "giving things up" in Lent often reflects a penitence. It also provides a striking contrast with the joyful celebration of Easter.

‘For wheresover the carcase is, there
will the eagles be gathered together.’
Matthew 24:28 King James Bible

British artist Stanley Spencer (1891-1959) sought to give some form to the Lent's 40 days. In the 1930s-40s Spencer set himself a goal of creating 40 paintings, one for each day Christ was in the wilderness. The series, called "Christ in the Wilderness," never came to full completion. Eighteen drawings were made & 8 paintings completed. Each of the designs explores the solitary figure of Christ interacting with various elements of the wilderness - a hen, a scorpion, lilies, eagles. The paintings titled "Driven by the spirit into the wilderness" was inspired by Mark 1:12.  Nothing overt in the paintings speaks of the details Christ's 40 days in the wilderness, echoing Mark's lack of narrative specifics. The figure of Jesus is not the slim body commonly seen in paintings. A bulky figure & billowing garment are common to all the finished paintings in the series. Spencer envisioned the pictures hanging as a group on the ceiling of a church. In such a position Jesus' garments would be perceived as billowing, ethereal clouds.

“The Spirit drove Jesus out into the desert, and he remained in the desert for forty days, tempted by Satan.  He was among wild beasts, and the angels ministered to him.”  Mark 1:12-15

Monday, March 2, 2020

Lent in the Wilderness - Stanley Spencer 1891-1959 Christ into a mountain to pray

Stanley Spencer, (English painter, 1891-1959) Christ in the Wilderness He departed into a mountain to pray 1939

The origin of the season of Lent lies not in a conscious re-enactment of the Lord's time in the wilderness, which is a secondary theme of the season, but in the rigorous preparation of Christians for the celebration of the resurrection of Christ in Holy Week & at Easter.  In many Christian churches, Lent starts on Ash Wednesday lasting for 40 days (not Including Sundays) reflecting the 40 days Jesus spent fasting in the wilderness. The observance of Lent was at first undertaken by baptismal candidates, for whom it was the final part of their preparation before initiation into the Church.  It was not long before the Church realized the benefit to all Christians of joining in a season of Easter preparation expressed in prayer & fasting. This "giving up" may include the omission the absence of flowers from the church. On a personal level, the idea of "giving things up" in Lent often reflects a penitence. It also provides a striking contrast with the joyful celebration of Easter.

‘And when he had sent them away
he departed into a mountain to pray.’
Mark 6:46  King James Bible

British artist Stanley Spencer (1891-1959) sought to give some form to the Lent's 40 days. In the 1930s-40s Spencer set himself a goal of creating 40 paintings, one for each day Christ was in the wilderness. The series, called "Christ in the Wilderness," never came to full completion. Eighteen drawings were made & 8 paintings completed. Each of the designs explores the solitary figure of Christ interacting with various elements of the wilderness - a hen, a scorpion, lilies, eagles. The paintings titled "Driven by the spirit into the wilderness" was inspired by Mark 1:12.  Nothing overt in the paintings speaks of the details Christ's 40 days in the wilderness, echoing Mark's lack of narrative specifics. The figure of Jesus is not the slim body commonly seen in paintings. A bulky figure & billowing garment are common to all the finished paintings in the series. Spencer envisioned the pictures hanging as a group on the ceiling of a church. In such a position Jesus' garments would be perceived as billowing, ethereal clouds.

“The Spirit drove Jesus out into the desert, and he remained in the desert for forty days, tempted by Satan.  He was among wild beasts, and the angels ministered to him.”  Mark 1:12-15

Sunday, March 1, 2020

Lent in the Wilderness - Stanley Spencer 1891-1959 Christ Driven by the Spirit.

Stanley Spencer, (English painter, 1891-1959) Christ in the Wilderness Driven by the Spirit. 1942

The origin of the season of Lent lies not in a conscious re-enactment of the Lord's time in the wilderness, which is a secondary theme of the season, but in the rigorous preparation of Christians for the celebration of the resurrection of Christ in Holy Week & at Easter.  In many Christian churches, Lent starts on Ash Wednesday lasting for 40 days (not Including Sundays) reflecting the 40 days Jesus spent fasting in the wilderness. The observance of Lent was at first undertaken by baptismal candidates, for whom it was the final part of their preparation before initiation into the Church.  It was not long before the Church realized the benefit to all Christians of joining in a season of Easter preparation expressed in prayer & fasting. This "giving up" may include the omission the absence of flowers from the church. On a personal level, the idea of "giving things up" in Lent often reflects a penitence. It also provides a striking contrast with the joyful celebration of Easter.

‘And immediately the Spirit driveth
him into the wilderness.’ Mark 1:12
Matthew 6:28-29   King James Bible

British artist Stanley Spencer (1891-1959) sought to give some form to the Lent's 40 days. In the 1930s-40s Spencer set himself a goal of creating 40 paintings, one for each day Christ was in the wilderness. The series, called "Christ in the Wilderness," never came to full completion. Eighteen drawings were made & 8 paintings completed. Each of the designs explores the solitary figure of Christ interacting with various elements of the wilderness - a hen, a scorpion, lilies, eagles. The paintings titled "Driven by the spirit into the wilderness" was inspired by Mark 1:12.  Nothing overt in the paintings speaks of the details Christ's 40 days in the wilderness, echoing Mark's lack of narrative specifics. The figure of Jesus is not the slim body commonly seen in paintings. A bulky figure & billowing garment are common to all the finished paintings in the series. Spencer envisioned the pictures hanging as a group on the ceiling of a church. In such a position Jesus' garments would be perceived as billowing, ethereal clouds.

“The Spirit drove Jesus out into the desert, and he remained in the desert for forty days, tempted by Satan.  He was among wild beasts, and the angels ministered to him.”  Mark 1:12-15