Saturday, November 22, 2014

American women making music 1800-1900s

Mather Brown (American artist, 1861-1831) Young Woman 1801

Thomas Sully (American artist, 1783-1872) Lady with a Harp Eliza Ridgely 1818

Francis David Millet (American painter, 1846-1912) A Portrait of Mrs Millet 1864

Francis Day (American artist, 1863–1942) The Piano Lesson

Howard Everett Smith (American artist, 1885–1970) The Cello Recital

Donna Norine Schuster (American artist, 1883–1953) The Concert

Lee Lufkin Kaula (American artist, 1865–1957) A Quiet Ballad

Marion Boyd Allen (American artist, 1862–1941) Song Without Words

William Worcester Churchill (British American painter, 1858–1926) Girl Playing the Piano

Theodore Hassam (American Impressionist painter 1859-1935) Improvisation 1899

Theodore Robinson, (American Impressionist painter 1852-1896) Margaret Perry 1889

Theodore Robinson, (American Impressionist painter 1852-1896) Girl in Red at Piano 1888

Theodore Robinson, (American Impressionist painter 1852-1896) At The Piano 1887

Hugo Breul (American artist, 1854–1910) Leisure Hour

Julian Alden Weir (Amerian artist, 1852–1919) Idle Hours

James Carroll Beckwith (American artist, 1852-1917) Woman with a Guitar

Francis Coates Jones (American artist, 1857–1932) Lady with a Lyre

Claude Buck (American artist, 1890–1974) Seated Woman with Violin

Eugene Alexander Montgomery (American artist, 1905–2001) Melodian

Irving Ramsey Wiles. (American painter, 1861–1948) The Sonata 1889

Marguerite Stuber Pearson (American Painter, 1898-1978) Lady with a Guitar 1920

Marguerite Stuber Pearson (American Painter, 1898-1978) The Blue Danube

George Caleb Bingham (American artist, 1811-1879) Vinnie Ream 1876

Mary Neal Richardson (American artist, 1859-1937) The Violinist 1912

Donna Norine Schuster (American artist, 1883–1953) Miss Livingston at the Piano

Ellen Day Hale (American artist, 1855-1940) Musical Interlude 1910

1693 Puritan Cotton Mather on Rules for Negros

Cotton Mather, (1663-1728) was a socially & politically influential New England Puritan minister

Cotton Mather's (1663-1728) RULES For the Society of NEGROES. 1693. (Mather's rules for allowing African Americans to worship in the church.)

WE the Miserable Children of Adam, and of Noah, thankfully Admiring and Accepting the Free-Grace of GOD, that Offers to Save us from our Miseries, by the Lord Jesus Christ, freely Resolve, with His Help, to become the Servants of that Glorious LORD.

And that we may be Assisted in the Service of our Heavenly Master, we now Join together in a SOCIETY, wherein the following RULES are to be observed.

I. It shall be our Endeavour, to Meet in the Evening after the Sabbath; and Pray together by Turns, one to Begin, and another to Conclude the Meeting; And between the two Prayers, a Psalm shall be Sung, and a Sermon Repeated.

II. Our coming to the Meeting, shall never be without the Leave of such as have Power over us: And we will be Careful, that our Meeting may Begin and Conclude between the Hours of Seven and Nine; and that we may not be unseasonably Absent from the Families whereto we pertain.

III. As we will, with the Help of God, at all Times avoid all Wicked Company, so we will Receive none into our Meeting, but such as have sensibly Reformed their Lives from all manner of Wickedness. And therefore, None shall be Admitted, without the Knowledge and Consent of the Minister of God in this Place; unto whom we will also carry every Person, that seeks for Admission among us; to be by Him Examined, Instructed and Exhorted.

IV. We will, as often as may be Obtain some Wise and of the English in the Neighbourhood, and especially the Offcers of the Church, to look in upon us, and by their Presence and Counsil, do what they think fitting for us.

V. If any of our Number, fall into the Sin of Drunkenness, or Swearing, or Cursing, or Lying, or Stealing, or notorious Disobedience or Unfaithfulness unto their Masters, we will Admonish him of his Miscarriage, and Forbid his coming to the Meeting, for at least one Fortnight; And except he then come with great Signs and Hopes of his Repentance, we will utterly Exclude him, with Blotting his Name out of our List.

VI. If any of our Society Dele himself with Fornication, we will give him our Admonition; and so, debar him from the Meeting, at least half a Year: Nor shall he Return to it, ever any more, without Exemplary Testimonies of his becoming a New Creature.

VII. We will, as we have Opportunity, set our selves to do all the Good we can, to the other Negro-Servants in the Town; And if any of them should, at unfit Hours, be Abroad, much more, if any of them should Run away from their Masters, we will afford them no Shelter: But we will do what in us lies, that they may be discovered, and punished. And if any of us, are found Faulty, in this Matter, they shall be no longer of us.

VIII. None of our Society shall be Absent from our Meeting, without giving a Reason of the Absence; And if it be found, that any have pretended unto their Owners, that they came unto the Meeting, when they were otherwise and elsewhere Employ'd, we will faithfully Inform their Owners, and also do what we can to Reclaim such Person from all such Evil Courses for the Future.

IX. It shall be expected from every one in the Society, that he learn the Catechism; And therefore, it shall be one of our usual Exercises, for one of us, to ask the Questions, and for all the rest in their Order, to say the Answers in the Catechism; Either, The New-English Catechism, or the Assemblies Catechism, or the Catechism in the Negro Christianized.

Paintings of Flowers instead of Real Flowers in the 17C

Abraham de Lust (Flemish artist, active mid 17th century) Flower Still Life

Now an abundant everyday item, cut flowers were prized luxuries in 17C Europe, England, and her colonies. Only the most affluent could afford to have them in their homes and gardens. That is why early explorers of Atlantic America described the flowers growing wild in the new colonies so carefully. A general growing prosperity in Europe during the course of the 1600s, however, eventually caused flower gardens to become more popular. The garden was considered an extension of the home and vice versa, with garden bouquets often decorating the home.

Abraham Mignon (Dutch Baroque Era Painter, 1640-1679) Hanging Bouquet of Flowers

Introduced from Asia around 1600, the anemone, crocus, hyacinth and tulips were immensely popular in Europe. The Dutch trade in flower bulbs, tulips in particular, proved a highly lucrative business. In around 1630, at the height of ‘Tulip Mania,’ an exceptional tulip bulb could cost as much as an entire house on a Dutch canal.

Alexander Adriaenssen (Flemish Baroque Era painter, 1587-1661) Flowers in Glass Vase

The average citizen simply could not afford a bouquet for home. The first flower still lifes appeared in the Netherlands during the early 1600s, as a means of meeting the demand for flowers. A painting of a flower was much less expensive than an actual bouquet and lasted generations instead of days. Many early flower still life painters were German, Dutch, and Flemish. Some trained there, then moved throughout Europe and sailed to England, as the popularity of the genre spread.

Ambrosius Bosschaert the Elder (Dutch Baroque Era Painter, 1573-1621) Glass with Four Tulips 1615

There are few extant flower still-lifes from the British American colonies.  Flower still-lifes were still in vogue during the 18C and 19C, when the rise of large-scale commercial bulb-growing transformed the Netherlands into the flower nation that it remains to this day. 

Balthasar van der Ast (Dutch Baroque painter, 1593-94–1657) Still Life with Flowers 1632

Cornelis de Heem (Dutch Baroque Era Painter, 1631-1695) Still Life with Bird

Elias van den Broeck (Dutch Baroque painter, 1649–1708) Vase of Flowers

Jacob Marrel (Dutch Baroque Era Painter, ca.1613-1681) Flower Study

Jan Davidsz. de Heem (Dutch Baroque painter, 1606-1683-84) Still Life

Jan Philip van Thielen (Flemish Baroque painter, 1618–1667) Still Life of Flowers

Jan van Kessel (Antwerp, 1626-idem, 1679) Still Life

Maria van Oosterwyck (Oosterwijck) (Dutch Baroque painter, 1630-1693) Flower Still Life 1669

Peter Binoit (German artist, fl 1611-1620) Flowers in a Glass Beaker 1620

Roelandt Savery (Flemish Northern Renaissance painter, 1576-1639) Flowers in a Niche 1611

Simon Verelst (Dutch Baroque Era Painter, c 1644-1721) Flowers in a Vase 1669

Willem van Aelst (Dutch artist, 1627-1683) Flower Still Life 1656

Morning Madonna

Ambrogio Lorenzetti (or Ambruogio Laurati) (c. 1290-1348) Madonna and Child c 1340

In this blog, I try to begin each day with a painting of the Madonna & Child. It centers me; connects me to the past; & encourages me to post some of the religious paintings which were the core of early Western art.

Friday, November 21, 2014

British American colonial Women in the 17C Chesapeake

In the 17C, most women came to the Chesapeake as indentured servants. To pay for their passage, women usually worked 7 years as bound laborers.  In the early 1600s, most Chesapeake southern colonists were poor, & men outnumbered women three to one. Mortality rates were higher in the south because of greater disease risks.  Mosquitoes, a far more constant threat in the south, carried many diseases which could be fatal. On average, men lived to be 40, & women did not live past their late 30s. One quarter of all children born died in infancy & half died, before they reached adulthood.

During the early colonial period, when manpower was scarce, most women worked in the fields during planting & harvest seasons, especially in Virginia & Maryland, where tobacco was money. As slave importation increased, fewer indentured women toiled in the earth.  Although their chores were more home-based, they still worked from sunrise to sundown.  Initially many Chesapeake women died of malaria, dysentery, & epidemics during their first 6 months of "seasoning."  By mid-century, more servant girls were surviving their initial 7-year indenture agreements.

Once indenture contracts had been worked off, women usually married & worked on small plantations. In addition to their home-based chores, they now began to bear children.  Wives were in great demand in the Chesapeake, where the ratio of men to women during most of the 17C was at least three to one.  Because women usually could not marry during their indentures, generally Chesapeake brides were older than those in New England. More than one third of women were pregnant, before they married.

Often, a new bride would move into the house of her spouse which was usually about 25 by 18 feet with one open living space including some extra storage & sleeping space up under the eaves above. Child-bearing by Chesapeake wives did not begin to replace the population by natural increase until the 18C. Few portraits of women from the 17C Chesapeake exist.  Most Southern colonials lived in remote areas in relative isolation on farms or plantations with their immediate families, extended relatives, friends, & slaves, & indentured servants.

British American colonial Women in 17C New England

In 17C New England, women usually arrived with family members to band together in cooperative religious communities organized for the collective good including shared economic goals. Almost immediately, their healthier living conditions allowed for reproduction by natural increase.

Intact family units let New England families adapt to their new world more easily. The New England family often planted just enough to sustain themselves within their community, unlike the profit driven Chesapeake family desperately trying to produce as much as possible.

The average colonial man in New England viewed himself as a member of a family group in which he had rights as well as obligations. Usually husbands & wives worked together for the good of their immediate & extended family and for the good of their community. Men spent most of their time working within with an extended family which sought interdependence with their wider community.

In early New England, both men & women believed that individuals and family should be subordinated to the demands of the greater community. A few portraits of 17C New England women & their children survive.

Their Love Letters! Margaret Winthrop 1591-1647 3rd Wife of Massachusetts Governor John Winthrop 1588-1649

Margaret Tyndal Winthrop (c. 1591-1647), the 3rd wife of John Winthrop (1588-1649), first governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, was the 4th child & 2nd daughter of Sir John & Lady Anne (Egerton) Tyndal of Great Maplestead, Esses, England. Her father was one of the masters of chancery; her mother was the daughter of Thomas Egerton of Suffolk & the widow of William Deane of Deaneshall.

John Winthrop (1588-1649), first governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony

Nothing is known of Margaret Tyndal’s early life & education. She was married to John Winthrop on Apr. 29, 1618, & moved to his father’s home, Groton Manor in Suffolk. She was his 3rd wife. At the time of her marriage she was 27 years old, 4 years younger than her husband.

As the new wife & mistress of the manor, Margaret Winthrop was charged with the care of her husband’s 4 children by his 2 former marriages, ranging in age from 12 to 3. Within 3 years she had 2 children of her own, Stephen & Adam.

In addition to her child-rearing responsibilities, her household duties were heavy. Visitors were numerous, markets remote, and roads suitable for horseback travel only; the manor had to be sufficient unto itself for all its varied needs. Overseeing the operation of such a household was the best preparation she could have for the difficult, pioneer life in New England.

During many months of the 12 years before 1630, when John Winthrop sailed for the Massachusetts Bay Colony, his position as attorney at the Court of Wards & Liveries kept him at his chambers in London. His visits to Groton Manor were brief & infrequent, especially after plans for emigration were under way.

It was during this long period of enforced separation that the letters between them were written. Both husband & wife put their love to God first, love of husband & wife second.

In Margaret Winthrop’s words “ I have many reasons to make me love thee, whereof I will name two, first because thou lovest God, and secondly because that thou lovest me.” Religious feeling exalted their mutual love and dignified it.

John Winthrop in Massachusetts Bay Colony

After her husband had left England, Margaret Winthrop remained at Groton for more than a year, until he could make suitable preparation for her coming. Only a few brief notes are preserved from this period.

She arrived in Boston Nov. 4, 1631, in the ship Lyon, which brought a cargo of much-needed supplies for the winter. Her baby daughter, Anne, had died on the voyage.

“The like joy and manifestations of love had never been seen in New England,” John Winthrop wrote in his Journal. One week later, on Nov. 11, “We kept a day of thanksgiving at Boston.”

Margaret Winthrop had 16 years of pioneer experience as the 1st lady of the colony during her husband’s long service as governor & assistant. She revealed some of her feelings in her letters from the new colony.

In a letter, dated “Sad Boston, 1637,” while the Anne Hutchinson disturbance was at its height, she confessed to being “unfit for any thinge, wonderinge what the Lord meanes by all these troubles among us.” She found in herself a “fierce spirit, unwilling to submit to the will of God,” and yet in the next sentence could say, "God’s will be done." She did not know how to say otherwise.

She died after one day’s illness in midsummer 1647, apparently of influenza. In her husband’s words, she “left this world for better, being about fifty-six years of age: a woman of singular virtue, prudence, modesty and piety, and especially beloved and honoured of all the country.” There is no portrait of that “lovely countenance” that he had so “much delighted in and beheld with so great contente.” Four of her 8 children survived her, Stephen, Adam, Deane, & Samuel.

A love letter from John Winthrop to his 3rd wife Margaret in 1618

To my best beloved Mistress Margaret Tyndall at Great Maplested, Essex. 

Grace mercie & peace, &c: 

My onely beloved Spouse, my most sweet freind, & faithfull companion of my pilgrimage, the happye & hopefull supplie (next Christ Jesus) of my greatest losses, I wishe thee a most plentifull increase of all true comfort in the love of Christ, with a large & prosperous addition of whatsoever happynesse the sweet estate of holy wedlocke, in the kindest societye of a lovinge husbande, may afford thee. Beinge filled with the joye of thy love, & wantinge opportunitye of more familiar comunion with thee, wch my heart fervently desires, I am constrained to ease the burthen of my minde by this poore helpe of my scriblinge penne, beinge sufficiently assured that, although my presence is that which thou desirest, yet in the want thereof, these lines shall not be unfruitfull of comfort unto thee. And now, my sweet Love, lett me a whyle solace my selfe in the remembrance of our love, of which this springe tyme of or acquaintance can putt forthe as yet no more but the leaves & blossomes, whilest the fruit lyes wrapped up in the tender budde of hope; a little more patience will disclose this good fruit, & bringe it to some maturitye: let it be our care & labour to preserve these hopefull budds from the beasts of the fielde, & from frosts & other injuryes of the ayre, least our fruit fall off ere it be ripe, or lose aught in the beautye & pleasantnesse of it: Lett us pluck up suche nettles & thornes as would defraud of plants of their due nourishment; let us pruine off superfluous branches; let us not sticke at some labour in wateringe & manuringe them : — the plentye & goodnesse of fruit shall recompense us abundantly: Our trees are planted in a fruitfull soyle; the grounde, & patterne of our love, is no other but that betweene Christe & his deare spouse, of whom she speakes as she finds him, My welbeloved is mine & I am his: Love was their banquetting house, love was their wine, love was their ensigne; love was his invitinges, love was her fayntinges; love was his apples, love was her comforts; love was his embracinges, love was her refreshinge: love made him see her, love made her seeke him: love made him wedde her, love made her followe him: love made him her saviour, love makes her his servant. Love bredd or fellowshippe, let love continue it, & love shall increase it untill deathe dissolve it. The prime fruit of the Spirit is love; truethe of Spirit true love: abounde with the spirit, & abounde with love: continue in the spirit & continue in love: Christ in his love so fill our hearts with holy hunger & true appetite, to eate & drinke with him & of him in this his sweet Love feast [referring to the sacrament of the Holy Communion, which it was then the custom to administer to the bride and bridegroom at their marriage], which we are now preparinge unto, that when our love feast shall come, Christ Jesus himselfe may come in unto us, & suppe with us, & we with him: so shall we be merrye indeed. (O my sweet Spouse) can we esteeme eache others love, as worthy the recompence of our best mutuall affections, & can we not discerne so muche of Christs exceedinge & undeserved love, as may cheerfully allure us to love him above all? He loved us & gave himselfe for us; & to helpe the weaknesse of the eyes & hande & mouthe of or faithe, which must seeke him in heaven where he is, he offers himselfe to the eyes, hands & mouthe of our bodye, heere on earthe where he once was. The Lord increase our faithe.

Nowe my deare heart let me parlye a little with thee about trifles, for when I am present with thee my speeche is prejudiced by thy presence, which drawes my minde from it selfe: I suppose nowe, upon thy unkle's cominge, there wilbe advisinge & counsellinge of all hands; & amongst many I knowe there wilbe some, that wilbe provokinge thee, in these indifferent things, as matter of apparell, fashions & other circumstances, rather to give contente to their vaine minds savouringe too muche of the fleshe &c, than to be guided by the rule of Gods worde, which must be the light & the Rule; for allthoughe I doe easyly grant that the Kingdome of heaven is not meat & drinke, apparell &c, but Righteousnesse, peace &c: it beinge forbidden to fashion ourselves like unto this world, & to avoyde not only evill but all appearance of it must be avoyded, & allso whatsoever may breed offence to the weake (for which I praye thee reade for thy direction the [epistle] to the Rom:) & for that Christians are rather to seeke to edifie than to please, I hold it a rule of Christian wisdome in all these things to followe the soberest examples: I confesse that there be some ornaments which for Virgins & Knights daughters, &c, may be comly & tollerable, which yet in so great a change as thine is, may well admitt a change also: I will medle with no particulars, neither doe I thinke it shalbe needfull; thine owne wisdome & godlinesse shall teache thee sufficiently what to doe in suche things: & the good assurance which I have of thy unfained love towards me, makes me perswaded that thou wilt have care of my contentment, seeing it must be a cheife staye to thy comfort: & withall the great & sincere desire which I have that there might be no discouragement to daunt the edge of my affections, whyle they are truly labouring to settle & repose themselves in thee, makes me thus watchfull & jealous of the least occasion that Satan might stirre up to or discomfort. He that is faithfull in the least wilbe faithfull in the greatest, but I am too fearfull I doe thee wronge, I knowe thou wilt not grieve me for trifles. 

Let me intreat thee (my sweet Love) to take all in good parte, for it is all of my love to thee, & in my love I shall requite thee: I acknowledge, indeed, thou maist justly say to me as Christ to the Pharisies, Hypocrite, first cast out the beame that is in thine owne eye &c, for whatsoever I may be in thy opinion, yet mine owne guiltie heart tells me of farre greater things to be reformed in my selfe, & yet I feare there is muche more than in mine owne partiall judgment I can discerne; iust cause I have to complaine of my pride, unbeleefe, hardnesse of heart & impenitencie, vanitye of minde, unrulinesse of my affections, stubbornesse of my will, ingratitude, & unfaithfullnesse in the Covenant of my God, &c. therefore (by Gods assistance) I will endeavour that in myselfe, which I will allso desire in thee. Let us search & trye or hearts & turne to the Lord: for this is our safetye, not our owne innocencye, but his mercie: If when we were enemies he loved us to reconciliation; much more, beinge reconciled will he save us from destruction.

Lastly for my farewell (for thou seest my lothenesse to parte with thee makes me to be teadious) take courage unto thee, & cheare up thy heart in the Lorde, for thou knowest that Christ thy best husbande can never faile thee: he never dies, so as there can be no greife at partinge; he never changes, so as once beloved & ever the same: his abilitye is ever infinite, so as the dowrye & inheritance of his sonnes & daughters can never be diminished. As for me a poore worme, dust & ashes, a man full of infirmityes, subiect to all sinnes, changes & chances, wch befall the sonnes of men, how should I promise thee any thinge of my selfe, or if I should, what credence couldst thou give thereto, seeinge God only is true & every man a lyar. Yet so farre as a man may presume upon some experience, I may tell thee, that my hope is, that suche comfort as thou hast allreadye conceived of my love towards thee, shall (throughe Gods blessinge) be happily continued; his grace shalbe sufficient for me, & his power shalbe made perfect in my greatest weaknesse: onely let thy godly, kinde, & sweet carriage towards me, be as fuell to the fire, to minister a constant supplie of meet matter to the confirminge & quickninge of my dull affections: This is one ende why I write so muche unto thee, that if there should be any decaye in kindnesse &c, throughe my default & slacknesse heerafter, thou mightest have some patternes of or first love by thee, to helpe the recoverye of suche diseases: yet let or trust be wholly in God, & let fis constantlye followe him by or prayers, complaininge & moaninge unto him or owne povertye, imperfections & unworthynesse, untill his fatherly affection breake forthe upon us, & he speake kindly to the hearts of his poore servant & handmayd, for the full assurance of Grace & peace through Christ Jesus, to whom I nowe leave thee (my sweet Spouse & onely beloved). 

God send us a safe & comfortable meetinge on Mondaye morninge. Farewell. Remember my love & dutye to my Ladye thy good mother, with all kinde & due salutations to thy unkle E: & all thy brothers & sisters. Thy husband by promise,


Groton where I wish thee. Aprill 4. 1618.
My father & mother salute thee heartyly with my Lady & the rest.
If I had thought my lettre would have runne to halfe this lengthe I would have mayde choyce of a larger paper. 

A love letter From John Winthrop to his 3rd wife Margaret in 1620

July 12. 1620.

To my veryc lovinge wife Mrs. Winthrop at Groton in Suffolk.


I salute thee heartylye, giving thankes to God who bestowed thee upon me, and hath continued thee unto me, the chiefest of all comforts under the hope of Salvation, which hope cannot be valued: I pray God that these earthly blessings of mariage, healthe, friendship, etc, may increase our estimation of our better and onely ever duringe happinesse in heaven, and may quicken up our appetite thereunto accordinge to the worth thereof: O my sweet wife, let us rather hearken to the advise of our lovinge Lord who calles upon us first to seeke the kingdom of God, and tells us that one thinge is needfull, and so as without it the gaine of the whole world is nothinge: rather then to looke at the frothye wisdome of this worlde and the foolishnesse of such examples as propounde outwarde prosperitye for true felicitye.— God keepe us that we never swallowe this baite of Satan: but let us looke unto the worde of God and cleave fast unto it, and so shall we be safe.

I know you have heard before this of my coming to London: I thank God we had a prosperous journye and found all well where we came: I doubt not but thy desire wilbe now to heare of my returne, which (to deale truely with thee) I fear will not be untill the middest of next weeke: for the Parl' is putt off for a week; and I have many friends to visit in a short tyme: but my heart is allready with thee and thy little lambes, so as I will hasten home with what convenient speed I may: In the meane tyme, I will not be unmindfull of you all: but commend you dayly to the blessinge and protection of our heavenly Father.

Remember my dutye to my father and mother, my love to Mr. Sands and all the rest of my true freinds that shall ask of me, and my blessing to our Children; and so giving thee commission to conceive more of my Love then I can write, I rest

Thy faythfull husbande
John Winthrop.

This posting based on information from Notable American Women edited by Edward T James, Janet Wilson James, Paul S Boyer, The Belknap Press of Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts. 1971

Also see Some old Puritan love-letters: John and Margaret Winthrop, 1618-1638. Edited by Joseph Hopkins Twichell. Dodd, Mead and company, 1894.

Serious, Melancholy, & even Reluctant Brides 18C-20C

1720 Pierre Gobert (French artist, 1662-1744) Portrait of a Bride with Flowers

 Richard Westall (British artist, 1765-1836) The Village Bride

1807 Johann Baptist Seele (German artist, 1774-1814) Wedding portrait of Catharina of Württemberg Königin von Westphalen

1832 Ferdinand Victor Eugène Delacroix (French artist, 1798-1863) Jewish Bride

1836 Wedding portrait of Anna Maria Charlotte Wyndham Quinn by an unknown artist

1838 David Wilkie (Scottish artist, 1785–1841) The Bride on Her Wedding Day

1847 Franz Xaver Winterhalter (English artist, 1805-1873)  Queen Victoria (1819-1901) in her wedding dress painted as an anniversary present for Prince Albert

1852 Jerry Barrett (British artist, 1824-1906) The Eve of the Wedding

 1856 Abraham Solomon (British artist, 1824–1862) The Bride

 1856 Abraham Solomon (British artist, 1824–1862) The Bride

1858 Josephus Laurentius Dyckmans (Dutch artist, 1811-1888) The Bride

Charles Baugniet (Belgian artist , 1814-1886) The Bride and Her Sister

 1859 Alajos Györgyi Giergl (Polish artist, 1821-1863) Bride

1859 Henrik Olrik (Danish artist, 1830-1890) The Bride Attended by Her Friend

1859-62 Franz Xaver Winterhalter (English artist, 1805-1873) Princess Alice

 John Faed (Scottish artist, 1819-1902) The Bride

1860 Lajos Latkóczy (Hungarian artist, 1821–1875) Portrait of Mrs.János Kandó, Sarolta Szepessy as a Bride

1861 Jan Frans Portaels (Belgian artist, 1818-1895) A Sicilian Bride

John George Brown (British-born American artist, 1831-1913) A Reluctant Bride

1866 Auguste Toulmouche (French artist, 1829-1890) A Reluctant Bride 

 1869 Maris Matthijs (Dutch artist, 1839-1917) Bride

 1877 Daniel Pasmore (British artist, 1815–1893) The Bride

1878 Queen María de las Mercedes de Orleans as Queen of Spain on her wedding day by an unknown artist

 Alfred Stevens (1823-1906) Love and Marriage

 1879 Jan Alojzy Matejko (Polish artist, 1838-1893) The Bride

1882 Antonio Muñoz Degrain (Spanish artist, 1840-1924) Before the Wedding

1884 James Paterson, (British artist, 1854-1932) Eliza in Her Wedding Dress 

 1884 Jules Joseph Lefebvre (French artist, 1836-1911) The Bride

1884 Konstantin Yegorovich Makovsky (Russian artist, 1839-1915) The Bride's Attire

1887 Douglas Volk (American artist, 1856-1935) After the Reception

1889 Konstantin Egorovich Makovsky (Russian artist, 1839-1919) Russian Bride’s Attire

1890 Charles Gray Kennaway (British artist, 1860–1925) The Bride

1890 Konstantin Egorovich Makovsky (Russian artist, 1839-1919) The Young Bride

 1892 Albert Herter (American artist, 1871-1950) Portrait of Bessie

1892 John Henry Frederick Bacon (British artist, 1868-1914) The Wedding Morning

1895 Abbott Handerson Thayer (American artist, 1849-1921) A Bride

 1896 Josep Tapiró (Spanish artist, 1836-1913) A Berber Bride

 1896 Vladimir Yegorovich Makovsky (Russian artist, 1846-1920) Goodbye, Papa

  Anders Leonard Zorn (Swedish painter, 1860–1920) The Bride

 1903 Julius Garibaldi Gari Melchers (American artist, 1860-1932) The Bride 

 1903 Julius Garibaldi Gari Melchers (American artist, 1860-1932) The Bride

1910 Charles Webster Hawthorne (American artist, 1872-1930) The Trousseau

1910 Robert Henri (American artist, 1865-1929) Girl in Wedding Gown

1915 Viktor Alexejewitsch Bobrov (Russian artist, 1842-1918) Melancholy Bride

1919 James Jabusa Shannon (American-born British artist, 1862-1923) Portrait of a Bride.

Maurycy Minkowski Maurycy Minkowski (Polish-born Argentine artist, 1881-1930) The Young Bride

1926 Antonio Donghi (Italian Neoclassical painter, 1897–1963) The Bride

 1929 Thomas Martine Ronaldson (British artist, 1881–1942) The Bride

1934 Mabel Alvarez (American artist, 1891-1985) Arabella with Calla Lillies