Tuesday, December 6, 2016

Illustrations from the 1848 edition of A Visit from Saint Nicholas

On December 25, 1822, Clement Clarke Moore 1779-1863, a professor of literature at a theological seminary in New York, read A Visit from Saint Nicholas aloud to a gathering of family & friends. On December 23, 1823 it was printed anonymously in the Troy Sentinel. It was several years before Moore was credited as the author, which is still debated today. In 1848, the 1st illustrated volume of the poem was published. Since 1823, the poem has been reprinted many times & is probably the most popular description of the tradition of Santa on Christmas Eve. 

A Visit from St. Nicholas
By Clement Clarke Moore 1779-1863

'Twas the night before Christmas, when all through the house
Not a creature was stirring, not even a mouse;
The stockings were hung by the chimney with care,
In hopes that St. Nicholas soon would be there;
The children were nestled all snug in their beds;
While visions of sugar-plums danced in their heads;
And mamma in her 'kerchief, and I in my cap,
Had just settled our brains for a long winter's nap,
When out on the lawn there arose such a clatter,
I sprang from my bed to see what was the matter.
Away to the window I flew like a flash,
Tore open the shutters and threw up the sash.
The moon on the breast of the new-fallen snow,
Gave a lustre of midday to objects below,
When what to my wondering eyes did appear,
But a miniature sleigh and eight tiny rein-deer,
With a little old driver so lively and quick,
I knew in a moment he must be St. Nick.
More rapid than eagles his coursers they came,
And he whistled, and shouted, and called them by name:
"Now, Dasher! now, Dancer! now Prancer and Vixen!
On, Comet! on, Cupid! on, Donner and Blitzen!
To the top of the porch! to the top of the wall!
Now dash away! dash away! dash away all!"
As leaves that before the wild hurricane fly,
When they meet with an obstacle, mount to the sky;
So up to the housetop the coursers they flew
With the sleigh full of toys, and St. Nicholas too—
And then, in a twinkling, I heard on the roof
The prancing and pawing of each little hoof.
As I drew in my head, and was turning around,
Down the chimney St. Nicholas came with a bound.
He was dressed all in fur, from his head to his foot,
And his clothes were all tarnished with ashes and soot;
A bundle of toys he had flung on his back,
And he looked like a pedler just opening his pack.
His eyes—how they twinkled! his dimples, how merry!
His cheeks were like roses, his nose like a cherry!
His droll little mouth was drawn up like a bow,
And the beard on his chin was as white as the snow;
The stump of a pipe he held tight in his teeth,
And the smoke, it encircled his head like a wreath;
He had a broad face and a little round belly
That shook when he laughed, like a bowl full of jelly.
He was chubby and plump, a right jolly old elf,
And I laughed when I saw him, in spite of myself;
A wink of his eye and a twist of his head
Soon gave me to know I had nothing to dread;
He spoke not a word, but went straight to his work,
And filled all the stockings; then turned with a jerk,
And laying his finger aside of his nose,
And giving a nod, up the chimney he rose;
He sprang to his sleigh, to his team gave a whistle,
And away they all flew like the down of a thistle.
But I heard him exclaim, ere he drove out of sight—
“Happy Christmas to all, and to all a good night!”

Illustrations from A Visit from Saint Nicholas by Thomas Nast, 1869

Saint Nicholas - Santa goes to war

The U.S. Civil War - Thomas Nast’s "A Christmas Furlough" 1863 Harper’s Weekly

The U.S. Civil War - Thomas Nast’s "Christmas"  Harper’s Weekly  December 26, 1863

WWI U.S. Food Administration. Educational Division, Advertising Section, c 1918

WW II U.S. Office for Emergency Management, War Production Board, c 1942

A Few Santas from Thomas Nast

Thomas Nast (German-born American artist, 1840-1902) Santa Claus' Mail 1871

Thomas Nast (German-born American artist, 1840-1902) Santa Harpers Weekly 1874

Thomas Nast (German-born American artist, 1840-1902) Santa Harpers Weekly 1878

 Thomas Nast (German-born American artist, 1840-1902) Santa

Thomas Nast (German-born American artist, 1840-1902) Santa Clause 1881

 Thomas Nast (German-born American artist, 1840-1902)

Saint Nicholas - Santa in 19C USA

Santa Claus

1837 Robert Walter Weir (American artist, 1803-1889) St Nicholas

Owen Edwards explains in the Smithsonian magazine, December 2011, that the painter was a member of a well-heeled gentlemen’s society, the Knickerbockers, many of whose members traced ancestry directly to Manhattan’s original 17C Dutch settlers. St. Nicholas was a central figure in the popular culture of the Netherlands, beloved as the bearer of gifts in the Christmas season. For the early Dutch colonists in the New World, the saint’s feast day—December 6—was eagerly anticipated. Northern Europeans traditionally put out boots on the eve of the sixth for gifts delivered by the saint. And the children of New Amsterdam did the same.

Weir’s portrayal of St. Nicholas was inspired in part by the descriptions of a fellow Knickerbocker, Washington Irving, the celebrated author of “Rip Van Winkle” and “The Legend of Sleepy Hollow.” Irving’s A History of New York from the Beginning of the World to the End of the Dutch Dynasty, published on St. Nicholas Day, December 6, 1809, was replete with charming digressions. Among them was a set piece on the saint, portraying him as an elfin, antic figure, his appearance drawn from the ranks of the Dutch bourgeoisie. Smoking a clay pipe and “laying his finger beside his nose,” Irving wrote, St. Nicholas soars over trees in a flying wagon “wherein he brings his yearly presents to children.”  Irving also advanced the notion that the saint descended into chimneys to bestow his treats.  In the Weir painting, the two clay pipes recall both Irving’s earlier description of St. Nicholas as well as the Dutch penchant for smoking, a convention often seen in old-master paintings. A half-peeled orange lies on the floor-a festive delicacy at the time as well as an allusion to Holland’s royal House of Orange.

"...Santa Claus, with his fur-trimmed red suit, sackful of toys, reindeer, sleigh and home at the North Pole, emerged as a major folk figure. He first appeared in semi-modern form in the 1820s, in Clement Moore's An Account of a Visit from Saint Nicholas. By the 1850s-60s, artists and writers had given wide circulation to the genial and generous American saint that Moore had introduced. Thomas Nast's fanciful Christmas drawings widened the sphere of Santa's rule in the late 19C. Moore had already supplied 8 reindeer to pull the sleigh. Nast gave him a workshop and ledgers to record children's conduct. He made him taller and dressed him in red. To this, Nast and others added a home at the North Pole, elves, a wife and even, by some accounts, children..."

Santa Clause by Thomas Nast 1881

"...In the New York Sun's famous discourse on the spiritual meaning of Santa. In 1897, Virginia O'Hanlon asked a plain question of the editor: 'Is there a Santa Claus?' 'Yes, Virginia, there is a Santa Claus', came the terse reply. The answer, though, was not a patent fib designed to placate a youngster, but an exposition on belief itself. 'Virginia, your little friends are wrong', the editor wrote. 'They have been affected by the scepticism of a sceptical age. They do not believe except they see'. Without Santa, he argued: 'there would he no childlike faith then, no poetry, no romance to make tolerable this existence ... Nobody sees Santa Claus, but that is no sign that there is no Santa Claus. Nobody can conceive or imagine all the wonders there are unseen and unseeable in the world."

Quoted text from Penne Restad Published in History Today Volume: 45 Issue: 12 1995 Christmas in 19C America

Saint Nicholas - Sinter Klass comes to NYC in 1773

Icon of Nicholas of Myra

The legend of Santa Claus goes back hundreds of years to a monk named St. Nicholas. It is believed that Nicholas was born sometime around 280 A.D. in Patara, near Myra in modern-day Turkey. Much admired for his piety & kindness, St. Nicholas became the subject of many legends. It is said that he gave away all of his inherited wealth & traveled the countryside helping the poor & sick. Over the course of many years, Nicholas's popularity spread, & he became known as the protector of children & sailors. His feast day is celebrated on the anniversary of his death, December 6. This was traditionally considered a lucky day to make large purchases or to get married. By the Renaissance, St. Nicholas was the most popular saint in Europe. Even after the Protestant Reformation, when the veneration of saints began to be discouraged, St. Nicholas maintained an honored reputation, especially in Holland.

Sinter Klaas Comes to New York

The name Santa Claus evolved from Nick's Dutch nickname, Sinter Klaas, a shortened form of Sint Nikolaas (Dutch for Saint Nicholas). St. Nicholas made his first inroads into American popular culture towards the end of the 18th century. In December 1773, and again in 1774, a New York newspaper reported that groups of Dutch families had gathered to honor the anniversary of his death.

The British demanded taxes from the American colonies but refused to give them a representative in Parliament. Following the incident known as the "Boston Tea Party", on 16 December, everywhere in the colonies, patriots started to organize societies to obstruct the British imperialists. In New York, they called themselves "Sons of Saint Nicholas", as an alternative to the pro-British societies of Saint George. In this way, Nicholas became a symbol of New York's non-English past, and he was therefore accepted as patron of the newly founded New York Historical Society.

In 1810, John Pintard, a member of the New York Historical Society, distributed woodcuts of St. Nicholas at the society's annual meeting. The background of the engraving contains now-familiar Santa images including stockings filled with toys and fruit hung over a fireplace.  Pintard took an especially keen interest in the legend and the Society hosted its first St. Nicholas anniversary dinner in 1810. Artist Alexander Anderson was commissioned to draw an image of the Saint for the dinner. He was still shown as a religious figure, but now he was also clearly depositing gifts in children's stockings which were hung by the fireplace to dry. There was an engraving of Saint Nicholas, in a bishop’s cloak; the background contains now-familiar Santa images including a stocking filled with toys and fruit hung over a fireplace (for the good little girl; the bad little boy received a stocking containing a bundle of switches). The woodcut had the following inscription:
Saint Nicholas, good holy man!
Put on the Tabard, best you can,
Go, clad therewith, to Amsterdam,
From Amsterdam to Hispanje,
Where apples bright of Oranje,
And likewise those granate surnam’d.
Saint Nicholas, my dear good friend!
To serve you ever was my end,
If you will, now, me something give,
I’ll serve you ever while I live.
In 1809, Washington Irving (1783-1859), helped to popularize the Sinter Klaas stories when he referred to St. Nicholas as the patron saint of New York in his book, The History of New York. As his prominence grew, Sinter Klaas was described as everything from a "rascal" with a blue three-cornered hat, red waistcoat, and yellow stockings to a man wearing a broad-brimmed hat and a "huge pair of Flemish trunk hose."   In fact, Irving invented a tradition. His Nicholas resembled a corpulent Dutch citizen, smoking a Goudse pijp (a long white pipe made of clay, produced in Gouda). The venerable bishop had become "a chubby and plump, right jolly old elf", as he is called in the anonymous poem called A Visit From Saint Nicholas (1823). Within 15 years, Father Christmas, including his fur-trimmed red dress, reindeers, sleigh, and cherry nose had been invented.

One the earliest illustrations (artist unknown) of Santa Claus, the secular character having evolved from St. Nicholas. This picture shows him on a rooftop with his sleigh & a reindeer for the first time.

In 1821, a small, 16-page booklet appeared, titled A New Year’s Present for the Little Ones from Five to Twelve, Part III. It was about Christmas, and was the first to picture Santa Claus in a sleigh drawn by a reindeer. Published by William B. Gilley of New York, no credit was given to either the author or the illustrator. Part of the verse is reproduced below:
Old Santeclaus with much delight
His reindeer drives this frosty night,
O’er chimney tops, and tracks of snow,
To bring his yearly gifts to you.
The steady friend of virtuous youth,
The friend of duty, and of truth,
Each Christmas eve he joys to come
Where love and peace have made their home.
Through many houses he has been,
And various beds and stockings seen;
Some, white as snow, and neatly mended,
Others, that seem’d for pigs intended.
Where e’er I found good girls or boys,
That hated quarrels, strife and noise,
I left an apple, or a tart,
Or wooden gun, or painted cart;
To some I have a pretty doll,
To some a peg-top, or a ball;
No crackers, cannons, squibs, or rockets,
To blow their eyes up, or their pockets.
No drums to stun their Mother’s ear,
Nor swords to make their sisters fear;
But pretty books to store their mind
With knowledge of each various kind.
But where I found the children naughty,
In manners rude, in temper haughty,
Thankless to parents, liars, swearers,
Boxers, or cheats, or base tale-bearers,
I left a long, black, birchen rod.
Such as the dread command of God
Directs a Parent’s hand to use
When virtue’s path his sons refuse. 

In 1822, Clement Clarke Moore, an Episcopal minister, wrote a long Christmas poem for his three daughters entitled "An Account of a Visit from St. Nicholas." Moore's poem, which he was initially hesitant to publish due to the frivolous nature of its subject, is largely responsible for our modern image of Santa Claus as a "right jolly old elf" with a portly figure and the supernatural ability to ascend a chimney with a mere nod of his head! Although some of Moore's imagery was probably borrowed from other sources, his poem helped popularize the now-familiar image of a Santa Claus who flew from house to house on Christmas Eve–in "a miniature sleigh" led by eight flying reindeer–leaving presents for deserving children. "An Account of a Visit from St. Nicholas" created a new and immediately popular American icon.

1848 T. C. Boyd A visit from Saint Nicholas, Poem

Robin Ranger's Picture Book. New York.  Carlton & Porter, Methodist Sunday School Union, 1865

Puritans - Christmas in Puritan New England

Christmas in Puritan New England

The pilgrims, English separatists that came to America in 1620, were adamant about the decadent celebration of Christmas. Christopher Jones, the master of the Mayflower, wrote in the ship’s log: "At anchor in Plymouth harbor; Christmas Day, but not observed by these colonists, they being opposed to all saints’ days….A large party went ashore this morning to fell timber and begin building. They began to erect the first house about twenty feet square for their common use, to receive them and their goods….No man rested all that day."

A Relation or Journal of the Proceedings of the Plantation settled at Plymouth in New England, also called Mourt's Relation: A Journal of the Pilgrims at Plymouth. (London, 1622), which recods events at Plymouth from the Mayflower's arrival in November 1620 through the 1st Thanksgiving in October 1621, reports that a little Christmas cheer was drunk in December of 1620, "Monday, the 25th day, we went on shore, some to fell timber, some to saw, some to rive, and some to carry, so no man rested all that day. But towards night some, as they were at work, heard a noise of some Indians, which caused us all to go to our muskets, but we heard no further. So we came aboard again, and left some twenty to keep the court of guard. That night we had a sore storm of wind and rain." and "Monday, the 25th day, we went on shore, some to fell drink water aboard, but at night the master caused us to have some beer, and so on board we had divers times now and then some beer, but on shore none at all."

The Pilgrims' 2nd governor, William Bradford 1590-1657, wrote that he tried hard to stamp out "pagan mockery" of the observance, penalizing any frivolity.

Governor William Bradford (1590-1657)

On Christmas Day, 1620, Governor Bradford encountered a group of people who were taking the day off from work & wrote in his journal:  "And herewith I shall end this year. Only I shall remember one passage more, rather of mirth then of waight. One ye day called Christmas-day, ye Govr caled them out to worke, (as was used,) but ye most of this new-company excused them selves and said it wente against their consciences to work on yt day. So ye Govr tould them that if they made it mater of conscience, he would spare them till they were better informed. So he led-away ye rest and left them; but when they came home at noone from their worke, he found them in ye streete at play, openly; somepitching ye barr, & some at stoole-ball, and shuch like sports. So he went to them, and tooke away their implements, and tould them that was against his conscience, that they should play & others worke. If they made ye keeping of it mater of devotion, let them kepe their houses, but ther should be no gameing or revelling in ye streets. Since which time nothing hath been atempted that way, at least openly."

When Oliver Cromwell & his Puritan forces took over England in 1645, they vowed to rid England of decadence &, as part of their effort, cancelled Christmas. In 1647, the British Parliament abolished the celebration of Christmas, 40 years after the establishment of the settlement in Jamestown. The "No Christmas" policy was reiterated by Parliament in 1652, with the following resolution: "That no observation shall be had of the five and twentieth day of December commonly called Christmas-Day; nor any solemnity used or exercised in churches upon the day in respect thereof."

In 1647, the Puritan reformers in England outlawed Christmas. And in 1659, the Puritans in New England followed suit. People who celebrated Christmas would be subject to a fine of five shillings.  The celebration of Christmas was outlawed in most of New England. Calvinist Puritans and Protestants abhorred the entire celebration and likened it to pagan rituals and Popish observances. 

 In 1659, the Massachusetts Puritans declared the observation of Christmas to be a criminal offense by passed the Five-Shilling Anti-Christmas Law: "Whosoever shall be found observing any such day as Christmas, or the like, either by forbearing labor, feasting, or any other way upon such account as aforesaid, every such person so offending shall pay for each offense five shillings as a fine to the country."  The law was only in effect for 22 years, but Christmas was not made a legal holiday in Massachusetts until the mid-19C.  

The General Court of Massachusetts enacted the law making any observance of December 25 (other than a church service) a penal offense; people were fined for hanging decorations.

The Assembly of Connecticut, in the same period, prohibited the reading of the Book of Common Prayer, the keeping of Christmas and saints days, the making of mince pies, the playing of cards, or performing on any musical instruments.  As a result, Christmas was not a holiday in early New England from 1659 to 1681, the celebration of Christmas was actually outlawed in Boston. 

By popular demand, Charles II was restored to the British throne in 1661; and, with him, came the return of traditional, celebrations of the Christmas holiday in England.  Despite the colonial Massachusetts General Court being told by mother England to repeal the “penalty for keeping Christmas” as early as May of 1665, for its “being directly against the lawe of England,” the colony did not stricken the law until 1681, with renewed pressure from Britain's newly restored monarch Charles II.

However, Puritan New England society continued to judge celebrating Christmas harshly in the 17C. The New England Historical Society reports that, "There remained in their midst, however, people who did celebrate Christmas with gusto. Especially in the fishing communities, Christmas was embraced. The holiday was mostly celebrated by the less-literate members of the community, and much of what actually happened was never recorded. What was recorded was seen through the eyes of the religious/civic leadership, and they painted an ugly picture of Christmas indeed."

In 1662, William Hoare of Beverly, Massachusetts, was brought to court for hosting a drunken gathering on Christmas day. Hoare was a troublemaker whose family was frequently at odds with Puritan society — eventually their attitudes would cost his wife her life, as she was hanged as a witch in the Salem witch frenzy 30 years later.

More Christmas mayhem occurred on Christmas Day in 1679 in Salem, Massachusetts. Joseph Foster, Benjamin Fuller, Samuel Brayebrooke & Joseph Flint decided they wanted some booze for the holiday. Historian Stephen Nissenbaum recounts this as an example of a wassailing gone very bad. On Christmas night of 1679, four young men of the village of Salem entered the house of septuagenarian John Rowden, who was known to make pear wine, called "perry," from trees in his orchard. The men made themselves at home in front of the fire & began to sing. After a couple of songs they tried to cajole Rowden & his wife into bringing them some of the new wine. Rowden refused & asked the intruders to leave, to which they responded that "it was Christmas Day at night & they came to be merry & to drink perry, which was not to be had anywhere else but here, & perry they would have before they went."

When the visitors promised to return later & pay for the drink, Mrs. Rowden said, "We keep no ordinary to call for pots." By "ordinary" she meant tavern, & by "pots" she meant alcohol. The four men left, but three returned a quarter-hour later & tried to pass a piece of lead as payment in coin. The Rowdens & their adopted son, Daniel Poole, got the men out the front door, but they wouldn't leave & called sarcastic taunts from the street. John Rowden later testified to the violence that broke out next.

They threw stones, bones, & other things at Poole in the doorway & against the house. They beat down much of the daubing in several places & continued to throw stones for an hour & a half with little intermission. They also broke down about a pole & a half of fence, being stone wall, & a cellar, without the house, distant about 4 or 5 rods, was broken open through the door, & 5 or 6 pecks of apples were stolen.

The New England Historical Society tells us that, , "Drinking was just the tip of the iceberg when it came to Christmas debauchery. Wassailing, mumming, gambling and feasting were all popular Christmas pastimes. And it was a constant struggle for the Puritans to keep Christmas under control because Christmas was embraced by some of the hoi polloi, who thought it was quite a good time."

The Rev. Increase Mather painted by Dutch-born John van der Spriett in 1688, while Mather was visiting London.

In 1687 the Puritan minister Increase Mather (1639-1723) railed against Christmas. He declared that those who celebrated it “are consumed in compotations, in interludes, in playing at cards, in revellings, in excess of wine, in mad mirth.”   In his A Testimony against Several Prophane and Superstitious Customs, Now Practiced by Some in New England, he wrote "In the pure Apostolical times there was no Christ-mass day observed in the Church of God. We ought to keep the primitive Pattern. That Book of Scripture which is called The Acts of Apostles saith nothing of their keeping Christ’s Nativity as an Holy-day...Why should Protestants own any thing which has the name of Mass in it? How unsuitable is it to join Christ and Mass together? ...It can never be proved that Christ’s nativity was on 25 of December...who first of all observed the Feast of Christ’s Nativity in the latter end of December, did it not as thinking that Christ was born in that Month, but because the Heathens’ Saturnalia was at that time kept in Rome, and they were willing to have those Pagan Holidays metamorphosed into Christian ones."

Peter Pelham (English-born Boston artist, 1695-1751) Cotton Mather

The Puritan ideas about the celebration of Christmas continued in the 18C.  Increase Mather's son Boston divine Cotton Mather (1663-1728) wrote in n1712,  that the "Feast of Christ's Nativity is spent in Reveling, Dicing, Carding, Masking, and in all Licentious Liberty ...by Mad Mirth, by long eating, by hard Drinking, by lewd Gaming, by rude Reveling. . . ." Christmas caroling was condemned, as well, since it occurred in parallel with these other acts. In Massachusetts, seafaring communities like Nantucket and the town of Marblehead continued particularly notorious celebrations, despite officials' best efforts to quash Christmas observance throughout the colony.

Cotton Mather's House on Hanover Street in Boston

The Pennsylvania Gazette reported a story on February 10, 1730, originally published in Boston on January 1.  "We are informed from Portsmouth, That most of the Gentlemen of that Town being of the Church of England Denomination, the Catholick Goodness of the Reverend Mr. Fitch conform'd to give them a Christmas Sermon Dec. 25, which was the second Time, and which some think a very fair Step towards introducing the Celebration of all the other Festivals of that Church."  

Portsmouth was still debating the celebration of Chistmas 40 years later.  The Portsmouth New Hampshire Gazette reported in 1770, "Last Tuesday was observed as a festival, being Christmas, in celebration of our Savior's birth. The different modes of observing this festivity, strongly marks the degeneracy of Christians. Prayers, hymns, anthems, thanksgiving and praise marked the primitive days of Christianity; debauchery, wantonness, levity and inhumanity distinguish the modern...Why the evening preceding and the whole night is spent by many in rioting & drunkenness, tumult and noise."

In 1794 in Deerfield, Massachusetts, shopkeeper John Birge noted in his account book the arrival of "Nightwalkers—or rather blockheads" at his establishment about 2 o'clock in the morning on December 22, 1794. Birge refused to open up. The "wassailers" seem to have gained entry by breaking a windowpane & perhaps carried away food & clothing. Birge said, "I cannot see why it was much better than Burglary."

The Puritan influence persisted in Massachusetts throughout the 18C & 19C.  Boston public schools were still open on Christmas Day in the 1870s and missing work on the 25th of December was grounds for dismissal.

Puritans - The Puritan War on Christmas 1642-60 from History Today

By Chris Durston Published in History Today Volume: 35 Issue: 12 1985

The Westminster Assembly, which met from 1643-49, in a Victorian history painting by John Rogers Herbert

"During the 17C, as now, Christmas was one of the most important dates in the calendar, both as a religious festival & as an important holiday period during which English men & women indulged in a range of traditional pastimes. During the twelve days of a17C Christmas, churches & other buildings were decorated with rosemary & bays, holly & ivy; Christmas Day church services were widely attended, gifts were exchanged at New Year, & Christmas boxes were distributed to servants, tradesmen & the poor; great quantities of brawn, roast beef, 'plum-pottage', minced pies & special Christmas ale were consumed, & the populace indulged themselves in dancing, singing, card games & stage-plays.

"Such long-cherished activities necessarily often led to drunkenness, promiscuity & other forms of excess. In fact the concept of 'misrule', or a ritualised reversal of traditional social norms, was an important element of Christmas, & has been viewed by historians as a useful safety-valve for the tensions within English society. It was precisely this face of Christmas, however, that the Puritans of 16-17C England found so objectionable. In the 1580s, Philip Stubbes, the author of The Anatomie of Abuses, complained: "That more mischief is that time committed than in all the year besides, what masking & mumming, whereby robbery whoredom, murder & what not is committed? What dicing & carding, what eating & drinking, what banqueting & feasting is then used, more than in all the year besides, to the great dishonour of God & impoverishing of the realm."

"In addition to this association with immorality & the concept of misrule, another of the central objections to the feast for the stricter English Protestants between 1560 & 1640 was its popularity among the papist recusant community. Within the late medieval Catholic church, Christmas had taken a subordinate position in the liturgical calendar to Easter. Its importance, however, had been growing & was further enhanced by the religious conflicts of the 16C, for whereas, as John Bossy has recently pointed out, the more extreme Protestants had little time fox Christ's 'holy family', reformed Catholicism laid great stress on this area. The Tridentine emphasis on devotions to the Virgin Mary in particular elevated the status of the feast during which she was portrayed as a paragon of motherhood.

"Certainly, English recusants seem to have retained a deep attachment to Christmas during Elizabeth I's reign & the early part of the 17C. The staunchly Catholic gentlewoman, Dorothy Lawson, celebrated Christmas 'in both kinds... corporally & spiritually', indulging in Christmas pies, dancing & gambling. In 1594 imprisoned Catholic priests at Wisbech kept a traditional Christmas which included a hobby horse & morris dancing, & throughout the late 16-17C, the Benedictine school at Douai retained the traditional festivities, complete with an elected 'Christmas King'. The Elizabethan Jesuit, John Gerard, relates in his autobiography how their vigorous celebration of Christmas & other feasts made Catholics particularly conspicuous at those times &, writing on the eve of the Civil War Richard Carpenter, a convert from Catholicism to Protestantism, observed that the recusant gentry were noted for their 'great Christmasses'. As a result, by the 1640s many English Protestants viewed Christmas festivities as the trappings of popery, anti-Christian 'rags of the Beast'.

"The celebration of Christmas thus became just one facet of a deep religious cleavage within early 17C England which, by the middle of the century, was to lead to the breakdown of government, civil war & revolution. When the Puritans took control of government in the mid-1640s they made a concerted effort to abolish the Christian festival of Christmas & to outlaw the customs associated with it but the attempt foundered on the deep-rooted popular attachment to these mid-winter rites.

"The controversy over how Christmas should be celebrated in London & the other Parliamentary centres surfaced in the early stages of the Civil War. In December 1642 Thomas .Fuller remarked, in a fast sermon delivered on Holy Innocents Day, that 'on this day a fast & feast do both justle together, & the question is which should take place in our affections'. While admitting that the young might be 'so addicted to their toys & Christmas sports that they will not be weaned from them', he advised the older generation among his listeners not to be 'transported with their follies, but mourn while they are in mirth'. The following December the issue led to violence in London when a crowd of apprentices attacked a number of shops in Cheapside which had opened for trading on Christmas Day & forced their owners, 'diverse holy Londoners', to close them. In reporting the incident Mercurius Civicus sympathised with the shopkeepers but argued that to avoid 'disturbance & uproars in the City' they should have waited 'till such time as a course shall be taken by lawful authority with matters of that nature'.

"The following year, when Christmas Day fell on the last Wednesday in the month, the day set aside for a regular monthly fast, Parliament produced the anticipated legal rulings. On December 19th an ordinance was passed directing that the fast day should be observed in the normal way, but: "With the more solemn humiliation because it may call to remembrance our sins, & the sins of our forefathers who have turned this Feast, pretending the memory of Christ, into an extreme forgetfulness of him, by giving liberty to carnal & sensual delights..."

"Both Houses of Parliament attended fast sermons delivered by Presbyterian ministers on December 25th, 1644, the Commons hearing from Thomas Thorowgood that: "The providence of heaven is here become a Moderator appointing the highest festival of all the year to meet with our monthly fast & be subdued by it."

"In January 1645, the newly-published Directory of Public Worship, which outlined the basis of the new Presbyterian church establishment, affirmed bluntly that 'Festival days, vulgarly called Holy days, having no Warrant in the Word of God, are not to be continued'.

"From 1646 onwards, with Parliament victorious over Charles I, the attack on the old church festivals intensified; as the Royalist author of the ballad The World is Turned Upside Down put it, 'Christmas was killed at Naseby fight'. In June 1647, a further Parliamentary ordinance abolished the feasts of Christmas, Easter & Whitsun, & substituted as a regular holiday for students, servants & apprentices, the second Tuesday of every month. During the Christmas of 1647a number of ministers were taken into custody by the authorities for attempting to preach on Christmas Day, & one of them subsequently published his intended sermon under the title The Stillborn Nativity. Despite this government pressure, however, Christmas festivities remained popular, & successive regimes throughout the 1650s felt obliged to reiterate their objection to any observance of the feast.

"In December 1650 the republican council of state urged the Rump of the Long Parliament to consider increasing the penalties for those caught attending 'those old superstitious obbservations', & in 1652 a proclamation published on Christmas Eve ordered that shops should be open & the markets kept on 25th, & that shopkeepers should be protected from violence or intimidation. Four years later, sitting on Christmas Day 1656, Oliver Cromwell's second Protectorate Parliament discussed a bill to prevent the celebrations in London. In 1657 the Council of State again urged the mayor & aldermen of London to clamp down on all celebrations in the capital, & a number of people attending church services on December 25th were held in custody & questioned by the army. Richard Cromwell's council repeated the injunctions to the mayor in December 1658. Insistent Puritan pressure, therefore, for the abolition of Christmas was kept up to within a few months of their fall from power at the Restoration, but it is clear even from the constant repetition of the government injunctions that it met with anything but willing acquiesence. In fact, the attack on Christmas produced instead a heated literary controversy & active, & on occasions violent measures to protect the traditional customs associated with the feast.

"The debate as to whether Christmas should continue to be observed in the traditional manner was carried on in a series of rival works which appeared in the 1640s & 1650s, & which argued the case for both an educated & for a more popular audience. The intellectual debate began in 1644 with the appearance of the tract The Feast of Feasts, written by the Royalist clergyman Edward Fisher, & published in Oxford, the King's headquarters. This work introduced several of the main issues in the subsequent debate; whether the secular authorities had the right to legislate over the observance of church festivals & whether it could be proved that Jesus was born on December 25th. Fisher claimed that those who refused to recognise Christmas had 'revolted from the Church of Christ' & 'disgrace, hate, slander & persecute the most orthodox most eminent & chiefest of all the Reformed Churches, the Church of England'. He marshalled detailed scriptual & historical arguments to prove that the exact format of festivals was 'a thing indifferent' & thus within the power of civil government to organise. Dismissing all alternative datings of Christ's nativity, he asserted that 'the 25th day of December is the just, true & exact day of our Saviour's birth', & concluded with an exhortation to his readers to: "Stand fast & hold the traditions which we have been taught, let us make them known to our children that the generations to come may know them."

"Several years later, with Charles I defeated & the attack on Christmas mounting, Fisher found support for his position from the author of A Ha! Christmas & from George Palmer's The Lawfulness of the Celebration of Christ's Birthday Debated. The first of these works, published in December 1647, emphasised the charitable aspect of Christmas, arguing that: "At such time as Christmas, those who God Almighty hath given a good share of the wealth of this world may wear the best, eat & drink the best with moderation, so that they remember Christ's poor members with mercy & charity, & this year requireth more charity than ordinary because of the dearness of provision of corn & victuals."

"Palmer, a Canterbury cleric, published his detailed arguments in favour of celebration in the following December. He claimed that the exact date of Christ's birthday was 'no great matter... so as we do solemnize one day thankfully so near the true day we can guess', & dismissed objections grounded on the Catholic origins of Christmas, arguing that 'the first Popes were such as did accompany us in the way to salvation & were not so bad as in latter times they have been, & are now'. Writing in May 1648, with the knowledge that riots in Canterbury the previous Christmas had by then developed into a full scale Royalist uprising in Kent, Palmer also warned Parliament that their continued opposition to Christmas might create further resentment which its enemies could harness 'as a fair cloak to put on for to begin a quarrell, & so to incite some better men to take part with them'.

"The counter-attack upon these opinions began the same month with the publication of Christs Birth Mistimed by Robert Skinner, & of Certain Queries Touching the Rise & Observation of Christmas by Joseph Hemming, a Presbyterian minister in Staffordshire. Hemming presented 16 questions or 'queries', which attacked Christmas on the grounds that the date of Christ's birth was uncertain, that the feast had no scriptural basis but was purely a human invention, & that it was a superstitious relic of popery. He argued that Christmas had begun as a Christian version of the Roman mid-winter feast of the Saturnalia & that customs such as Yule games & carols were relics of these pagan rites. The following November this point was repeated in greater detail by Thomas Mockett, rector of Gilston in Hertfordshire, in his work Christmas, The Christians Grand Feast. In order to encourage the citizens of ancient Rome to convert, argued Mockett, the early Christians came up with their own equivalent of the Saturnalia, thus bringing:  ...all the heathenish customs & pagan rites & ceremonies that the idolatrous heathens used, as riotous drinking, health drinking, gluttony, luxury, wantonness, dancing, dicing, stage-plays, interludes, masks, mummeries, with all other pagan sports & profane practices into the Church of God.

"The appearance of Hemming's queries prompted Edward Fisher to re-enter the literary contest. In January 1649 he re-published The Feast of Feasts under a new title A Christian Caveat to the Old & New Sabbatarians, & appended to it a new point-by-point refutation of Hemming. He defended Yule sports with the claim 'the body is God's as well as the spirit & therefore why should not God be glorified by showing forth the strength, quickness & agility of our body' & denounced his adversaries for viewing it as superstitious: "To eat mince pies, plum-pottage or brawn in December, to trim churches or private houses with holly & ivy about Christmas, to stick roasting pieces of beef with rosemary or to stick a sprig of rosemary in a collar of brawn, to play cards or bowls, to hawk or hunt, to give money to the servants or apprentices box, or to send a couple of capons or any other presents to a friend in the twelve days."

"Fisher's arguments were clearly very popular; some 6,000 copies of A Christian Caveat were sold in the early 1650s, & by the end of the decade the work had been reissued 5 times.  Other titles, adding further weight to the arguments for celebration, appeared in the 1650s; these included Allan Blayney's Festorum Metropolis, first published in August 1652 & reissued in January 1654, & Henry Hammond's A Letter of Resolution To Six Queries of Present Use in the Church of England, which appeared in November 1652. Both claimed that Christmas rituals should be seen as desirable visual symbols which encouraged devotion among the illiterate. These works were in turn countered for the abolitionists by John Collings, a Presbyterian preacher from Norwich, in his Responsoria ad Erratica Piscatoris published in February 1653; by Ezekial Woodward, the minister of Bray in Berkshire in Christmas Day the Old Heathen's Feasting Day published in February 1656; & by Giles Collier, minister of Blockley in Worcestershire, in an appendix to his Vindiciae Thesium de Sabbato, which appeared in August 1656.

"In addition to these contributions to the learned debate, the same period saw the publication of other material clearly intended to appeal to the illiterate or semi-literate mass of the population in London & elsewhere. January 1646 saw the appearance of the satire The Arraignment, Conviction & Imprisoning of Christmas, which claimed to have been printed by 'Simon Minced-Pie for Cicely Plum Pottage'. It took the form of a discussion between a London town crier & a Royalist gentlewoman who was enquiring after Father Christmas' whereabouts. The crier tells the lady that before the war Christmas: "Had looked under the consecrated lawn sleeve as big as Bull beef, just like Bacchus upon a tun of wine when the grapes hung shaking about his ears; but since the Catholic liquor is taken from him he is much wasted."

"He admits that he had been popular with apprentices, servants & scholars & that 'wanton women dote after him' but informs her that he is now 'constrained to remain in the Popish quarters'. The woman replies that: "If ever the Catholics or bishops rule again in England they will set the church doors open on Christmas Day, & we shall have mass at the High Altar as was used when the day was first instituted, & not have the holy Eucharist barred out of school, as school boys do their masters against the festival. What, shall we have our mouths shut to welcome old Christmas. No, no, bid him come by night over the Thames & we will have a bark door open to let him in. I will myself give him his diet for one year to try his fortune, this time 12 months may prove better."

"Several months later appeared The Complaint of Christmas written by the satirical Royalist poet, John Taylor. It related the story of Father Christmas' visit the previous December to the 'schismatical & rebellious' towns of London, Yarmouth, Newbury & Gloucester, where he had found: "... no sign or token of any Holy Day. The shops were open, the markets were full, the watermen rowing, the carmen were a loading & unloading, the porters were bearing, & all Trades were forbearing to keep any respective memory of me or Christ..."

"Enquiring of a cobbler what had happened, he was told 'it was a pity ever Christmas was born, & that I was a papist & idolatrous Brat of the Beast, an old reveller sent from Rome into England'. Travelling on into the rural districts he found an old parson 'reduced to look like a skeleton' who informed him that 'many mad seduced people have madly risen against God & the king', & he was later accosted by a large crowd of tradesmen, apprentices & servants complaining that: "All the liberty & harmless sports, with the merry gambols, dances & friscals [by] which the toiling plowswain & labourer were wont to be recreated & their spirits & hopes revived for a whole twelve month are now extinct & put out of use in such a fashion as if they never had been. Thus are the merry lords of misrule suppressed by the mad lords of bad rule at Westminster."

"Taylor's Father Christmas beats a hasty retreat from England, hoping to return to find 'better entertainment' the next year.  Taylor continued his Royalist propaganda campaign in favour of Christmas several years later, publishing two titles in December 1652, Christmas In & Out & The Vindication of Christmas, their contents being extremely similar & large passages appearing in both. Father Christmas again visits England to find it in a miserable condition & the people complaining 'that Mr. Tax & Mr. Plunder had played a game at sweep stake among them'. He speaks to a London merchant 'a fox-furred Mammonist' who taunts him doth thou see anyone that hath an ear to live & thrive in the world to be so mad as to mind thee', When he complains about the weakness of the beer offered him, which 'warmed a man's heart like pangs of death in a frosty morning', he is told: "Alas, father Christmas, our high & mighty ale that would formerly knock down Hercules & trip up the heels of a Giant is lately struck in a deep consumption, the strength of it being quite gone with a blow from Westminster, & there is a Tetter & Ringworm called Excise doth make it look thinner than it would do."

"In Devon, however, he encounters some 'country farmers' who make him far more welcome & celebrate Christmas in the traditional fashion; together they: "Discoursed merely without either profaneness or obscenity. Some went to cards, others sung carols & pleasant songs... the poor labouring hinds & maid servants with the ploughboys went nimbly dancing; the poor toiling wretches being glad of my company because they had little or no sport at all till I came amongst them..."  He leaves exhorting them to 'call home exiles, help the fatherless, cherish the widow, & restore every man his due'.

"Another similar piece, Women Will Have Their Will or Give Christmas His Due, which appeared in December 1648, seems to have been aimed particularly at a female audience. It contained a dialogue between 'Mistress Custom', a victualler's wife in Cripplegate & 'Mistress New-Come' an army captain's wife 'living in Reformation Alley near destruction street'. New-Come finds Custom decorating her house for Christmas & they fall into a discussion about the feast. Custom exclaims that: "I should rather & sooner forget my mother that bare me & the paps that gave me suck, than forget this merry time, nay if thou had'st ever seen the mirth & jollity that we have had at those times when I was young, thou wouldst bless thyself to see it."

"She claims that those who want to destroy Christmas are: "A crew of Tatter-demallions amongst which the best could scarce ever attain to a calves-skin suit, or a piece of neckbeef & carrots on a Sunday, or scarce ever mounted (before these times) to any office above the degree of scavenger of Tithingman at the furthest."  When New-Come suggests she should abandon her celebrations because they have been banned by the authority of Parliament, she replies: "...God deliver me from such authority; it is a Worser Authority than my husband's, for though my husband beats me now & then, yet he gives my belly full & allows me money in my purse... Cannot I keep Christmas, eat good cheer & be merry without I go & get a licence from the Parliament. Marry gap, come up here, for my part I'll be hanged by the neck first."  Mistress New-Come then informs her that if she disregards Parliament, she will be tamed by 'the honest Godly part of the army', but Custom ignores this threat, dismissing her with the rhyme:
For as long as I do live
And have a jovial crew
I'll sit & rhat, & be Fat
And give Christmas his due.

"These pro-Christmas royalist satires, which could themselves be easily & effectively recited in taverns & market places, were complemented by a number of popular songs & ballads in defence of the feast, & by regular references to Christmas in the widely-read newsbooks of the day. Reporting the closure of the London churches on Christmas Day 1643, the Royalist Mercurius Aulicus asked 'whither will this mad faction run at last', & in 1645 Mercurius Academicus claimed that the Parliamentary soldiers in Abingdon had been forced to work on 25th December 'to keep wood cheap in forbearing Christmas fires'. In 1647 Mercurius Pragmatius included a Christmas rhyme which ended:
Christmas, farewell, thy Day, I fear
And merry days are done
So they may keep Feasts all the year
Our Saviour shall have none.

"And in 1649 Mercurius Melancholius reported a rumour that the army & Parliament intended to bring Charles I to trial on Christmas Day, commenting: "When they should have been at church praying God for that memorable & unspeakable merry which he that day showed to mankind in sending his only begotten son into the world for their salvation, they were practising an accusation against His deputy here on earth."

"Response from the Parliamentary newsbooks was muted & sporadic; in 1643 The Scottish Dove concluded a lengthy discussion of Christmas festivities with the advice: "Every Christian is bound so far as the celebration of Christ's nativity or the other festival days are idolatrous or heathenish to endeavour to have them purged."

"The following December The Kingdom's Weekly Intelligencer defended the Parliamentary attack on the feast with the challenge: "If there be any man that reads this that have seen an Inns of Court or a temple Christmas, speak your conscience, if you not think it was a place like Hell itself & that God is with those that would reform such abuses."

"In December 1645 Mercurius Civicus included the standard Parliamentary case against observation in its issue for the week preceding Christmas, but thereafter Parliamentary comment is largely restricted to accounts of violations of the government's orders by those determined to celebrate the feast, The scale & variety of the polemical literature about Christmas during these years suggests that Parliamentary attempts to eradicate the festival aroused strong emotions. This impression is confirmed when we consider the more direct evidence of the responses & reactions of individuals & communities to this frontal assault upon some of their most abiding traditions. What then becomes abundantly clear is that the attack on Christmas was viewed with a sense of regret & unease by many in the country irrespective of their social rank. In 1644 The Parliament Scout admitted that 'the alteration of this day troubles the children & servants who are afraid the time will be engrossed by the Father & Master before theirs to play in', & several years later Charles I expressed his own deep anxiety at the abolition of church feasts to his Parliamentary captors. The experiences of the Essex Presbyterian minister Ralph Josselin were probably very typical. In 1639, as a newly-ordained curate, he had preached at Deane, but on December 22nd, 1643, he wrote in his diary: "I made a serious exhortation to lay aside the jollity & vanity of the time that custom hath wedded us into."

"By 1647 he believed he had 'weaned' many of his parishioners from their previous practices, but confessed that 'people hanker after sports & pastimes that they were wonted to enjoy'.

"Many therefore simply defied the government, & despite the pressures & intimidation, refused to abandon their traditional practices. Ignoring the official closure of the churches, where & when they could congregations still gathered together on December 25th to celebrate Christ's nativity. In 1647 Parliament instructed its committee for plundered ministers to take action against 'diverse ministers' who had held Christmas Day services, & a number of churchwardens were subsequently imprisoned for allowing them to take place. The Anglican diarist John Evelyn could find no Christmas services to attend in 1652 or 1655, but in 1657 he joined a 'grand assembly' which celebrated the birth of Christ in Exeter House chapel in the Strand. Along with others in the congregation, he was afterwards arrested & held for questioning for some time by the army. Other services took place the same day in Fleet Street & at Garlick Hill where, according to an army report, those involved included 'some old choristers & new taught singing boys' & where 'all the people bowed & cringed as if there had been mass'.

"Far less effective was Parliament's attempt to abolish the traditional holiday over the Christmas period. The Moderate Intelligencer reported in December 1645 that hardly any shops were open in London on Christmas Day, & following month The True Informer explained its failure to appear during Christmas week as a 'necessitous compliance with the temper & disposition of the vulgar who... would either have refused to buy or vend anything which is not absolutely necessary, or else would not be at leisure to look after intelligence, being wholly taken up with recreation'. On December 27th, 1650, Sir Henry Mildmay reported to the House of Commons that on the 25th there had been: "...very wilful & strict observation of the day commonly called Christmas Day throughout the cities of London & Westminster, by a general keeping of their shops shut up & that there were contemptuous speeches used by some in favour thereof."

"Several newsbooks reported a similar complete closure in London in 1652, & on Christmas Day 1656 one MP remarked that 'one may pass from the Tower to Westminster & not a shop open, nor a creature stirring'.

"With the churches & shops closed, the populace resorted to its traditional pastimes. In 1652 The Flying Eagle informed its readers that the 'taverns & taphouses' were full on Christmas Day, 'Bacchus bearing the bell amongst the people as if neither custom or excise were any burden to them', & claimed that 'the poor will pawn all to the clothes of their back to provide Christmas pies for their bellies & the broth of abominable things in their vessels, though they starve or pine for it all the year after'. In 1654 The Weekly Post reported the decoration of churches & rosemary & bays, & Francis Throckmorton, a student in Puritan Cambridge, paid 6d. for music & gave Christmas boxes to his servant, tailor & shoemaker. Three years later he spent Christmas at a country house in Worcestershire, where he exchanged presents & gave money to musicians & mummers. The same year John Evelyn invited in his neighbours after Christmas 'according to custom'.

"In February 1656 Ezekial Woodward had to admit that 'the people go on holding fast to their heathenish customs & abominable idolatries, & think they do well'. The same fact was also obvious to those few MPs who attended the Commons on Christmas Day 1656. One complained that he had been disturbed the whole of the previous night by the preparations for 'this foolish day's solemnity', & John Lambert warned them that, as he spoke, the Royalists would be 'merry over their Christmas pies, drinking the King of Scots health, or your confusion'.

"Particularly distressing for the MPs was the knowledge that disagreements over the observance of Christmas could lead to violence & civil disorder, & had on one occasion been the prelude to a full-scale Royalist uprising. In London on Christmas Day 1643 a mob of apprentices forced the closure of any shops which had opened for business. Four years later there was more trouble when a large crowd of Londoners gathered to prevent the mayor & his marshalls removing the Christmas decorations which some of the city porters had draped around the conduit in Cornhill. The confrontation ended in uproar, with arrests, injuries, & the bolting of the mayor's frightened horse. The Royalist newsbook Mercurius Elenticus claimed that one man subsequently died of his injuries in Newgate jail.

"Nor was trouble confined to the capital. On Christmas Day 1646 at Bury St Edmunds a crowd of apprentices met together to prevent tradesmen opening for business. When the local magistrate & constables told them to disperse or risk imprisonment, a scuffle broke out & several people were injured. Far more serious incidents occurred the following December when, according to The Kingdom's Weekly Post, on Christmas Day: "... in some places in the country so eager were they of a sermon... by such as they approved of that the church doors were kept with swords & other weapons defensive & offensive whilst the minister was in the pulpit."

"In Norwich the weeks leading up to Christmas 1647 saw bitter in-fighting between the Puritan preachers, who petitioned the mayor for a 'more speedy & thorough reformation', & the apprentices who counter-petitioned that Christmas festivities should be permitted. Further south in Ipswich, those who wanted to observe Christmas took part in a 'great mutiny', & when their leaders were arrested they attempted to rescue them by force. In the resulting melee one eponymous rioter called Christmas 'whose name seemed to blow up the coals of his zeal to the observation of the day', was killed.

"The most serious trouble, however, occurred in Canterbury where, in response to an order of the county committee outlawing Christmas celebrations, a large crowd gathered on Christmas Bay to demand a church service & ensure that shops remained shut. Fights again developed, a soldier was assaulted, & the mayor's house attacked. For several weeks the rioters controlled the city; they decorated doorways with holly bushes &, ominously for the government, adopted the slogan 'For God, King Charles, & Kent'. They were forced to surrender in early January but within six months large areas of Kent were involved in the second Civil War, a full-scale insurrection in support of Charles I. So too were some of the inhabitants of Norwich & Bury, also previous centres of pro-Christmas demonstrations. By the late 1640s, therefore, the Puritan equation of Christmas with Royalism had become a self-fulfilling prophecy.

"Traditional Christmas festivities duly returned to England with Charles II in 1660, & while the Restoration's association with maypoles & 'Merry England' may have been overstated in the past, there is no doubt that most English people were very glad that their Christmas celebrations were once more acceptable. According to The Kingdom's Intelligencer, at Maidstone in Kent, where there had been no Christmas Day services for seventeen years, on December 25th, 1660, several sermons were preached & communion administered, 'to the joy of many hundred Christians'. On the Sunday before Christmas, Samuel Pepys' church in London was decorated with rosemary & bays; on the 25th Pepys attended morning service & returned home to a Christmas dinner of shoulder of mutton & chicken. Predictably, he slept through the afternoon sermon, but he had revived sufficiently by the evening to read & play his lute. The Buckinghamshire gentry family, the Verneys, resumed their celebrations on a grand scale; in 1664 a family friend wrote that: "... the news at Buckingham is that you will keep the best Christmas in the shire, & to that end have bought more fruit & spice than half the porters in London can weigh out in a day."

"Perhaps even the Puritan minister Ralph Josselin was secretly relieved; by 1662 he was again preaching on Christmas Day, & on December 25th, 1667, he wrote in his diary: "Preached & feasted my tenants & all my children with joy. Lord sanctify."

"The revolt against Charles I in the 1640s was led originally by men who believed that his government was determined to outlaw their traditional Calvinist religious beliefs & eventually to reunite the Church of England with Rome. The events of the Civil War soon brought to prominence among the Parliamentarians many Puritans whose psychological makeup made them suspicious of geniality, contemptuous of excess & paranoid about the anarchic potential of carnival. It was these men who launched the attack on the traditional Christian festivals of the English calendar. However, by perceiving these essentially harmless & deeply cherished folk customs to be a threat, they succeeded only in alienating large numbers from the new regime they had established. John Morrill has recently pointed out that the Parliamentary colonel John Lambert came to see the English people's persistent attachment to Christmas as a symbol of their refusal to accept his revolution. Much the same view was expressed by one contemporary Parliamentary pamphleteer who reported that the Royalists 'cry unto the people': "What, pull down common-prayer, plum pottage & Whitsun ales; Was there ever such a sacrilege & profaneness. Rather than so, come along to battle."

"They admitted that 'grand festivals & lesser holy-days... are the main things which the more ignorant & common sort among them do fight for'. The attack on Christmas was thus one of the Parliamentarians' biggest mistakes, & one which was ironically the result of anxieties, originally misconceived but ultimately self-fulfilling."