Tuesday, June 30, 2015

1750 Views FROM the Garden Terrace at Somerset House

Canaletto (Italian artist, 1697-1768) The Thames from the Terrace of Somerset House Looking toward Westminister c.1750-51

Canaletto (Italian artist, 1697-1768)  The Thames from Somerset House Terrace towards the City c.1750-51

Attributed to Thomas Priest (1740-1770) A View of the Thames looking upstream from the Terrace of Somerset House c.1750s

The original Somerset House was built by Edward Seymour, Duke of Somerset (1506-1552), the Lord Protector of the boy king Edward VI. In order to have the ideal place to build his new home, it is reported that he had the Inns, as they were called, of the Bishops of Coventry, Lichfield, Chester, Worcester & Llandaff, as well as the old parish church of St Mary’s, raised to the ground "without any recompense," so as to create a flat space to build his new palace. The architect chosed for its design was John of Padua who was responsible for Longleat & who, under Henry VIII, held the post of "Devizer of His Majesty’s Buildings." 

Upon the Duke's untimely death, Somerset’s palace reverted to the Crown & was used as a royal palace by Elizabeth I, James I’s wife Anne of Denmark & the neglected wife of Charles II, Catherine of Braganza. Later it came to be a residence of dowager queens or temporary residences of foreign princes or ambassadors. All these different occupants made alterations both in & outside the main building. 

By 1706, there were extensive terraced gardens facing the Thames with stairs at each end. The gardens were laid out in the square with avenues of trees & gravel paths. Alexander Pope wrote of them: “Grove nods to grove, each alley has its brother, & half the garden just reflects the other.” Along the river there was a raised terrace & a heavy low wall.

A few yards upstream from Somerset House was York Water Gate & Water Tower. The former, built in 1626, was all that remained after the demolition of York House by its owner, George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham a few years after the Restoration. The Gate originally led down to the river but since the building of the Embankment in the 1860s, 150 yards from the river. The Water Tower was close by the Gate & constructed between 1690 & 1695 from wood & its purpose was supplying the Strand & its neighborhood with water from the Thames. It was an octagonal structure, about 70' high & was illuminated within by small loopholes in its sides. It was still standing in the 1780s. The York Buildings Waterworks Company building with its chimneys was adjacent, Samuel Pepys’s house was just behind it & the Salt Office was in close by. Further upstream, on the north side of the river was the Banqueting House, Westminster House, Westminster Hall, the two towers of the Church of St John the Evangelist & then Westminster Bridge which had been completed on 25th October 1746.

1680s-1710 English houses, gardens, & evolving man-made landscapes by Jan Griffer I 1645-1718

1680-90  Jan Griffer I (Dutch artist, 1645-1718) Bird's Eye View of Sudbury Hall South Front and Its Formal Gardens

Jan Griffier (ca 1652–1718) was a Dutch painter active in England, where he was admitted to the London Company of Painter-Stainers in 1677.  The artist was born at Amsterdam, where he was apprenticed successively to a carpenter, an earthenware manufacturer, & a flower-painter before becoming a pupil of Roelant Roghman (1627-1692) in landscape-painting. Mixing at Amsterdam in the society of the great painters, such as Rembrandt, Ruysdael, & Lingelbach, he became acquainted with their various styles, & traces of their influence may be observed in his works.  His city views, invaluable topographical evidence, suggest that his travels in England were extensive. 

1690 Jan Griffer I (Dutch artist, 1645-1718) London and the River Thames from One Tree Hill, Greenwich Park

1700-18 Jan Griffer I (Dutch artist, 1645-1718) View of Old Kedleston House

1705 Jan Griffer I (Dutch artist, 1645-1718) View from One Tree Park The Queen's House and the Royal Observatory, Greenwich

1706-10 Jan Griffer I (Dutch artist, 1645-1718) The Thames at Horseferry, with Lambeth Palace and a Distant View of the City, London

1710 Jan Griffer I (Dutch artist, 1645-1718) View of Hampton Court Palace. This seems to be a view of 2 royal estates: Hampton Court Palace & perhaps Windsor Castle, which has been identified in the fantasy castle to the right. The landscape appears to have been manipulated to juxtapose 2 great palaces of the reigning Queen, Anne.

Garden in the Background - 1734 Gardens at Hanbury Hall

1734 John Wootton (British artist, 1682–1764) Bowater Vernon (1683–1735), with Hanbury Hall and Its Formal Garden

1700 English Garden

1700 Unknown artist, View of the East Front of Erchfont (Urchfont) Manor in Wiltshire, with Elegant Figures in the Garden and Swans in the Foreground

1712 House & Gardens at Coberly the seat of Jonathan Castelman Esq.

Coberly the seat of Jonathan Castelman Esq. Johannes Kip (1653-1722) The Ancient & Present State of Gloucestershire, pub by Sir Robert Atkyns 1712.

Bird's eye view of Coberley Court, Gloucestershire; includes church, stables, &  other buildings within walls of the grounds. The river Churn runs behind.  Alleys lead to the seat.  The geometrically arranged gardens are primarily used to raise vegetables & fruits. There are 4 parterres for recreational walking, recreation, relaxation, & sport. The walls are espaliered around the recreational area. The parish of Coberley contained 2 manors at the time of the Domesday survey.  One manor which lay in Rapsgate hundred, & is mentioned as belonging to Berchelai, continued in the Berkeleys, (a family distinct from the barons of the castle), till by marriage, in the reign of Hen. IV. it passed to Sir John Brtigg, the ancestor of the Chandos family, from whom it passed, at the beginning of the 17C, to the Duttons, of Sherbourne, &  was given in dower by John Dutton, Esq. with Lucy his daughter, to Sir Thomas Pope, Earl of Down. The Castleman family were afterwards proprietors by purchase, &  in 1720, Jonathan Castleman, Esq. sold it to the father of John Howe, first Baron Chedworth. See The History of the County of Gloucester Volume 1. 1803 

1712 House & Gardens at Badminton the Seat of the Duke of Beaufort

Badminton the Seat of the Duke of Beaufort Johannes Kip (1653-1722) The Ancient & Present State of Gloucestershire, pub by Sir Robert Atkyns 1712.

Badminton is a country house in Badminton, Gloucestershire, England, which has been the principal seat of the Dukes of Beaufort, since the late 17C, when the family moved from Raglan Castle, which had been ruined in the English Civil War.  In 1612, Edward Somerset, the 4th Earl of Worcester, bought from Nicholas Boteler his manors of Great and Little Badminton, called 'Madmintune' in the Domesday Book, while 1 century earlier the name 'Badimyncgtun' was recorded, held by that family since 1275. 

Gardenvisit.com tells us that Henry, Duke of Beaufort, built the bulk of the present house in 1682. He had a real passion for avenues, & his park grounds were traversed by numbers of walks, 20 of them starting from one point like the centre of a star. It is said that he infected his neighbours with his own enthusiasm, so that they let him extend the avenues into their territory, & in this way he obtained more distant and glorious views. But the gardens cover a very large tract of land. They lie round a house in the middle of a great park, with the chief avenue 2 & a half miles long leading to the entrance. On the left of it there are parterres & a bowling-green. Behind the parterres, & in a straight line with them, are bosquets with fountains & finely designed paths; at the very end is a semicircular little room cut out of the hedge and containing 2 fountains.

Just from this engraving, we can see knot gardens & geometric beds edged with a low hedge of box or other shrubs, & the fountains intended to animate the garden, reflecting an interest in hydraulics.  Here the formal layout reflects the great gardens of France & Holland.  Terraces created from excavated & moved earth are used to control the irregular natural landscape and for balanced control & order.  The parterres evolved from the Tudor knots.  And in these grounds, avenues are used to direct the visitor to the seat of power, to direct the view of the gardens & surrounding landscape, & as an expression of welcome as well as status.  The trees in the avenues are a sort of army of soldiers standing shoulder to shoulder at attention to warn as well as welcome.  The mazes & topiary are an expression of man's ultimate control over nature.  The maze allows the owner to "help" his visitors who might get lost in the towering green, living puzzle, which the owner built, of course.  Status & the impression of wisdom, culture, & intelligence were important for the owners of these Tudor gardens.  In today's world, they could have been a public relations consultant's dream.

1712 House & Gardens at Broadwell, the Seat of Danvers Hodges

Broadwell the seat of Danvers Hodges Esq. Johannes Kip (1653-1722) The Ancient & Present State of Gloucestershire, pub by Sir Robert Atkyns 1712. 

British History Online tells us that Evesham Abbey claimed that King Coenred gave it Broadwell in 708. If the claim was just, the abbey later lost Broadwell for a time, because c. 1034 the estate was 'redeemed' from Canute for the abbey by Ælfweard, Bishop of London.  The abbey held Broadwell manor. The abbey was granted free warren in Broadwell in 1251, &  in 1276 claimed the assize of bread &  ale. Broadwell was held with the abbey's estate at Bourton-on-the-Water by service of one knight's fee.

The population of Broadwell may have fallen slightly between the 11C & the 16C. Domesday enumerated 48 persons, including 13 servi; in 1327, 20 people were assessed for the subsidy; in 1381, 71 people paid poll tax; &  in 1563 there were about 20 households. The evidence for population in the 17C is contradictory; for example, there were said to be about 24 families in 1650, while 42 householders were listed in the hearth tax assessment of 1672. The only violent disturbance known to have impinged on Broadwell occurred in 1646, when the parliamentary army came up on the rear of royalist forces between Donnington &  Stow.

Part of the abbey's estate in Broadwell was not sold with the manor in 1545. In 1619, the manor itself, apparently comprising only the demesne, was bought by Anthony Hodges &  William Chadwell, who divided it between themselves in 1621. The moiety of Anthony Hodges, which included the manor-house of which Hodges was in possession in 1619, descended in his family to Danvers Hodges (d. 1721), who devised his estate to his 3 nieces, Anne, Mary, &  Martha. 

1702 House & Gardens at Staunton Harold in the County of Leicester. England

Staunton Harold in the County of Leicester. EnglandLeonard Knyff (1652-1722) and Johannes Kip (1653-1722) 1709 Britannia Illustrata 1724 ed pub by Joseph Smith 

Parks & Gardens UK tells us that Staunton appears in the Domesday book as one of 210 "lordships" granted to Henry de Ferraris by William of Normandy, after the Conquest.  It was then ‘enfeoffed' (leased) to a feudal Saxon underling, Harold de Lecha.  It became known as Staunton Harold to distinguish it from other Stauntons (stony towns) throughout the country.

There was a deer park at Staunton by 1324 & later, two - the Little Park & the Great Park.  The Little Park is believed to have occupied the present parkland & therefore is of particular importance at Staunton Harold as a continuous feature of the landscape from that date.

In 1423, Ralph Shirley, one of Henry V's leading commanders at Agincourt, married Margaret, Heiress of John de Staunton.  The Staunton estate was then in the ownership of the Shirley family until 1954.

There is no documentary evidence to suggest any designed landscape at Staunton Harold before the mid to late 17C, although there would have been gardens, orchards & farms to support the community associated with the house.  In 1611, George Shirley was created 1st Baronet Ferrers by James I.  In 1623, the Great Park was turned into farms.

In 1653, Sir Robert Shirley, the 4th Baronet, built a church next to the Hall.  It is a significant building as it is the only church built in England during the period of the Commonwealth. Shirley's son, who was created Baron Ferrers in 1677, & Earl Ferrers in 1711, set about "aggrandising the hotch potch of Jacobean and earlier buildings which he had inherited." He added a new north-east front to the Hall & laid out extensive formal gardens around it. The location of the Church would have dictated the position of these gardens, which might otherwise have been positioned to the south of the house.

A contemporary described Shirley as "a great improver of gardening & parking." Country Life in 1913 states that "it is probable that George London who had laid out the neighbouring gardens at Melbourne may have advised him.  London certainly knew the garden & writes in 1701 to Thomas Coke of Melbourne of two visitors setting out to see gardens & plantations proposing to see "My Lord Chesterfield's, Lord Ferrers' & the Duke of Devonshire's."

The Hall & Gardens were illustrated by Leonard Knyff (around 1702) & engraved by Kip (1706).  A 1995 report describes them from the engraving: "The main garden, terraces ranged either side of a broad axial path & with a canal across the bottom, lay north-east of the Hall.  A summerhouse at the east end of the main cross axis adjoined the west end of a predecessor of the present causeway bridge, to the south of which, past the chapel, extended the rectangular Church Pool.  West of the southern part of the Pool was a roughly square block of woodland, possibly a wilderness.  Further pools lay along the valley bottom north of the Hall gardens." 

Nichols quotes a Mr Wooley's description of the garden in 1712, from his MS History of Derbyshire as follows:  "It has a handsome new front towards the gardens... the gardens are well-watered with fountains & canals, very good aviaries, a decoy, & stations for a great many exotic fowls.  The park & woods about it are large & reach within half a mile of Caulk (sic) & a mile of Melbourne but being seated in a clay soil, it is somewhat dirty coming to it....the east end of the church abuts on a very large canal, the biggest in all the county."  According to Nichols, the gardens lie on the north west side of the house, but, in fact, they lie to the north-east "consisting of several parterres in easy descents from the house, which add a gracefulness to the one & the other."

The height of one of the fountains was enhanced by the water being thrown from & then spilled down over a prominent stone column, not unlike the giulio in the Octagon Lake at Stowe.  This can be seen on the Kip engraving.  According to Nichols, MacKay in his tour through England early in the reign of George I, calls Staunton Harold "a noble seat... & the gardens adorned with statues"  For the first half of the 18C, there were few changes.

1712 House & Gardens at Upper Dowdeswell the seat of Lionel Rich Esq.

Upper Dowdeswell the seat of Lionel Rich Esq. Johannes Kip (1653-1722) The Ancient & Present State of Gloucestershire, pub by Sir Robert Atkyns 1712.  Bird's eye view of the manor house at Upper Dowdeswell, Gloucestershire; with formal gardens, vegetable gardens, & orchards.  A road passes to the right with a steep drop down to stream to the right.

Upper Dowdeswell was evidently the manor at Dowdeswell that Richard Beauchamp, perhaps the heir of Lord Beauchamp of Powicke, sold to John Carpenter, bishop of Worcester, in 1463 or 1464. The bishop's purchase was presumably part of his scheme for the re-endowment of the college of Westbury-onTrym, which held Upper Dowdeswell at the Dissolution. In 1544, the Crown granted it with the other property of Westbury college to Sir Ralph Sadler who sold it in 1549, to Richard Abington. Richard died in 1593, and his son Edmund in 1605, but Edmund's son Anthony had possession of the whole or part of the estate by 1588 and had a conveyance from his father in 1589. Anthony (d. 1631) was succeeded by his son John Abington, who in 1649, when under sequestration for royalist activities, sold the estate to Edward Rich, a lawyer. Edward died in 1681, and the estate was possibly retained by his widow Martha (d. 1684). Edward's grandson Lionel Rich held it in 1687, and at his death in 1736, was succeeded by his grandson Edward Gilbert Rich (d. 1753).

1712 House & Gardens at Shipton Moyne

Shipton Moyne the Seat of Walter Estcourt Esq Johannes Kip (1653-1722) The Ancient & Present State of Gloucestershire, pub by Sir Robert Atkyns 1712.

Madonnas attributed to Stefano da Zevio Italian painter, Veronese school c 1375-1451

Stefano da Zevio (Italian painter, Veronese school c 1375-1451) Madonna in the Rosary 1410

Stefano da Zevio (Italian painter, Veronese school c 1375-1451) Adoration of the Magi

In this blog, I try to begin each day with a painting of the Madonna & Child. It centers me; connects me to the past; & encourages me to post some of the religious paintings which were the core of early Western art.

Monday, June 29, 2015

Unexpected Beauty for You

Peter de Wint (English Painter, 1784-1849) Turnips

The unexpected gifts are the most amazing...

Love in the Garden - 18C Italian gardener (& his dog) courting his lady in an Allegory of Earth

Jacopo Amigoni (Italian artist, c 1682-1752) The Elements - Earth

Herbal - German botanist Hieronymus Bock (1498-1554)

Hieronymus Bock (1498-1554)  German botanist. His 1546  herbal had 550 woodcuts by David Kandel. Beech Tree

Hieronymus Bock (1498-1554)  German botanist. His 1546  herbal had 550 woodcuts by David Kandel. Boxwood

Hieronymus Bock (1498-1554)  German botanist. His 1546  herbal had 550 woodcuts by David Kandel. Cherry Tree

Hieronymus Bock (1498-1554)  German botanist. His 1546  herbal had 550 woodcuts by David Kandel. Date Palm

Hieronymus Bock (1498-1554)  German botanist. His 1546  herbal had 550 woodcuts by David Kandel. Elm Tree

Hieronymus Bock (1498-1554)  German botanist. His 1546  herbal had 550 woodcuts by David Kandel. Fig Tree

Hieronymus Bock (1498-1554)  German botanist. His 1546  herbal had 550 woodcuts by David Kandel. Grapes

Hieronymus Bock (1498-1554)  German botanist. His 1546  herbal had 550 woodcuts by David Kandel. Lime Tree

Hieronymus Bock (1498-1554)  German botanist. His 1546  herbal had 550 woodcuts by David Kandel. Maple Tree

Hieronymus Bock (1498-1554)  German botanist. His 1546  herbal had 550 woodcuts by David Kandel. Mulberry Tree

Hieronymus Bock (1498-1554)  German botanist. His 1546  herbal had 550 woodcuts by David Kandel. Oak Tree

Hieronymus Bock (1498-1554)  German botanist. His 1546  herbal had 550 woodcuts by David Kandel. Pear Tree

Lambeth Palace & its Gardens 1600s-1700s

1670 Lambeth Church with Lambeth Palace & the River Thames in the background Drawn by C Burton after Wenceslaus Hollar (Bohemian Baroque Era Engraver, 1607-1677).

Lambeth Palace – earlier called, the Manor of Lambeth, or Lambeth House or Lambeth Church – has been the London residence of the Archbishop of Canterbury for nearly 800 years. Lambeth Palace, on the south bank of the River Thames opposite Parliament, has been a historic London residence of Archbishops of Canterbury since the 13C.  During the Middle Ages, the garden attached to Lambeth House were used mainly for practical purposes such as growing food & herbs & breeding rabbits. A flour mill was driven by water from the river that ran between the garden & the adjoining parkland. By the mid 16C a pleasure ground was attached to Lambeth House & Thomas Cranmer (archbishop 1533-56) built a summerhouse there. Detail of the mansion & garden recorded in 1572 on the Civitas orbis terrarium shows a square formal garden enclosed within brick walls situated to the north of the mansion. To the north & east of this garden are small paddocks divided by hedges; the paddocks are separated from parkland by a long canal. The park was well wooded & an abstract from a parliamentary survey of Lambeth Palace & Manor in 1647 list 283 elms, 48 walnut trees, & 6 chestnuts while the Palace yard had 7 elms & 2 willows. The formal garden adjoining the mansion survived relatively unchanged until the late 18C, when glasshouses & a bowling green were added & the canals modified. A plan of the Palace by James Reeves shows the layout at this time (Ducarel 1785). The Best Garden, with wide walks around a rectangular plat, lay immediately to the north of the Palace with the kitchen garden beyond. The Best Garden & the melon ground to the east were enclosed by water as was the large open area of park further to the east. The plan also shows a gardener's house in the north-east corner of the Best Garden. The main changes came in the 1780s, when Archbishop Moore filled in the canals & landscaped much of the site. He relocated the kitchen gardens away from the Palace buildings & replaced the greenhouse garden & bowling green with a more informal pleasure garden planted with flowers & shrubs. 

1682-1687 Lambeth Palace, residence of Archbishop of Canterbury, with a Distant View of Westminster and The Strand, London by F. W. Smith.  Lambeth Palace with a Distant View of Westminster & The Strand.  Lambeth Palace is in the foreground. On the right are St. Mary's rectory, gatehouse to Morton's Tower, St. Mary's church, great hall, kitchen block with the stables on the extreme right. In the background, trees form the limits of the park walks. To the right there is an orchard. Beyond Lambeth Marsh is the north bank with St. Stephen's Chapel, the roofs of Westminster Hall, Abbey & Banqueting Hall, the old Horse Guards cupola, roof of Whitehall Palace great hall. Private palaces & houses are also shown.

1700s Lambeth Palace on the River Thames with a Distant View of the City

1709-1718 Jan Griffer I (Dutch artist, 1645-1718) View of Lambeth Palace across the Thames

 1737 A view of Lambeth Palace from the River Thames

 1740 Lambeth Palace from the River Thames

 1773 A view of Lambeth Palace from the Gardens. Drawn by a Miss Hartley 

 1773 Lambeth Palace & Garden from the East

 1775 Lambeth Palace & Garden as seen from the North

1791 Lambeth Palace from the Garden

1712 House & Gardens at Easington the Seat of Nathaniel Stevens Esq.

Easington the Seat of Nathaniel Stevens Esq. Johannes Kip (1653-1722) The Ancient & Present State of Gloucestershire, pub by Sir Robert Atkyns 1712.

1712 House & Gardens at Barrington (Park) in Cambridgeshire, the Seat of Edmund Bray, Esquire

1708-1715 House & Gardens at Barrington (Park) in Cambridgeshire Barrington the Seat of Edmond Bray Esq. Johannes Kip (1653-1722) The Ancient & Present State of Gloucestershire, pub by Sir Robert Atkyns 1712. 

Bird's eye view of Barrington Hall (Park), in Cambridgeshire, with extensive grounds enclosed by wall; a river in foreground.  British History Online tells us that four estates in Barrington were enumerated in the Domesday Survey. The estates of Llanthony Priory in Barrington formed the manor of Great Barrington, (which the priory retained until the Dissolution. The priory was granted free warren there in 1292.  The Crown granted the manor in 1540 to John Guise of Elmore, who sold it in 1553 to Richard Monnington of Barrington and his son-in-law, Reginald Bray of Northmoor. The manor descended in the male line of the Bray family until 1735, passing from Reginald to his son Edmund (d. 1620), to Edmund's grandson Sir Giles (d. 1641), to Giles's son Sir Edmund (d. 1684), to Sir Edmund's son Reginald (d. 1688), to Reginald's son Edmund (fl. 1720).

In the mid-17th century c. 35 people, including the owners of freeholds that had never been part of Great Barrington manor, held land in the open fields of Great & Little Barrington.  The open fields north of the river were two in the 16C, called Combe field & Slowe field,  and were supervised by two overseers.  Barrington Park had apparently been formed out of the open fields by 1412, when there were complaints by the copyholders that the Prior of Llanthony had deprived them of land and animals.  There may have been a deer-park as early as 1327, when an inhabitant of Great Barrington was surnamed 'at the leapgate.' One tenant was inclosing land in Great Barrington in 1567, & there appears to have been piecemeal inclosure during the next century & a half, including (to judge from the lines of former walls) the enlargement of the park. In 1704 there were still two open fields, but the process of inclosure was completed fairly soon afterwards.

1709 House & Gardens at Williamstrip the Seat of Henry Ireton Esqr

Williamstrip the Seat of Henry Ireton Esqr Leonard Knyff (1652-1722) and Johannes Kip (1653-1722) 1709 Britannia Illustrata 1724 ed pub by Joseph Smith

Henry Ireton (c.1652-1711), of Williamstrip, was a grandson of Oliver Cromwell.  Ireton, the son of one of Cromwell’s generals, was a grandchild of the Lord Protector through his mother. Though his father, a regicide, had died in 1651, perhaps before Henry's birth, the family estates were confiscated after the Restoration & vested in the Duke of York.  After the Revolution of 1688, Ireton was taken into the royal household as an equerry to the King, with whom he served throughout the war in Holland.  Upon the death in 1692 of his father-in-law, the ex-Speaker Henry Powle, he acquired the manor of Williamstrip & other nearby properties not far from Cirencester.

1712 Gardens & Grounds of Henbury the seat of Simon Harcourt Esq.

Henbury the seat of Simon Harcourt Esq. Johannes Kip (1653-1722) The Ancient & Present State of Gloucestershire, pub by Sir Robert Atkyns 1712.

1712 Gardens and Grounds - Bradley, Seat of Thomas Dawes Esq.

Bradley, Seat of Thomas Dawes Esq. Johannes Kip (1653-1722) The Ancient & Present State of Gloucestershire, pub by Sir Robert Atkyns 1712.