Friday, September 11, 2015

Queen Elizabeth I - New Year's Gifts 1599-1600



1600 Queen Elizabeth I 1533-1603 Unknown Artist

An explanation of these lists appeared on the Museum of London blog.  Thought I would share it here to give a background on these amazing lists.

In Elizabethan London, New Year’s Day was the big time to give and receive gifts, particularly at court. The tradition appears to date back to at least the 13th century but under Queen Elizabeth I it reached new heights in terms of the extravagance and range of the gifts given.

Courtiers and members of the Queen’s household were expected to present her with gifts. As can be imagined competition to impress the Queen was fierce and there must have been immense pressure to come up with gifts that were valuable enough (many resorted to giving money, usually gold coins, in extravagant silk purses) or useful (she received many perfumed gloves and gold-trimmed hankies) or just intriguing.


In the latter category are many animal jewels, such as an emerald, diamond and ruby serpent with a pendant pearl, given in 1581 by the Countess of Oxford or a golden cat playing with mice and again decorated with diamonds and pearls given the same year by Lady Howard. One can imagine the emerald and diamond salamander or the pearl ship pin from the Cheapside Hoard being equally acceptable New Year’s gifts. The Queen loved puns and many of these jewels would have held hidden meanings and witty jokes for her amusement.


A number of rolls or lists detailing the gifts she received for New Year still survive and give a fascinating glimpse of life in the Elizabethan court. Many of the queen’s admirers liked to give her a gift which would remind her of themselves. Sir Christopher Hatton, whose portrait is on display in the Cheapside Hoard exhibition, on loan from the National Portrait Gallery, frequently used a knot motif and so in around 1585 he gave Elizabeth a headdress, decorated with expensive golden knots. In 1574 the fan that the Earl of Leicester gave her was decorated with bears, part of his device. Others gave gifts that they hoped would get them noticed and some of these were rather fabulous. For example, on New Year’s Day 1581 Sir Walter Raleigh presented Elizabeth with a crown set with Peruvian emeralds which he had captured in a raid on the Spanish fleet the previous year. However, the rolls show that she also received plainer gifts such as a quince pie from John Betts, who was a pastry servant, or a box of lute strings or eighteen larks in a cage.


In return the Queen would give gifts too, and whilst these were sometimes generous in the extreme, more often than not they were of a lower value than those she received. Often she would give an image of herself, such as the cameo portrait of the Queen which Hatton is shown holding in his portrait. A similar, though smaller cameo can be seen on display as part of the Cheapside Hoard. But if you wanted to impress the Queen it seems to have been much more a case of five gold rings rather than a partridge in a pear tree!


New Year's Gifts for Queen Elizabeth: 1599-1600

 Anno Regni Regine Eliz. 42°. 1599-1600.
New Yeare's Guyftes geven to the Quene's Maiestie att her Highnes Mannor of Richmonde, the Firste Day of Januarie, in the Yeare abouesayde, by these Persones whose Names hereafter ensue, viz.

 £. s. d.
By Sir Thomas Egerton, Knight, Lord Keeper of the Greate Seale of Englande, one amuylet of golde, garnished with sparkes of rubyes, pearle, and halfe pearle.
Delivered to Mrs. Ratclyf.
By the Lord Buckhurste, Lorde High Threausorer of Englande, in golde, 10.
Delivered to Henry Sackforde, Esquyer, one of the Groomes of her Maiesties Privy Chamber.
By the Lord Marques of Win', in golde 20.
Delivered to Mrs. Ratclyf.

Earles.
By the Earle of Nottingham, Lord Admyrall, one karcanett, conteyninge 29 peeces of golde, whereof nyne bigger peeces and tenne lesser, 18 pendantes like mullettes, likewyse garnished with small rubyes and pearle, with a round jewell pendant in the myddest, garnished with one white topaz, and a pearle pendant, and nine small rubyes.
Delivered to Mrs. Ratclyf.
By the Earle of Darbye, in golde 10 0 0
By the Earle of Sussex, in golde 10 0 0
By the Earle of Bathe, in golde 10 0 0
By the Earle of Hartforde, in golde 10 0 0
By the Earle of Huntington, in golde 10 0 0
By the Earle of Pembrooke, in golde 20 0 0
By the Earle of Bedforde, in golde 10 0 0
Delivered to Mr. Sackford.
By the Earle of Northumberland, one carcanett of golde, conteyninge nine square peeces, four pendants like mullettes and half moones, garnished with sparkes of dyamondes, rubyes, and pearles, threeded betweene.
Delivered to Mrs. Ratclyf.
By the Earle of Shrewesbury, parte of a doublett of white satten, embrothered all over like snakes wounde together, of Venyce sylver, with wroughte and puffes of lawne embrothered, with Venyce silver lyke wheate eares.
Delivered to the Robes.
By the Earle of Cumberland, one pettycote of white sarcenett, embrothered all over with Venyce silver plate, and some carnacon silke like colombines.
Delivered to the Robes.
By the Earle of Rutlande, in golde, £10.
Delivered to Mr. Sackforde.
By the Earle of Worcester, one hatt of tyffany, garnished with 28 buttons of golde of one sorte, and eight buttones of another sorte, about the band and upp the feather.
Delivered to the Robes.

Marquesses and Countesses.
By the Lady Marques of Northampton, two knottes of golde, garnished with sparkes of rubyes and pearles pendant.
Delivered to Mrs. Ratclyf.
By the Lady Marques of Winchester, wydowe, one sprigge of golde, gar' with sparkes of rubyes, one small dyamonde, and pearles of sondry sortes and bignesses.
Delivered to Mrs. Ratclyf.
By the Countes of Kente, six hankerchers of cambricke, wrought with blacke silke and edged about with gold lace.
Delivered to the Lady Scudamore.
By the Countesse of Oxenforde, one rounde kyrtell of silver tabynne, with slyppes of white silke like vellat, and tuftes of carnacon silke, with some golde.
Delivered to the Robes.
By the Countes of Shrewesbury, wydowe, in golde, £10.
Delivered to Mr. Sackforde.
By the Countes of Shrewesbury, junior, parte of a doublet, unmade, of white satten, embrothered all over like snakes wounde together, of Venyce silver, richly wrought, and puffes of lawne embrothered with Venice silver like wheate eares.
Delivered to the Robes.
By the Countesse of Sussex, in golde 10 0 0
Delivered to Mr. Sackforde.
By the Countesse of Nottingham, one carcanett of golde, garnished with 15 peeces of golde, set with sparkes of rubyes, and a small dyamond in the myddest of every of them, and seven peeces lyke mullets, with pearles, with a rubye in the myddest of eche of them, and pearles threeded betwene them.
Delivered to Mrs. Ratclyf.
By the Countesse of Huntington, widowe, in golde 8 0 0
By the Countesse of Huntington, junior, in golde 8 0 0
By the Countesse of Pembroke, in golde 10 0 0
By the Countesse of Rutland, in golde 10 0 0
Delivered to Mr. Sackforde.
By the Countes of Darby, wydowe, one pettycote without bodyes, of silver tynsell, wrought in squares, with a border of trees of grene sylke needleworke.
Delivered to the Robes.
By the Countes of Darby, junior, one goblett of taffetta, embrothered all over with a twyste of Venyce silver and spangles, with flowers of silkewoman's worke.
Delivered to the Robes.
By the Countes of Warwicke, fyve sprigges of golde, garnished with sparkes of rubies, pearles pendant, and a half perle.
Delivered to Mrs. Ratclyf.
By the Countes of Bathe, in golde 10 0 0
By the Countes of Bedford, in golde 10 0 0
Delivered to Mr. Sackford.
By the Countes of Bedford, widowe, seven sprigges of golde, gar' with sparkes of rubies and pearle, and seven pearles pendant, four bigger and three lesser.
Delivered to Mrs. Ratclyf.
By the Countes of Comberland, one paire of braceletts of golde, conteyninge eight peeces like knottes, and eighte rounde peeces garnished with with small sparkes of rubyes, pearle, and half pearles.
Delivered to Mrs. Ratclyf.
By the Countes of Southampton, senior, one vale or mantle of white knyt-worke florished with silver.
Delivered to the Robes.
By th Countes of Northumberland, one jewell of golde, set with a longe white topaz, and one longe pearle pendante.
Delivered to Mrs. Ratclyf.
By the Countes of Kildare, seven buttons of golde of two sortes, garnished with sparkes of rubyes and pearle.
Delivered to Mrs. Ratclyf.
By the Countes of Worcester, one ruffe of lawne cutworke, set with 20 small knottes of gold like mullets, gar' with small sparkes of rubyes and perle.
Delivered to Lady Scudamore.

Vicountes.
By the Viscountes of Mountagewe, widowe, in golde 10 0 0
Delivered to Mr. Sackforde.

Byshoppes.
By the Archbyshoppe of Canterbury, in golde 40 0 0
By the Archbyshopp of Yorke, in golde 30 0 0
By the Byshopp of Durham, in golde 30 0 0
By the Byshopp of Winchester, in golde 30 0 0
By the Byshopp of London, in golde 20 0 0
By the Byshopp of Salisbury, in golde 20 0 0
By the Byshopp of Bathe and Welles, in golde 20 0 0
By the Byshoppe of Norwich, in golde 20 0 0
By the Byshoppe of Lyncolne, in golde 20 0 0
By the Byshopp of Worcester, in golde 20 0 0
By the Byshopp of Lytchfeld and Calventry, in golde 8 6 8
By the Byshopp of Carlyle, in golde 10 0 0
By the Byshopp of Rochester, in golde 10 0 0
By the Byshopp of Chichester, in golde 10 0 0
By the Byshopp of Peterborowe, in golde 10 0 0
By the Byshoppe of Glocester, in golde 10 0 0
By the Byshopp of Heryforde, in golde 10 0 0
By the Byshopp of St. Davye's, in golde 10 0 0
By the Byshoppe of Chester, in golde 10 0 0
By the Byshoppe of Exeter, in golde 10 0 0
Delivered to Mr. Sackforde.

Lordes.
By the Lorde Hunsdon, Lord Chamberleyne, 10 large buttons of golde, garnished with small rubyes and greate ragged pearle.
Delivered to Mrs. Ratclyf.
By the Lord North, Threasurer of her Maiestie's Howsholde, in golde 10 0 0
By the Lorde Norres, in golde 10 0 0
By the Lorde Barkeley, in golde 10 0 0
By the Lord Wharton, in golde 10 0 0
By the Lord Lomley, in golde 10 0 0
By the Lord Ryche, in golde 10 0 0
Delivered to Mr. Sackford.
By the Lord Henry Howard, one pettycote of white tynsell stryped with three brode laces of golde, with tuftes of watchet and carnacion silke.
Delivered to the Robes.
By the Lorde Darcy of Chichey, in golde 10 0 0
By the Lord Delaware, in golde 10 0 0
Delivered to Mr. Sackforde.
By the Lorde Audeley, parte of rounde kyrtell of white clothe of silver, bounde about with a lace of Venice golde, and seven buttons lyke the birdes of Arabia.
Delivered to the Robes.
By the Lorde Burghley, one jewell of golde, with a long table sapher without foile, havinge eight small dyamons about yt, and one pearle pendant.
Delivered to Mrs. Ratclyf.
By the Lord Mountioy, one paire of bracelettes of golde, conteyninge 21 peeces, garnished with opalles and small rubyes, whereof eight of those peeces are lyke snakes.
Delivered to Mrs. Ratclyf.
By the Lord Cobham, one rounde kyrtell of silver tabyne, with starres and droppes of gold tyssued.
By the Lord Willoby of Earesby, Governor of Barwicke, one mantell of networke.
Delivered to the Robes.

Barronneses.
By the Barronnes Pagett Cary, one lapp mantell of ashe-colored and heare-colored unshorn veluett lozengwise, lyned with crymson unshorne veluett, thone side with a brode passamyne lace of golde, and thother with silver lace.
Delivered to the Robes.
By the Barronnes of Hunsdon, wydowe, one loose gowne blacke of networke, florished all over with Venyce golde and silver lyke feathers.
Delivered to the Robes.
By the Barronnes Hunsdon, junior, one doublet of white satten, embrodered and razed uppon like flyes, and leaves of Venyce silver, and garnished with white knyttworke.
Delivered to the Robes.
By the Barronnes Chandoes Knowlys, one pettycote of white sarcenett, embrothered all over with Venice gold, silver, and silke of dyverse colors like peramydes, with three borders likewise embrothered.
Delivered to the Robes.
By the Barronnes Lomley, one rounde kyrtell of silver tynsell stryped with golde and knotted buttons.
By the Baronnes Scroope, one loose gowne of blacke tyffany stryped with siluer and lined with sarcenet.
Delivered to the Robes.
By the Barronnes Delaware, in golde, £10.
Delivered to Mr. Sackforde.
By the Barronnes Abella, one skarfe or head-vaile of lawne cutworke florished with silver and silke of sondry colors.
Delivered to Mrs. Luce Hide.
By the Barronnes Ryche, one rounde white kirtell of tabyne in squares of silver and white tuftes.
Delivered to the Robes.
By the Barronnes Chandoes, widowe, one rounde kyrtell of silver chamlett or tabyne, with flowers of golde, silver, and silke of sondrye colors.
Delivered to the Robes.
By the Barronnes Audeley, parte of a rounde kyrtell of white cloth of silv' bound about with a lace of Venyce golde, and seven buttons like birds.
Delivered to the Robes.
By the Barronnes Sheiffeilde Stafforde, one pettycote without bodyes of sarcnet, embrothered all over with a twyste of Venyce silver and owes.
Delivered to the Robes.
By the Barronnes Buckhurst, in golde, 10.
By the Barronnes St. John of Bletzo, in golde, 10.
Delivered to Mr. Sackford.
By the Barronnes Burghley, one wastecote of white sarcenett, embrothered with flowers of silke of sondry colors.
Delivered to the Lady Scudamore.
By the Barronnes Barkeley, one mantell of lawne cut and florished with silver plate.
Delivered to the Robes.
By the Barronnes Katheryn Cornewalleis, one pettycote of ashe-colored China taffeta, embrothered all over like oaken leaves and ackhornes, and slyppes of Venyce golde, silver, and silke.
Delivered to the Robes.

Ladyes.
To the Lady Mary Seamer, wyfe to Mr. Rogers, one quosyon cloth of fyne cambricke, wrought all over with Venyce golde and silke.
Delivered to the Lady Scudamore.
By the Lady Elizabeth Seamer, wyfe to Sir Richard Knyghtley, one snoskyn of crymson satten, laide uppon with perfumed leather, cut embrothered with Venyce golde, silver, and silke.
Delivered to Mrs. Hide.
By the Lady Guylforde, parte of a rounde kyrtell of orenge-color tabyne, with slippes and lozenges of ashe-color silke.
Delivered to the Robes.
By the Ladye Stafforde, one paire of braceletts of golde, cont' 12 peeces, whereof 6 bigger and 6 lesser, garnished with pearle and garnetts.
Delivered to Mrs. Ratclyf.
By the Lady Cheeke, one jewell of golde lyke a starre, garnished with sparkes of dyamons of sondry cuttes, and one small pearle pendante.
Delivered to Mrs. Ratclyf.
By the Lady Leighton, one kyrtell of white knyttworke, tufted all over with pincke-colored silke.
Delivered to the Robes.
By the Lady Digbye, two square cushions, thone silke needleworke chevernwise, backed with orenge-colored satten; thother redde leather, embrothered with flowers of silke.
Delivered to Stephen Peerce, Keeper of the Standing Wardrope att Richmond.
By the Lady Puckeringe, in golde, 10.
By the Lady Jarrett, in golde, 10.
Delivered to Mr. Sackforde.
By the Lady Scudamore, parte of a loose gowne of ashe-colored taffeta, the sleves, roller, and border, embrothered with leaves of Venyce golde.
Delivered to the Robes.
By the Lady Egerton, one rounde kyrtell of white satten, cutt and embrothered all over like esses of Venyce golde, and a border embrothered like peramydes; and one doublet of silver chamlett, embrothered with puffes lyke leaves, florished with silver.
Delivered to the Robes.
By the Lady Southwell, one loose gowne of tyffany, florished with Venyce silver and small tuftes of golde, with spangles att the ende.
Delivered to the Robes.
By the Lady Edmondes, one rufe of lawne unmade.
Delivered to the Lady Scudamore.
By the Lady Newton, one doublett and kyrtell of blacke stryped tynsell with a brode border downe afore, and the bodyes cutt and tacked upp, garnished with Venyce golde.
Delivered to the Robes.
By the Lady Walsingham, widowe, one pettycote of white satten, embrothered all over with flyes and branches, with a broade border.
Delivered to the Robes.
By the Lady Hawkyns, one snoskyn of clothe of silver, embrothered all over with flowers and braunches of Venyce golde, silver, and silke of sondry colors.
Delivered to Mrs. Hide.
By the Lady Zouche, one paire of pillowbeares of fine Hollan clothe, wroughte with blacke silke drawne-worke.
By the Lady Longe, one smocke of fine Hollan, the sleves wrought with blacke silke.
By the Lady Willoby, one quosion cloth of lawne cutworke, florished with blacke silke and golde.
Delivered to the Lady Scudamore.
By the Lady Hobby, one snoskyn of clothe of silver, embrothered all over with flowers of Venyce golde, silver, and silke of sondry colors.
Delivered to Mrs. Hide.
By the Lady Harrington, one rounde kyrtell of lawne cut in workes like flowers and frutage, laide uppon blacke cypress tufted.
Delivered to the Robes.
By the Lady Walsingham, junior, parte of a pettycote of clay-color satten, embrothered all over with branches of silver.
Delivered to the Robes.

Knights.
By Sir William Knowlys, Comptroller of her Maiestie's Howsholde, one rounde kirtell of ashe-colored cloth of silver lyke slyppes of trees of orenge-color silke with 8 buttons, embrothered like coronetts.
Delivered to the Robes.
By Sir Robert Cecill, Pryncipall Secretory, 7 sprygges of golde, garnished with sparkes of rubies, dyamons, and perles pendante, a jewell of golde lyke a honter's horne, with a stone called a … garnished with small rubyes, and a small pearle pendante.
Delivered to Mrs. Ratclyf.
By Sir John Fortescue, Chauncelor of thexchequer, in golde 10 0 0
By Sir John Popham, Lord Cheif Justyce, in golde 10 0 0
Delivered to Mr. Sackforde.
By Sir Thomas Leighton, one cloke of blacke networke, florished with Venyce golde, bounde with a lace of Venice silver.
Delivered to the Robes.
By Sir Henry Cromwell, in golde 10 0 0
By Sir Edwarde Cleare, in golde 10 0 0
Delivered to Mr. Sackforde.
By Sir Edwarde Stafforde, one jewell of golde, garnished with two spynnelles and sparkes of dyamondes about yt, and 3 small pendantes with like sparkes of dyamons.
Delivered to Mrs. Ratclyf.
By Sir John Scudamore, part of a loose gowne of ashe-colored taffeta, embrothered with leaves of Venice gold.
Delivered to the Robes.
By Sir Edwarde Hobbye, one doublet of white satten cutt and snypped, embrothered with leves of Venyce golde.
Delivered to the Robes.
By Sir John Stanhoppe, two pendantes of golde like gates, garnished with sparkes of rubyes, and eche with 3 small pearles pendante.
Delivered to Mrs. Ratclyf.
By Sir Edward Dyer, one pettycote of white satten, embrothered all over like grapes and pyne-apples, and a very broade border likewise embrothered.
Delivered to the Robes.
By Sir William Cornewallies, one pe of pillow-beres of fyne cambricke, wrought all oer with Venice gold and silke.
Delivered to the Ladye Scudamore.
By Sir Henry Gyllforde, parte of a rounde kyrtell of orenge-colored tabyne, with slyppes and lozenges of ashe-color silke, with a border downe before like hollybery leaves.
Delivered to the Robes.
By Sir Henry Bronker, one pettycote of taffeta sarcenet quylted all over with a border, imbrothered with golde and carnacon silke with poyntes.
Delivered to the Robes.
By Sir Thomas Wallsingham, parte of a pettycote of cley-color satten, embrothered all ov' with branches of silv'.
Delivered to the Robes.
By Thomas Jarrett, one loose gowne of orenge-colored taffeta, the grounde golde tabyne with slyppes of ashe-colored silke.
Delivered to the Robes.
By Sir Henry Billingsley, one whole peece of lawne.
Delivered to Mrs. Ratclyf.

Gentlewomen.
By Mistriss Mary Ratclyffe, one rounde kyrtell of white china damaske bound about with passamyne lace.
Delivered to the Robes.
By Mrs. Knevett, one large quoshion of clothe of silver, with branches of flowers, with silkewoman's worke of Venyce golde, silver, and silke of sondry colors.
Delivered to Mr. Thomas Knevet, Keeper of Westm' Palace.
By Mrs. Carre, one pendante of golde networke, garnished with small sparkes of garnettes, and one small pearle pendante.
Delivered to Mrs. Ratclyf.
By Mrs. Luce Hyde, one hatt and a feather of white tyffany, embrothered all over.
Delivered to the Robes.
By Mrs. Coppyn, one snoskyn of blacke velvet faire, embrothered with Venice silver and gold, and lyned with white plushe.
Delivered to Mrs. Hide.
By Mrs. Twyste, one paire of inner sleves of Hollan cloth, wrought with blacke silke.
By Mrs. Cromer, one smocke of fyne Hollan cloth, the sleves wrought with blacke silke.
By Mrs. Huggyns, widowe, one large swete bagge of sarcenet, embrothered on thone side.
By Mrs. Frauncys Huggyns, 6 handkercheves of fine Hollan cloth, wrought with blacke silke.
By Mrs. Thomazine, one handkercheve of fyne camericke, faire wrought with Venyce golde and silke.
By Mrs. Barley, 6 handkerhevs of fyne Hollan clothe, wrought with black silke, and edged with Venice gold and silv'.
By Mrs. Elizabeth Grene, one ruffe of lawne cutworke, florished with a wreath of Venice silver knotted.
Delivered to the Lady Scudamore.
By Mrs. Wingfeilde, mother of the maydes, 4 ruffes of lawne and a fanne.
Delivered Lady Scudamore the ruffes; and the fanne to Mistris Hyde.
By Mrs. Elizabeth Russell, one skarfe of white cypres, embrothered all over with flowers, and leaves of silke of sondry colors.
Delivered to Mrs. Hyde.
By Mrs. Verney Alley, one sute of ruffes of fyne lawne cutworke.
Delivered to Lady Scudamore.
By Mrs. Gryffyn, on vaile of white tyffanye, stryped with silke.
Delivered to the Robes.
By Mrs. Sackforde, one loose gowne of blacke networke, stryped with silver, and edged with silver lace.
Delivered to the Robes.
By Mrs. Norton, one cappe of cypres, florished with silver plate and spangles.
Delivered to Herself.
By Mrs. Frauncys Kirkham, one ruffe of lawne cutworke, and a paire of ruffes.
Delivered to the Lady Scudamore.
By Mrs. Dorathy Speckard, pte of a heade vaile of stryped networke, florished with carnacon silke, and some owes.
Delivered to the Robes.
By Mrs. Huggyns, Mr. William his wyef, one ruffe of lawne cutworke.
Delivered to the Lady Scudamore.
By Mrs. Elizabeth Brydges, one doublett of networke lawne, cutt and tufted upp with white knytworke, florished with silver.
Delivered to the Robes.

Gentlemen.
By Mr. Foulke Gryvell, one cloke, and one snoskyn of sylver tabyne, tufted with ashe-color silke, and lyned with white plushe.
Delivered to the Robes; snoskyn delivered to Mrs. Hide.
By Mr. Carre, one pendant of golde cutworke, garnished with small sparkes of garnettes, and one small pearle pendante.
Delivered to Mrs. Ratclyf.
By Mr. Mountagewe, one smocke of fyne Hollan, wrought with blacke silke.
Delivered to the Lady Scudamore.
By Mr. Garter Kinge att Armes, one booke of Heraldry of the Knyghtes of thorder this yere.
Delivered to Mrs. Ratclyf.
By Mr. Carmarden, two boultes of camericke.
Delivered to Mrs. Ratclyf.
By Mr. John Spillman, one lyttell garlande of silver, curyously wrought with flowers enamelled.
Delivered to Mrs. Ratclyf.
By Mr. Doctor James, one pott of grene gynger, and a pott of orenge flowers.
By Mr. Doctor Browne, one pott of grene gynger, and a pot of orenge flowers.
By Mr. Morgan, Apotycary, one pott of grene gynger, and a pott of orenge flowers.
By Mr. Hemingway, Apotycary, one boxe of manus Χρi, and a pott of preserved peares.
By Mr. Weston, Apotticary, three boxes of preservatiues.
Delivered to the Lady Scudamore.
By Mr. Byshop, a statyoner, two bookes of Titus Lyvius, in Frenche.
Delivered to a Mr. Thomas Knevett.
By Mr. William Cordall, Maister Cooke, one marchpaine.
By Mr. Danyell Clarke, Mr Cooke of the Houshoulde, one marchpane.
By Mr. Thomas Frenche, Seriant of the Pastery, one pye of orengado.
By Mr. Raphe Batty, one other Seriant of the Pastery, one pye of orengado.
By Mr. Frauncis Bacon, one pettycote of white satten, embrothered all over like feathers and billets, with three brode borders, faire embrothered with snakes and frutage.
Delivered to the Robes.
By Mr. Fraunces Wolley, oen mantell of pinke-colored stryped cobwebbe lawne striped with silver.
Delivered to the Robes.
By Mr. Thomas Myddleton, one half peece of lawne, and half a peece of camericke.
Delivered to Mrs. Ratclyf.
By Mr. Thomas Ducke, Seriant of the Sceller, two bottelles of ypocras.
By Mr. Abraham Speckard, pte of a heade vale of stryped networke, florished with canracon silke, and some owes.
Delivered to the Robes.
By Mr. Peter Lupo, six bottles of sweete water.
By Mr. Josephe Lupo, one paire of pfumed gloves.
By Mr. Thomas Lupo, Josephe his sonne, one paire of pfumed gloves.
By Mr. William Warren, one paire of perfumed gloves.
By Mr. Peeter Guye, one paire of pfumed gloves.
By Mr. Jerolimo Bassano, one paire of perfumed gloves.
By Mr. Anthune Bassano , one paire of pfumed gloves.
By Mr. Edwarde Bassano, One paire of pfumed gloves.
By Mr. Andrewe Bassano, one paire of pfumed gloves.
By Mr. Cæsar Gallyardo, one paire of pfumed gloves.
By Mr. Trochins, one paire of perfumed gloves.
By Mr. Innocent Comye, one paire of perfumed gloves.
By Mr. Richard Graves, one paire of perfumed gloves.
Delivered to Mrs. Hide.
By Mr. William Huggyns one large swete bagge of ashe-color satten, embrothered all over very faire with a branch of eglentyne tree.
Delivered to the Lady Scudamore
By Mr. William Goodres, two glasses of pretyous water.
By Mr. George Baker, one glasse of pretyous water.
Delivered to the Lady Scudamore.
By Mr. Walter Pearce, one pair of pfumed gloves.
By Mr. Robert Hales, one paire of pfumed gloves.
By Mr. Thomas Lupo, Peter Lupo his sonne, one paire of pfumed gloves.
Delivered to Mrs. Hyde.
By Mr. Randall Bull, one very lyttle locke made in a garnett.
Delivered to Mr. Ferdynandes.
By Mr. Robert Lane, one rounde boxe of golde, with dyverse drawinge boxes in yt, the outside enamelled.
Delivered to Mrs. Ratclyf
By Mr. Richarde Frenche, one mantell of white curled cypres, with tuftes of silver downe the seames.
Delivered to the Robes.
Summa totalis of all the money gyuen to her Highnes this yeare £754. 6s. 8d.

Signed, ELIZABETH R.

Edwa. Carye.
N. Bristow.
N. Pigeon.
Robert Cranmer
Nicholas Hottofte.


Queen Elizabeth I - 1598 Eyewitness Account



c 1563 Queen Elizabeth I 1533-1603 The Hampden Portrait by Steven Van Der Meulen. This is reportedly the earliest portrait of the queen, after her coronation, with her bosom uncovered as was appropriate for unmarried women at that time. Here the queen is portrayed as an approachable young woman, no longer the stern, studious young queen of her earlier portraits. She is made an even more feminine Elizabeth by wearing a red rose on her shoulder & holding a gillyflower in her hand. Here she is the unmarried young English woman, before she became the untouchable, infallible goddess of later portraits.

In 1596, German lawyer Paul Hentzner (1558-1623) at age 38, became tutor to a young Silesian nobleman, with whom he set out in 1597, on a 3 years' tour through Switzerland, France, England, & Italy. After his return to Germany in 1600, he published, at Nuremberg in 1612, a description of this journey, written in Latin, as Itinerarium Germaniae, Galliae, Angliae, Italiae, cum Indice Locorum, Rerum atque Verborum.


1592-99 Queen Elizabeth I 1533-1603 The Hardwick Portrait by Nicholas Hilliard and his workshop. By the 1590s, the tightly controlled ruff had begun to morph into a stiff collar which allowed more of the bosom to be exposed. This may be what Hentzner refers to here.

Hentzner wrote the following account of his encounter with Queen Elizabeth I...

"We arrived next at the royal palace of Greenwich...

"It was here Elizabeth, the present Queen, was born, and her she generally resides, particularly in summer, for the delightfulness of its situation.

"We were admitted, by an order Mr. Rogers had procured from the Lord Chamberlain, into the presence chamber, hung with rich tapestry, and the floor, after the English fashion, strewed with hay, & through which the Queen commonly passes on her way to chapel.
"At the door stood a gentleman dressed in velvet, with a gold chain, whose office was to introduce to the Queen any person of distinction that came to wait on her; it was Sunday, when there is usually the greatest attendance of nobility. In the same hall were the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Bishop of London, a great number of Councillors of State, officers of the Crown, and gentlemen, who waited the Queen's coming out; which she did from her own apartment when it was time to go to prayers, attended in the following manner:

"First went gentlemen, barons, earls, Knights of the Garter, all richly dressed and bareheaded; next came the Chancellor, bearing the seals in a red silk purse, between two, one of whom carried the Royal sceptre, the other the sword of state, in a red scabbard, studded with golden Fleurs de Lis, the point upwards:

"Next came the Queen, in the sixty-fifth year of her age, as we were told, very majestic; her face oblong, fair, but wrinkled; her eyes small, yet black and pleasant; her nose a little hooked; her lips narrow, and her teeth black (a defect the English seem subject to, from their too great use of sugar); she had in her ears two pearls, with very rich drops; she wore false hair, and that red; upon her head she had a small crown, reported to be made of some of the gold of the celebrated Lunebourg table; her bosom was uncovered, as all the English ladies have it till they marry; and she had on a necklace of exceeding fine jewels; her hands were small, her fingers long, and her stature neither tall nor low; her air was stately, her manner of speaking mild and obliging.


1600s Queen Elizabeth I 1533-1603 Palazzo Pitti Florence

"That day she was dressed in white silk, bordered with pearls of the size of beans, and over it a mantle of black silk, shot with silver threads; her train was very long, the end of it borne by a marchioness; instead of a chain, she had an oblong collar of gold and jewels.


Late 1500s Queen Elizabeth I 1533-1603 Miniature Elisabeth

"As she went along in all this state and magnificence, she spoke very graciously, first to one, then to another, whether foreign Ministers, or those who attended for different reasons, in English, French, and Italian; for, besides being well skilled in Greek, Latin, and the languages I have mentioned, she is mistress of Spanish, Scotch, and Dutch. Whoever speaks to her, it is kneeling; now and then she raises some with her hand.

"While we were there, W. Slawata, a Bohemian baron, had letters to present to her; and she, after pulling off her glove, gave him her right hand to kiss, sparkling with rings and jewels, a mark of particular favour.


1595-1600 Queen Elizabeth I 1533-1603 Miniature att Nicholas Hilliard

"Wherever she turned her face, as she was going along, everybody fell down on their knees. The ladies of the court followed next to her, very handsome and well-shaped, and for the most part dressed in white.


1660 Queen Elizabeth I 1533-1603 by Isaac Oliver The Rainbow Portrait

"She was guarded on each side by the gentlemen pensioners, fifty in number, with gilt battle-axes. In the ante-chapel, next the hall where we were, petitions were presented to her, and she received them most graciously, which occasioned the acclamation of 'Long Live Queen Elizabeth!'

"She answered it with "I thank you, my good people." In the chapel was excellent music; as soon as it and the service were over, which scarce exceeded half an hour, the Queen returned in the same state and order, and prepared to go to dinner. But while she was still at prayers, we saw her table set out with the following solemnity:


1595-1600 Queen Elizabeth I 1533-1603 Miniature att Nicholas Hilliard

"A gentleman entered the room bearing a rod, and along with him another who had a table-cloth which, after they had both kneeled three times with the utmost veneration, he spread upon the table, and, after kneeling again, they both retired. Then came two others, one with the rod again, the other with a salt-cellar, a plate, and bread; when they had kneeled as the others had done, and placed what was brought upon the table, they too retired with the same ceremonies performed by the first.

"At last came an unmarried lady (we were told she was a countess), and along with her a married one, bearing a tasting-knife; the former was dressed in white silk, who, when she had prostrated herself three times in the most graceful manner, approached the table and rubbed the plates with bread and salt with as much awe as if the Queen had been present.

"When they had waited there a little while, the yeomen of the guards entered, bareheaded, clothed in scarlet, with a golden rose upon their backs, bringing in at each turn a course of twenty-four dishes, served in plate, most of it gilt; these dishes were received by a gentleman in the same order they were brought, and placed upon the table, while the lady taster gave to each of the guard a mouthful to eat of the particular dish he had brought, for fear of any poison.

"During the time that this guard, which consists of the tallest and stoutest men that can be found in all England, being carefully selected for this service, were bringing dinner, twelve trumpets and two kettledrums made the hall ring for half an hour together.


1600 Queen Elizabeth 1533-1603 Detail from the Procession Portrait attr Robert Peake the Elder See full painting below

"At the end of all this ceremonial, a number of unmarried ladies appeared, who, with particular solemnity, lifted the meat off the table, and conveyed it into the Queen's inner and more private chamber, where, after she had chosen for herself, the rest goes to the ladies of the Court.

"The Queen dines and sups alone with very few attendants, and it is very seldom that anybody, foreigner or native, is admitted at that time, and then only at the intercession of somebody in power."




Queen Elizabeth I - 1597 meets the French ambassador



1595 Queen Elizabeth I 1533-1603 Unknown Artist English School

"On the 8th of December I did not think to be given an audience for that day and was resolved to make my complaint; but about one hour after noon there came a gentleman from the Queen who said to me that her Majesty was much grieved that she had not given me audience sooner, and that she prayed me to come to her that very hour. He brought me in a coach to take me down to the river where one of the barges awaited me, and we went thence to the gate of the Queen's palace. At our landing there came to seek me a gentleman who spoke very good Italian, called Monsieur Wotton, who told me that her Majesty sent word that I should be very welcome and that she was awaiting me. He had four or five other gentlemen with him. As he led me along he told me that the whole Court was well satisfied to see me, and that they knew well how greatly I loved their nation, and that in Italy I had done all that I could for them. I told him that I was very sorry that I had not done more; and that what had been done was by the command of the King, who wished me in all that concerned the Queen of England to busy myself as much as in his own affairs.

"He led me across a chamber of moderate size wherein were the guards of the Queen, and thence into the Presence Chamber, as they call it, in which all present, even though the Queen be absent, remain uncovered. He then conducted me to a place on one side, where there was a cushion made ready for me. I waited there some time, and the Lord Chamberlain, who has the charge of the Queen's household (not as maitre d'hotel, but to arrange audiences and to escort those who demand them and especially ambassadors), came to seek me where I was seated. He led me along a passage somewhat dark, into a chamber that they call the Privy Chamber, at the head of which was the Queen seated in a low chair, by herself, and withdrawn from all the Lords and Ladies that were present, they being in one place and she in another. After I had made her my reverence at the entry of the chamber, she rose and came five or six paces towards me, almost into the middle of the chamber. I kissed the fringe of her robe and she embraced me with both hands. She looked at me kindly, and began to excuse herself that she had not sooner given me audience, saying that the day before she had been very ill with a gathering on the right side of her face, which I should never have thought seeing her eyes and face: but she did not remember ever to have been so ill before. She excused herself because I found her attired in her nightgown, and began to rebuke those of her Council who were present, saying, 'What will these gentlemen say' - speaking of those who accompanied me - 'to see me so attired? I am much disturbed that they should see me in this state.'

"Then I answered her that there was no need to make excuse on my account, for that I had come to do her service and honour, and not to give her inconvenience. She replied that I gave her none, and that she saw me willingly. I told her that the King had commanded me to visit her and to kiss her hands on his behalf, and charged me to learn the news of her well-being and health, which (thanks be to God) I saw to be such as her servants and friends would desire; and which I prayed God might continue for long years, and in all prosperity and dignity. She stood up while I was speaking, but then she returned to her chair when she saw that I was only speaking of general matters. I drew nearer to her chair and began to deal with her in that wherewithal I had been charged; and because I was uncovered, from time to time she signed to me with her hand to be covered, which I did. Soon after she caused a stool to be brought, whereon I sat and began to talk to her.

"She was strangely attired in a dress of silver cloth, white and crimson, or silver 'gauze', as they call it. This dress had slashed sleeves lined with red taffeta, and was girt about with other little sleeves that hung down to the ground, which she was for ever twisting and untwisting. She kept the front of her dress open, and one could see the whole of her bosom, and passing low, and often she would open the front of this robe with her hands as if she was too hot. The collar of the robe was very high, and the lining of the inner part all adorned with little pendants of rubies and pearls, very many, but quite small. She had also a chain of rubies and pearls about her neck. On her head she wore a garland of the same material and beneath it a great reddish-coloured wig, with a great number of spangles of gold and silver, and hanging down over her forehead some pearls, but of no great worth. On either side of her ears hung two great curls of hair, almost down to her shoulders and within the collar of her robe, spangled as the top of her head. Her bosom is somewhat wrinkled as well as one can see for the collar that she wears round her neck, but lower down her flesh is exceeding white and delicate, so far as one could see.

"As for her face, it is and appears to be very aged. It is long and thin, and her teeth are very yellow and unequal, compared with what they were formerly, so they say, and on the left side less than on the right. Many of them are missing so that one cannot understand her easily when she speaks quickly. Her figure is fair and tall and graceful in whatever she does; so far as may be she keeps her dignity, yet humbly and graciously withal.

"All the time she spoke she would often rise from her chair, and appear to be very impatient with what I was saying. She would complain that the fire was hurting her eyes, though there was a great screen before it and she six or seven feet away; yet did she give orders to have it extinguished, making them bring water to pour upon it. She told me that she was well pleased to stand up, and that she used to speak thus with the ambassadors who came to seek her, and used sometimes to tire them, of which they would on occasion complain. I begged her not to overtire herself in any way, and I rose when she did; and then she sat down again, and so did I. At my departure she rose and conducted me to that same place where she had come to receive me, and again began to say that she was grieved that all the gentlemen I had brought should see her in that condition, and she called to see them. They made their reverence before her, one after the other, and she embraced them all with great charm and smiling countenance."

Recorded by Andre Hurault, the French Ambassador


Autumn portraits of women by American William Merritt Chase 1849-1916


William Merritt Chase (American artist, 1849-1916) Beatrice Clough Bachmann



William Merritt Chase (American artist, 1849-1916) Portrait of a Woman 1885



William Merritt Chase (American artist, 1849-1916) Contemplation 1889



William Merritt Chase (American artist, 1849-1916) Mrs Leslie Cotton 1888



William Merritt Chase (American artist, 1849-1916) Irene Dimock



William Merritt Chase (American artist, 1849-1916) Lydia Field Ammet 1892