Tuesday, June 9, 2020

Monday, June 8, 2020

19C Language of Flowers - Arranging Flowers

Arthur Hacker (English Pre-Raphaelite painter, 1858-1919) Christabel Cockerell Lady Frampton 1900

Sunday, June 7, 2020

Saturday, June 6, 2020

19C Language of Flowers - Arranging Flowers

Walter Ernest Webster (British artist, 1878-1959) Woman Tending Flowers in a Vase

The myth or symbolism of The Language of Flowers (floriography) is a means of cryptological communication through the use or arrangement of flowers. Meaning has been attributed to flowers for thousands of years, & some form of floriography has been practiced in traditional cultures throughout Europe, Asia, & Africa. Plants & flowers are used as symbols in the Hebrew Bible, particularly of love & lovers in the Song of Songs, as an emblem for the Israelite people & for the coming Messiah. In Western culture, William Shakespeare ascribed emblematic meanings to flowers, especially in Hamlet, & Henry VI, with its red & white rose symbols.

Interest in floriography soared in Victorian England & in the United States during the 19th century. Gifts of blooms, plants, & specific floral arrangements were used to send a coded message to the recipient, allowing the sender to express feelings which could not be spoken aloud in Victorian society. Armed with floral dictionaries, Victorians often exchanged small "talking bouquets", called nosegays or tussie-mussies, which could be worn or carried as a fashion accessory.

The Victorian era interest in the language of flowers finds its roots in Ottoman Turkey, specifically the court in Constantinople & an obsession it held with tulips during the first half of the 18th century. The Victorian use of flowers as a means of covert communication bloomed alongside a growing interest in botany.

 Joseph Hammer-Purgstall's Dictionnaire du language des fleurs (1809) appears to be the first published list associating flowers with symbolic definitions, while the first dictionary of floriography appears in 1819 when Louise Cortambert, writing under pen name Madame Charlotte de la Tour, wrote Le langage des Fleurs.

Floriography was popularized in France during 1810–1850, while in Britain it was popular during the Victorian age (roughly 1820–1880), & in the United States during 1830–1850.

In the United States the first appearance of the language of flowers in print was in the writings of Constantine Samuel Rafinesque, a French-American naturalist, who wrote on-going features under the title "The School of Flora", from 1827 through 1828, in the weekly Saturday Evening Post & the monthly Casket; or Flowers of Literature, Wit, & Sentiment. These pieces contained the botanic, English, & French names of the plant, a description of the plant, an explanation of its Latin names, & the flower's emblematic meaning.

Flower Meaning

  rose or white Secret Love
  yellow Elegance
Acanthus Art
Agrimony Thankfulness, gratitude
Allium Patience, good fortune, prosperity, unity
Aloe Grief
Almond Promise
Amaranth (Globe) Immortal love
Amaranth Immortality [1]
Amaryllis Pride
Ambrosia Love is reciprocated
Anemone Forsaken, sickness, anticipation, undying love
Angrec Royalty
Anthurium Hospitality, happiness, abundance
Apple blossom Preference
Arborvitae Everlasting friendship
Arbutus You are the only one I love
Arum Faith, purity
Asphodel My regrets follow you to the grave
Aster Symbol of love, daintiness, talisman of love, trusting
Azalea Take care, temperance, fragile, gratitude, passion, Chinese symbols of womanhood
Baby's breath Innocence, purity of heart
Bachelor's button Happy or blessed celibacy, good luck, wealth
Balm Sympathy
Balsam Ardent love
Balsamine Impatience
Basil Success
Bay wreath Glory
Begonia Beware, a fanciful nature
Bellflower Unwavering love
Bells of Ireland Luck
Bird's-foot trefoil Revenge
Bird of paradise flower Liberty, magnificence, good perspective, joyfulness,                                                    faithfulness (when given by a man to a woman)
Black-eyed Susan Justice
Blackthorn Fate, protection, hope against adversity, good fortune
Bluebell Loyalty, constancy, humility & gratitude
Box Constancy
Borage Courage
Bouvardia Enthusiasm
Broom Humility
Bulrush Docility
Bumblebee Orchid Industry
Buttercup Riches
Cabbage Profit
Calla Lily Magnificence & beauty
Camellia Unpretending excellence
Campanula Gratitude
Canterbury Bells Gratitude
Carnation general Fascination; distinction; love
  red Deep romantic love, passion
  green Secret symbol of the followers of Oscar Wilde
  white Sweet & lovely, innocence, pure love, faithfulness
  pink A woman's love, a mother's love
  yellow Rejection, disdain, disappointment
  purple Capriciousness, whimsical, changeable, unreliability
  mauve Dreams of fantasy
  striped Refusal
  solid color Yes, affirmative
Celandine Joys to come
Cherry blossom A good education
Transience of life, Mono no aware, Wabi-sabi, gentleness, kindness (in Japan)
Feminine beauty (in China)
Chestnut Do me justice, Chastity
China aster Love of variety, fidelity
  general fidelity, optimism, joy & long life
  red Love
  yellow Slighted love
  white Truth, loyal love
Cinquefoil Beloved daughter
Clovenlip Toadflax Please notice my love/feelings for you
Clove Undying love
Clover red Industry
white I promise
Columbine The emblem of deceived lovers, ingratitude, faithlessness
Coreopsis Always cheerful
Coriander Lust
Cowslip Winning grace
Creeping Willow Love forsaken
Crocus Youthful joy, love, abuse not, Lupercalia
Cypress Death, mourning, despair, sorrow.
Daffodil Uncertainty, chivalry, respect or unrequited love, return my affection; new beginnings
Dahlia Elegance & dignity
Black Dahlia Betrayal & dishonesty
Daisy general Innocence, loyal love, purity, faith, cheer, simplicity; or, dissembling as in                  Shakespeare's Hamlet
  red Beauty unknown to possessor
Dandelion Overcoming hardship
Delphinium Levity, fun, generosity, ardent attachment, joy
Dill Passion
Eglantine rose A wound to heal
Edelweiss Devotion, courage
Elderflower Compassion
Fennel Strength; cuckoldry, as in Shakespeare's Hamlet, [2]
Fern Magic, enchantment, confidence, sincerity & shelter
Forget-me-not True love, don't forget me
Foxglove Insecurity[3]
Freesia Innocence, thoughtfulness
Fungus Resilience, loneliness, solitude, disgust
Gardenia Secret love, joy, sweet love, good luck
Geranium Gentility, determination
Gladiolus Strength of character, honor, conviction
Goldenrod Encouragement
Gorse Love in all seasons
Hawthorn Hope, fertility
Heather purple Solitude, beauty, admiration
white Protection
Heliotrope Devotion
Hibiscus Rare & delicate beauty
Hollyhock Ambition
Honeysuckle Devoted affection, bonds of love
Houseleek Domestic economy
  blue Constancy
  purple Sorrow; Please forgive me
  red or pink Playfulness
  white Loveliness
  yellow Jealousy
Hyssop Cleanliness, sacrifice
Hydrangea Frigidity, heartlessness; heartfelt gratitude for being understood
general Eloquence, good news
  blue Faith, hope
  purple Wisdom, compliments
  yellow Passion
  white Purity
Ivy Dependence, endurance, faithfulness
Jasmine Unconditional & eternal love, monetary wealth. (in the Philippines & Hinduism)
Jonquil Return my affection
Larkspur Levity, lightness; fickleness, haughtiness
Laurel Ambition, success, renown
Laurestine A token
Lavender Happiness, love, devotion, peace, distrust
Lemon blossom Discretion
Lilac purple First love
  white Youthful innocence, humility
Lily white Purity
  scarlet Lofty aspirations
  orange Desire, passion; hatred
Lily of the valley Sweetness, humility, returning happiness, Trust
Lime blossom Fornication
Lobelia Malevolence
Lotus Purity, chastity & eloquence; rebirth
Love lies bleeding Hopelessness
Magnolia Love of nature
Mallow Consumed by love
Marigold Pain & grief
Mayflower Welcome
Meadowsweet Beauty, happiness, peace, protection
Mignonette Worth
Mint Suspicion
Moonflower Dreaming of love
Morning glory Love in vain; affection
Mullein Good-nature
Myrtle Good luck & love in marriage
Narcissus Unrequited love, selfishness
Nasturtium Patriotism, conquest
Nettle (stinging) life & death, protection[4] as in Shakespeare's Hamlet
Oak leaf Strength
Oats Music
Olive Peace
Orange blossom Good fortune, good luck in marriage
Orchid Refined beauty
Ox-eye daisy Patience
Pansy Thoughtfulness, remembrance
Peach blossom Long-life, generosity, bridal hope
Pear blossom Lasting friendship
Peony Shame, bashfulness, anger
Prosperity, honor (in China)
Masculinity, bravery (in Japan)
Peruvian Lily Wealth, fortune, prosperity, friendship
Phlox Harmony
Pitch pine blossom Philosophy
Plum blossom Beauty & longevity
Plumeria Perfection, springtime, new beginnings
Primrose Eternal love
Protea Courage, transformation, daring, resourcefulness, diversity
Poppy general Eternal sleep, oblivion, imagination
  red Pleasure, sacrifice, remembrance
  white Consolation, dreams, modern, peace
  yellow Wealth, success
Queen Anne's Lace Haven, sancutaury; complexity, delicateness
Rainflower I love you back, I must atone for my sins, I will never forget you
Rhododendron Warning, beware
  red True love
  blue Mystery, attaining the impossible, love at first sight
  bud Beauty, purity, love, youth
  white Silence or innocence, wistfulness, virtue, purity, secrecy, reverence & humility
  dried white rose Sorrow
  black Death, hatred, despair, sorrow, mystery, danger, obsession
  yellow Friendship, apology, intense emotion, undying love; extreme betrayal, a broken   heart, infidelity, jealousy
  pink Grace
  dark pink Gratitude
  light pink Desire, passion, joy of life, youth, energy
  burgundy Unconscious beauty
  coral or orange Desire, passion
  lavender or violet) Love at first sight
  red & white together United
  red & yellow together Joy, happiness & excitement
  thornless Love at first sight
Rosemary Remembrance
Rue Regret, sorrow, repentance
Sage Health, wisdom, respect
Sensitive plant Sensitivity, modesty
Shamrock Good luck
Snapdragon Graciousness, strength; deception
Snowdrop Consolation or hope
Speedwell Travel, kindness, loyalty, protection
Star of Bethlehem Atonement, reconciliation
Straw United
Statice Remembrance, sympathy, success
Sticky Catchfly Invitation to dance
Stock Lasting beauty, a happy life, bonds of affection
Sunflower Pure & lofty thoughts, adoration, longevity, loyalty
Sweetbrier Simplicity
Sweetpea Gratitude, tenderness, farewell
Tansy I declare war on you
Thistle Nobility, endurance, warning [5]
Thorn-apple Disguise
Thyme Courage, thriftiness
Tulip-tree Fame
Tulip red Undying love, Passion, Perfect love
  pink Caring, Good wishes, Friendship, Joyful Occasions, Confidence
  purple Nobility/Royalty, Rebirth, Spring
  white Forgiveness, Remembrance, Worthiness, Sincerity
  yellow Cheerful thoughts, Sunshine, Hope
  blue Respect, Tranquility, Trust
  orange Understanding, Appreciation, Truest love
  black Power, Strength, Supreme elegance
  variegated Beautiful eyes
Valerian Readiness
Vervain Pray for me, protection against evil
Violet blue Faithfulness
  purple Daydreaming, Love between two women
  white Modesty
Winged seeds (any kind) Messengers
Wisteria Welcoming
Witch-hazel A magic spell
Wheat Wealth & prosperity
Wolfsbane Misanthropy
Wormwood Absence, bitter sorrow
Yarrow Healing, inspiration
Ylang-Ylang Never-ending love
Zinnia Thinking of you; remembering absent friends, & sentimentality

Friday, June 5, 2020

19C Language of Flowers - Arranging Flowers

Frederic Leighton (English Classicist Painter and Sculptor, 1830-1896) Mrs James Guthrie

Thursday, June 4, 2020

19C Language of Flowers - Arranging Flowers

Frederick Sandys (English Pre-Raphaelite Painter, c 1829-1904)  Grace Rose 1866

Wednesday, June 3, 2020

Tuesday, June 2, 2020

Monday, June 1, 2020