Monday, March 28, 2016

Queen Elizabeth I - 1570s A Jewel in the Ruff



1570-75 Queen Elizabeth I The Phoenix Jewel by an Unknown Artist, c.1570-75.



1577 Queen Elizabeth I 1533-1603 The Armada Jewel att Nicholas Hilliard



1577 Queen Elizabeth I 1533-1603 The Armada Jewel att Nicholas Hilliard



1577-80 Queen Elizabeth I 1533-1603 The Drake Pendant attr Nicholas Hilliard



1577-80 Queen Elizabeth I 1533-1603 The Drake Pendant att Nicholas Hilliard


Thursday, March 24, 2016

Queen Elizabeth I - 1574 decrees who can wear what in her England



1575 Queen Elizabeth I 1533-1603 The Schloss Ambras Portrait

Elizabeth's fiscal restraint cleared the regime of debt by 1574.  Perhaps it was this & her decision to up her public image that prompted her, in the summer of 1574, to decide to issue sumptuary laws for all the subjects of England. These laws certainly coincided with the Queen's adoption of a more glamorous public image. She was not the 1st monarch to issue such mandates, these sorts of laws had been enacted in many centuries & countries. Elizabeth I intended these laws to restrict the sumptuousness of dress in order to curb extravagance, protect fortunes, & make clear the necessary & appropriate distinctions between levels of society.

Elizabeth I decided that money spent on frivolous display would be better spent on the state of more important things, such as horses, critical to a society always in peril from its neighbors. Her other concern was that letting anyone wear just anything must lead inexorably to moral decline. If you couldn't tell a milkmaid from a countess at a glance, the very fabric of a heirarchical society might unravel.  And her position & authority might be in question.


c 1575 Queen Elizabeth I 1533-1603 The Pelican Portrait, att to Nicholas Hilliard.

Enforcing Statutes of Apparel
[Greenwich, 15 June 1574, 16 Elizabeth I]


c 1574 Queen Elizabeth I 1533-1603 Unknown Artist

"The excess of apparel and the superfluity of unnecessary foreign wares thereto belonging now of late years is grown by sufferance to such an extremity that the manifest decay of the whole realm generally is like to follow (by bringing into the realm such superfluities of silks, cloths of gold, silver, and other most vain devices of so great cost for the quantity thereof as of necessity the moneys and treasure of the realm is and must be yearly conveyed out of the same to answer the said excess) but also particularly the wasting and undoing of a great number of young gentlemen, otherwise serviceable, and others seeking by show of apparel to be esteemed as gentlemen, who, allured by the vain show of those things, do not only consume themselves, their goods, and lands which their parents left unto them, but also run into such debts and shifts as they cannot live out of danger of laws without attempting unlawful acts, whereby they are not any ways serviceable to their country as otherwise they might be:

"Which great abuses, tending both to so manifest a decay of the wealth of the realm and to the ruin of a multitude of serviceable young men and gentlemen and of many good families, the Queen's majesty hath of her own princely wisdom so considered as she hath of late with great charged to her council commanded the same to be presently and speedily remedied both in her own court and in all other places of her realm, according to the sundry good laws heretofore provided.


c 1575 Queen Elizabeth I 1533-1603 attributed to Nicholas Hilliard

"For reformation whereof, although her highness might take great advantage and profit by execution of the said laws and statutes, yet of her princely clemency her majesty is content at this time to give warning to her loving subjects to reform themselves, and not to extend forthwith the rigor of her laws for the offences heretofore past, so as they shall now reform themselves according to such orders as at this present, jointly with this proclamation, are set forth, whereby the statute of the 24th year of her majesty's most noble father King Henry VIII and the statute made in the second year of her late dear sister Queen Mary are in some part moderated according to this time.

"Wherefore her majesty willeth and straightly commandeth all manner of persons in all places within 12 days after the publication of this present proclamation to reform their apparel according to the tenor of certain articles and clauses taken out of the said statutes and with some moderations annexed to this proclamation, upon pain of her highness's indignation, and punishment for their contempts, and such other pains as in the said several statutes be expressed.


c 1575 Queen Elizabeth I 1533-1603 The Phoenix Portrait, att to Nicholas Hilliard.

"For the execution of which orders her majesty first giveth special charge to all such as do bear office within her most honorable house to look unto it, each person in his degree and office, that the said articles and orders be duly observed, and the contrary reformed in her majesty's court by all them who are under their office, thereby to give example to the rest of the realm; and further generally to all noblemen, of what estate or degree soever they be, and all and every person of her privy council, to all archbishops and bishops, and to the rest of the clergy according to their degrees, that they do see the same speedily and duly executed in their private households and families; and to all mayors and other head officers of cities, towns, and corporations, to the chancellors of the universities, to governors of colleges, to the ancients and benchers in every the Inns of Court and Chancery, and generally to all that hath any superiority or government over and upon any multitude, and each man in his own household for their children and servants, that they likewise do cause the said orders to be kept by all lawful means that they can.

"And to the intent the same might be better kept generally throughout all the realm, her majesty giveth also special charge to all justices of the peace to inquire of the defaults and breaking of those orders in their quarter sessions, and to see them redressed in all open assemblies by all wise, godly, and lawful means; and also to all Justices of Assizes in their circuits to cause inquiry and due presentment to be made at their next assizes how these orders be kept; and so orderly, twice a year at every assize after each other circuits done, to certify in writing to her highness's Privy Council under their hands, with as convenient speed as they may, what hath been found and done as well by the justices of the peace in their quarter sessions, of whom they shall take their certificate for each quarter session, as also at the assizes, for the observing of the said orders and reformation of the abuses.

"A brief content of certain clauses of the statute of King Henry VIII and Queen Mary, with some moderation thereof, to be observed according to her majesty's proclamation above mentioned."


c 1575 Queen Elizabeth I 1533-1603 The Darnley Portrait, by an unknown artist.

For women's apparel: None shall wear in her apparel:


c 1575 Queen Elizabeth I 1533-1603 attributed to Nicholas Hilliard

"Any cloth of gold, tissue, nor fur of sables: except duchesses, marquises, and countesses in their gowns, kirtles, partlets, and sleeves; cloth of gold, silver, tinseled satin, silk, or cloth mixed or embroidered with gold or silver or pearl, saving silk mixed with gold or silver in linings of cowls, partlets, and sleeves: except all degrees above viscountesses, and viscountesses, baronesses, and other personages of like degrees in their kirtles and sleeves.

"Velvet (crimson, carnation); furs (black genets, lucerns); embroidery or passment lace of gold or silver: except all degrees above mentioned, the wives of knights of the Garter and of the Privy Council, the ladies and gentlewomen of the privy chamber and bedchamber, and maids of honor.

"None shall wear any velvet in gowns, furs of leopards, embroidery of silk: except the degrees and persons above mentioned, the wives of barons' sons, or of knights.

"Cowls, sleeves, partlets, and linings, trimmed with spangles or pearls of gold, silver, or pearl; cowls of gold or silver, or of silk mixed with gold or silver: except the degrees and persons above mentioned; and trimmed with pearl, none under the degree of baroness or like degrees.

"Enameled chains, buttons, aglets, and borders: except the degrees before mentioned.

"Satin, damask, or tufted taffeta in gowns, kirtles, or velvet in kirtles; fur whereof the kind groweth not within the Queen's dominions, except foins, grey genets, bodge, and wolf: except the degrees and persons above mentioned, or the wives of those that may dispend £100 by the year and so valued in the subsidy book.

"Gowns of silk grosgrain, doubled sarcenet, camlet, or taffeta, or kirtles of satin or damask: except the degrees and persons above mentioned, and the wives of the sons and heirs of knights, and the daughters of knights, and of such as may dispend 300 marks by the year so valued ut supra, and the wives of those that may dispend £40 by the year.

"Gentlewomen attendant upon duchesses, marquises, countesses may wear, in their liveries given them by their mistresses, as the wives of those that may dispend £100 by the year and are so valued ut supra.

"None shall wear any velvet, tufted taffeta, satin, or any gold or silver in their petticoats: except wives of barons, knights of the order, or councilors' ladies, and gentlewomen of the privy chamber and bed chamber, and the maids of honor.

"Damask, taffeta, or other silk in their petticoats: except knights' daughters and such as be matched with them in the former article, who shall not wear a guard of any silk upon their petticoats.

"Velvet, tufted taffeta, satin, nor any gold or silver in any cloak or safeguard: except the wives of barons, knights of the order, or councilor's ladies and gentlewomen of the privy chamber and bedchamber, and maids of honor, and the degrees above them.

"Damask, taffeta, or other silk in any cloak or safeguard: except knights' wives, and the degrees and persons above mentioned.

"No persons under the degrees above specified shall wear any guard or welt of silk upon any petticoat, cloak, or safeguard."


c 1575 Queen Elizabeth I 1533-1603


Tuesday, March 22, 2016

Queen Elizabeth I - 1570s A public relations Goddess - with Ruff



1570s Queen Elizabeth I 1533-1603 unknown artist

By the 1570s, Elizabeth I had been transformed into an ageless goddess. Gone were the simple, human likenesses. The queen was now an untouchable symbol of power. Roses & prayer book props were joined by tools for building an empire - swords, globes, & crowns - swirling around a timeless depiction of virginity & purity decorated with sieves, moons & pearls. This queen was meant to be revered and to be unquestioningly followed, as she led England into the wider world.

1572 Queen Elizabeth I 1533-1603 miniature portrait on vellum playing card by Nicholas Hilliard.



c 1575 Queen Elizabeth I 1533-1603 The Pelican Portrait, attr to Nicholas Hilliard.



1575 Queen Elizabeth I 1533-1603 The Darnley Portrait, by an unknown artist


1775 & 1600 Queen Elizabeth portrait based on 1575 original



1575 Queen Elizabeth I 1533-1603 The Phoenix Portrait, attr to Nicholas Hilliard.



1575-80 Queen Elizabeth I 1533-1603 The Schloss Ambras Portrait Unknown artist



1575-80 Queen Elizabeth I 1533-1603



1575-1578 Elizabeth attributed to Nicholas Hilliard



1579 Queen Elizabeth I 1533-1603 The Plimpton Sieve Portrait by George Gover.  The sieve is a symbol of chastity & purity, originally taken from Petrarch's Triumph of Chastity. In the story, a Roman Vestal Virgin proves her purity by carrying water in a sieve & not spilling one drop. The sieve thus reinforces Elizabeth's image as "the virgin queen."



c 1580 The Kitchner Portrait of Elizabeth I



1580-85 Queen Elizabeth I 1533-1603 The Peace Portrait, 1580-5, by Marcus Gheeraerts the Elder.



1580-90 Queen Elizabeth I 1533-1603 In Parliament Robes



1580s Queen Elizabeth I 1533-1603 by John Bettes the Younger.



1580s Queen Elizabeth I 1533-1603 the Drewe Portrait



1583 Queen Elizabeth I 1533-1603 The Sieve Portrait by Quentin Metsys the Younger.



1585 Queen Elizabeth I 1533-1603 The Ermine Portrait, by Nicholas Hilliard.



1585 Queen Elizabeth I 1533-1603 with a feather fan by an unknown artist.



1585 Queen Elizabeth I 1533-1603 with feather fan by John Bettes the Younger.



c 1585-90 Queen Elizabeth I 1533-1603 with a a reversed Darnley portrait face pattern & a feather fan by an unknown artist



1588 Queen Elizabeth I 1533-1603 by George Gower



1588 Queen Elizabeth I 1533-1603 The Armada Portrait unknown artist sometimes attr to George Gower. Detail



1590 Queen Elizabeth I 1533-1603 Jesus College Oxford



1592 c Queen Elizabeth



1590-1600s Queen Elizabeth I 1533-1603 Jesus College Oxford



1590s Queen Elizabeth I 1533-1603 in old age, by Marcus Gheeraerts the Younger.



1595 Queen Elizabeth I 1533-1603 unknown artist English School


Friday, March 18, 2016

Queen Elizabeth I - 1558-1603 The grand wardrobe - Hand-me-downs?



Marcus Gheeraerts the younger (Flemish artist, 1561-1635) Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I

A Point of View: Dazzling in an age of auserity
By Lisa Jardine
BBC News Magazine 30 December 2011

"...In 1558, when the Protestant Queen Elizabeth I succeeded her Catholic sister Mary to the throne of England, royal finances were in a parlous state. Although Elizabeth's fiscal restraint cleared the regime of debt by 1574, the costs of warfare in the later decades of the reign obliterated the surplus, and England had a debt of £350,000 at Elizabeth's death in 1603.

"Against this economic background, Elizabeth used ostentation and opulence in her dress as a political tool to increase national confidence in the solvency of her regime. We know how systematic and thought-through such a strategy was, because some of the account books keeping track of the outlay of precious gems and sumptuous fabrics on important public occasions have come down to us.

"One of these little books, kept by Elizabeth's senior lady-in-waiting in charge of her 'Wardrobe of Robes,' contains a daily inventory of outfits worn by her, and is engagingly entitled 'Lost from her Majesty's back.'

"It details meticulously the pearls and gems individually stitched on to the queen's articles of clothing for state occasions, then painstakingly removed and checked back in to her jewellery collection afterwards. If a gem became detached in the course of the outing it had to be accounted for as a 'loss' in the book, and the ladies of the royal household were held responsible for recovering it.

"What this tells us is that the extraordinary outfit Queen Elizabeth wears in a classic portrait like the 1588 Armada portrait - painted to celebrate the defeat of the Spanish fleet - is no artistic exaggeration.


1588 Queen Elizabeth I 1533-1603 The Armada Portrait Attributed to George Gower

"At each intersection of patterning in her silk sleeves and kirtle a pearl or a flower-shaped jewel with diamond petals has been lovingly attached, while shoulders and gown-edge are decorated with pink silk bows, each with a jewelled flower at its centre. The effect is dazzling - a clever way of making a female monarch appear as powerful in victory as her male counterpart would have been, dressed in full armour and ready for battle.

"I said that Elizabeth herself lacked the means to support such display of financial extravagance. A significant way in which the queen consolidated the sense of economic security conveyed by sheer ostentation, was by means of a carefully constructed policy of gift-exchange with senior (and more personally wealthy) members of her court.

"On New Year's Day each year it was customary for the English of all walks of life to exchange personal gifts. Elizabeth and her advisers organised expensive gift-giving of elaborate pieces of jewellery and exquisite articles of clothing, seeing to it that the gifts offered to her at the new year were, from year to year, increasingly extravagant, and increasingly matched to particular requirements for Elizabeth's court dress, communicated to the gift-giver well in advance.

"If the gift succeeded - if the queen liked it and wore it - it had fulfilled its function of winning the queen's favour and confirming the giver's devotion and loyalty.

"In exchange, each individual presenting a luxury item would receive a piece of engraved silver plate (typically in the form of cups, bowls and spoons), which because it came from the queen herself, had a 'value' far beyond its intrinsic worth.

"On the whole, male members of the aristocracy gave gems, while their female counterparts gave elaborately decorated clothing. The more powerful and senior the nobleman, the more intricate and ostentatious his gift.

"All these gifts were negotiated with, and presented to Lady Howard, keeper of the queen's wardrobe, whose sartorial guidance and approval was sought both before and after the New Year's Day present-giving...

"In 1581 Sir Christopher Hatton, then Vice-Chamberlain, gave: 'A jewell of gold, being an amulet, with a buckle and pendant of gold, garnished and furnished with diamonds and rubies, six pieces of gold enamelled, fully furnished with small rubies. Betwixt every of the same pieces, 13 pendants of gold garnished with small rubies and small diamonds. And more - 144 buttons of gold, peascod fashion, half part enamelled green.'

"A year earlier the Countess of Lincoln gave: 'A doublet with double sleeves, ash colour, upon tinsel laid with passmane lace of gold and silver, lined with yellow sarcenet.'

"And from the Countess of Warwick, 'a fore part and a pair of sleeves of white satin, embroidered with branches and trees of damask gold, two guards of black velvet, upon the fore part embroidered with gold, silver, and silk, set with seed pearl, and lined with tawny sarcenet..."


Wednesday, March 16, 2016

Queen Elizabeth I - 1560s Allegory Paintings Using Myths to Promote the Queen



1569 Elizabeth I and the Three Goddesses attr to Hans Eworth



1569 Queen Elizabeth I 1533-1603 and the Three Goddesses Detail attr Hans Eworth

Queen Elizabeth I was featured in at least 2 allegorical paintings using the lessons of classical mythology to promote the beauty & sovereignty of the young queen. These allegorical paintings were the public relations & propaganda tools of her early reign. The painting Elizabeth I and the Three Goddesses (1569), attributed to Hans Eworth, is the story of the Judgement of Paris resulting in a projected peace rather than the long Trojan wars of the original tale. Elizabeth, rather than Paris, is sent to choose among Juno, Venus, and Pallas-Minerva, all of whom are outshone by the queen with her crown & royal orb.

1572 Family of Henry VIII, an Allegory of the Tudor Succession attr to to Lucas de Heere



1572 Queen Elizabeth I 1533-1603 from 'The Family of Henry VIII An Allegory of the Tudor Succession' att to to Lucas de Heere

In 1572, The Family of Henry VIII: An Allegory of the Tudor Succession is attributed to Lucas de Heere. In this image, Catholic Mary & her husband Philip II of Spain are accompanied by Mars the god of War on the left, while Protestant Elizabeth on the right ushers in the goddesses Peace and Plenty. The work may commemorate the signing of the Treaty of Blois (1572) which established an alliance between England & France against Spanish aggression in the Netherlands.


Saturday, March 12, 2016

Queen Elizabeth I - 1559 The Coronation - Richard Mulcaster's account

1559-60 Queen Elizabeth I 1533-1603 The Coronation portrait, coronation on 15 January 1559, Copy c 1600-1610 of a lost original of c 1559.

"The Passage of our Most Dread Sovereign Lady, Queen Elizabeth, Through the City of London to Westminster, the Day before her Coronation"

Excerpts from the account of Richard Mulcaster

"Upon Saturday, which was the 14th day of January in the year of our Lord God 1558 [1559], about two of the clock in the afternoon, the most noble and Christian Princess, our most dread Sovereign Lady, Elizabeth, by the grace of God, Queen of England, France and Ireland, defender of the faith, etc. marched from the Tower to pass through the City of London, towards Westminster: richly furnished and most honorably accompanied, as well with Gentlemen, Barons and other of the Nobility of this realm, as also with a noble train of goodly and beautiful Ladies, richly appointed.

"And entering the City, was of the people received marvelous entirely, as appeared by the assembly’s prayers, wishes, welcomings, cries, tender words, and all other signs: which argue a wonderful earnest love towards their sovereign. And on the other side, Her Grace, by holding up her hands, and merry countenance to such as stood afar off, and most tender and gentle language to those that stood nigh to her Grace, did declare herself no less thankfully to receive her people’s goodwill, than they lovingly offered it.

"Near to Fanchurch, was erected a scaffold richly furnished; whereon stood a noise of instruments; and a child, in costly apparel, which was appointed to welcome the Queen’s Majesty, in the whole of the City’s behalf.

"In Cheapside, Her Grace smiled; and being thereof demanded the cause, answered “For that she heard one say 'Remember old King Henry VIII!' A natural child which at the very remembrance of her father’s name took so great a joy; that all men may well think that as she rejoiced at his name whom the realm doth hold of such worthy memory, so, in her doings, she will resemble the same."


1560 Queen Elizabeth I 1533-1603 Coronation Miniature


1559 Queen Elizabeth I Coronation Detail from the Poor Knights of Windsor attr to Levina Teerlinc, from the Public Records Office in London.


Thursday, March 10, 2016

Queen Elizabeth I - 1554 - 1582 Her own poetry + a few portraits

.
1580 Queen Elizabeth I 1533-1603 Unknown Artist after Zuccarro


COMPOSED 1554-5

Much suspected by me,
Nothing proved can be,
Quoth Elizabeth prisoner.



1590 Queen Elizabeth I 1533-1603 Unknown Artist Jesus College Oxford


WRITTEN ON A WALL AT WOODSTOCK, 1554-5

Oh Fortune, thy wresting wavering state
Hath fraught with cares my troubled wit,
Whose witness this present prison late
Could bear, where once was joy's loan quit.
Thou causedst the guilty to be loosed
From bands where innocents were inclosed,
And caused the guiltless to be reserved,
And freed those that death had well deserved.
But all herein can be nothing wrought,
So God send to my foes all they have thought.



1590s Queen Elizabeth I 1533-1603 with a Fan, Unknown Artist


WRITTEN IN HER FRENCH PSALTER, 1554-5

No crooked leg, no bleared eye,
No part deformed out of kind,
Nor yet so ugly half can be
As is the inward suspicious mind.



1592 Queen Elizabeth I 1533-1603 Unknown Artist


THE DOUBT OF FUTURE FOES, 1568-70

The doubt of future foes exiles my present joy,
And wit me warns to shun such snares as threaten mine annoy;
For falsehood now doth flow, and subjects' faith doth ebb,
Which should not be if reason ruled or wisdom weaved the web.
But clouds of joys untried do cloak aspiring minds,
Which turn to rain of late repent by changed course of winds.
The top of hope supposed the root upreared shall be,
And fruitless all their grafted guile, as shortly ye shall see.
The dazzled eyes with pride, which great ambition blinds,
Shall be unsealed by worthy wights whose foresight falsehood finds.
The daughter of debate that discord aye doth sow
Shall reap no gain where former rule still peace hath taught to know.
No foreign banished wight shall anchor in this port;
Our realm brooks not seditious sects, let them elsewhere resort.
My rusty sword through rest shall first his edge employ
To poll their tops that seek such change or gape for future joy.



1592 Queen Elizabeth I 1533-1603 Artist Unknown


THAT WHICH OUR SOVEREIGN LADY WROTE IN DEFIANCE OF FORTUNE, 1568-70

Never think you fortune can bear the sway
Where virtue's force can cause her to obey.



1592 Queen Elizabeth I 1533-1603 Unknown Artist


ON MONSIEUR'S DEPARTURE, 1582

I grieve and dare not show my discontent,
I love and yet am forced to seem to hate,
I do, yet dare not say I ever meant,
I seem stark mute but inwardly do prate.
I am and not, I freeze and yet am burned,
Since from myself another self I turned.
My care is like my shadow in the sun,
Follows me flying, flies when I pursue it,
Stands and lies by me, doth what I have done.
His too familiar care doth make me rue it.
No means I find to rid him from my breast,
Till by the end of things it be supprest.
Some gentler passion slide into my mind,
For I am soft and made of melting snow;
Or be more cruel, love, and so be kind.
Let me or float or sink, be high or low.
Or let me live with some more sweet content,
Or die and so forget what love ere meant.



1592 Queen Elizabeth I 1533-1603 with a Fan, Unknown Artist
 


1592 Queen Elizabeth I 1533-1603 with a Fan, Unknown Artist



1592 Queen Elizabeth I 1533-1603, Unknown Artist



1598 Queen Elizabeth I 1533-1603 with the Cardinal & Theological Virtues Unknown Artist



1600 Queen Elizabeth I 1533-1603 Unknown Artist



1600+ Queen Elizabeth I 1533-1603 Unknown Artist